225 relations: Aceh War, Aden, Agent Orange, Algeria, Algerian War, Algiers, American Civil War, Angolan War of Independence, Anti-communism, Anti-partisan operations in World War II, Arab Revolt, Arabs, Army of the Republic of Vietnam, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, Assassination, Álvaro de Navia Osorio y Vigil, Marqués de Santa Cruz de Marcenado, Điện Biên Phủ, B. H. Liddell Hart, Battle of Algiers (1956–57), Battle of Baiji (2014–15), Battle of Fallujah (2016), Battle of Mosul (2016–2017), Battle of Ramadi (2015–16), Belligerent, Boer, Boer Commando, Border Security Force, Briggs' Plan, British Armed Forces, British Empire, C3 policing, Casualty evacuation, Central Reserve Police Force, Chad, Charles de Gaulle, Charles Edward Callwell, China, Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support, Civil war, Civilian, Civilian casualty ratio, COINTELPRO, Collateral damage, Collective punishment, Colony, Combatant, Communism, Confederate States of America, Cordon and search, Counter-IED efforts, ..., Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (India), Coup d'état, Culture, Cyprus, David Galula, David Kilcullen, David Petraeus, Death squad, Delta Force, Demoralization (warfare), Eastern Bloc, Economy, Ethics, False flag, Federation of Malaya, Fireforce, Foreign internal defense, France, Francisco Franco, Frank Kitson, Free-fire zone, French Fourth Republic, French Indochina, French Resistance, Greenwood Publishing Group, Groupement de Commandos Mixtes Aéroportés, Guerrilla warfare, Guinea-Bissau War of Independence, Hafez al-Assad, Hama, Hendrikus Colijn, Ho Chi Minh, Hubert Lyautey, Human rights, Identity document, Ideology, India, Indian Army, Indian independence movement, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Indochina, Information warfare, Insurgency, Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir, Internally displaced person, International humanitarian law, Iraq War, Iraqi insurgency (2003–11), Irregular warfare, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Israeli occupation of Southern Lebanon, Ivory Coast, J. B. van Heutsz, Jacques Massu, Jacques Pâris de Bollardière, James Corum, Japan, Joint warfare in South Vietnam, 1963–69, Jules Cambon, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kilometre, Korps Speciale Troepen, Laos, Legitimacy (political), List of intelligence agencies of France, Logical line of operation, Low intensity conflict, Malayan Communist Party, Malayan Emergency, Malayan Races Liberation Army, Malaysian Chinese, Mao Zedong, Martin van Creveld, Military, Military occupation, Militia, Mizoram, Mozambican War of Independence, Muslim Brotherhood, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, National Liberation Front (Algeria), Naval Postgraduate School, New village, Niccolò Machiavelli, Northern Ireland, Operation Gladio, Organisation armée secrète, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turks, Oxford English Dictionary, Paramilitary, Peninsular War, Pentagon Papers, People's Army of Vietnam, Phạm Ngọc Thảo, Philippine–American War, Phoenix Program, Politics, Population transfer, Portugal, Portuguese Angola, Portuguese Armed Forces, Portuguese Colonial War, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese Guinea, Portuguese Mozambique, Propaganda, Psychological warfare, Psychology, Public diplomacy, Public opinion, Raoul Salan, Rashtriya Rifles, Raymond Westerling, Rebellion, Representative democracy, Rifaat al-Assad, Right-wing politics, Robert Grainger Ker Thompson, Roger Trinquier, Royal Netherlands East Indies Army, Russia, Scorched earth, SEAL Team Six, Second Battle of Tikrit, Second Boer War, Second Spanish Republic, Shining Path, South Sulawesi Campaign, South Vietnam, Southeast Asia, Spanish Civil War, Special Activities Division, Special Forces (United States Army), Special operations, Stability and support operations, Stan Goff, Stanley A. McChrystal, States and union territories of India, Strategic Hamlet Program, Syria, T. E. Lawrence, Tajikistan, The Troubles, Theater (warfare), Tonkin, Torture, Total war, Trường Chinh, United Kingdom, United Nations peacekeeping, United States, United States Armed Forces, United States Army Field Manuals, United States Army War College, United States Department of State, Vairengte, Vang Pao, Viet Cong, Vietnam, Vietnam War, War, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Western world, William B. Caldwell, William Westmoreland, Winning hearts and minds, World War I, World War II, 101st Airborne Division, 1982 Hama massacre, 2004 French–Ivorian clashes, 24th Special Tactics Squadron. Expand index (175 more) » « Shrink index
The Aceh War, also known as the Dutch War or the Infidel War (1873–1904), was an armed military conflict between the Sultanate of Aceh and the Kingdom of the Netherlands which was triggered by discussions between representatives of Aceh and the United States in Singapore during early 1873.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the tactical use Rainbow Herbicides.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The Angolan War of Independence (1961–1974) began as an uprising against forced cotton cultivation, and it became a multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's overseas province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Anti-partisan operations during World War II were counter-insurgency operations against the various partisan resistance movements.
The Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya; Arap İsyanı) or Great Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية الكبرى, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya al-Kubrā) was officially initiated by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, at Mecca on June 10, 1916 (9 Sha'ban of the Islamic calendar for that year) although his sons ‘Ali and Faisal had already initiated operations at Medina starting on 5 June with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), also known as the South Vietnamese army (SVA), were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 until the Fall of Saigon in 1975.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.
Álvaro de Navia-Osorio y Vigil, 3rd Marquis of Santa Cruz de Marcenado and Viscount of Puerto, born in 1684 in Santa Maria de Vega in Asturia, Spain; killed in action near Oran in North Africa in 1732, was a Spanish diplomat, general, and author.
Điện Biên, sometimes called Dienbien Phu (/ means Dienbien Prefecture), is a city in the northwestern region of Vietnam.
Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart (31 October 1895 – 29 January 1970), commonly known throughout most of his career as Captain B. H. Liddell Hart, was a British soldier, military historian and military theorist.
The Battle of Algiers was a campaign of urban guerrilla warfare carried out by the National Liberation Front (FLN) against the French Algerian authorities from late 1956 to late 1957.
The Battle of Baiji (2014–15) was a battle that took place in Baiji, Iraq, lasting from late December 2014 to late October 2015.
The Battle of Fallujah (2016), also referred to as Third Battle of Fallujah, or Fallujah offensive (2016), code-named Operation Breaking Terrorism (عملية كسر الإرهاب) by the Iraqi government, was a military operation against ISIL launched to capture the city of Fallujah and its suburbs, located about 69 kilometers (40 miles) west of the Iraqi capital Baghdad.
The Battle of Mosul (2016–2017) (معركة الموصل, Ma‘rakat al-Mawṣil; شەڕی مووسڵ, Şeriy Mûsil) was a major military campaign launched by the Iraqi Government forces with allied militias, the Kurdistan Regional Government, and international forces to retake the city of Mosul from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), which had seized the city in June 2014.
The Battle of Ramadi (2015–16) was a battle launched by the forces of Iraq to successfully recapture the city of Ramadi from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), which had taken the city earlier in 2015 in a previous battle.
A belligerent (lat. bellum gerere, "to wage war") is an individual, group, country, or other entity that acts in a hostile manner, such as engaging in combat.
Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans noun for "farmer".
The Boer commandos or "Kommandos" were volunteer military units of guerilla militia organized by the Boer people of South Africa.
The Border Security Force (BSF) is the primary border guarding force of India.
The Briggs' Plan was a military plan devised by British General Sir Harold Briggs shortly after his appointment in 1950 as Director of Operations in the anti-communist war in Malaya.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
C3 Policing or Counter Criminal Continuum Policing is a modification of counter-insurgency ("COIN") methods used by U.S. Army Special Forces and adapted for use by civilian law enforcement agencies.
Casualty evacuation, also known as CASEVAC or by the callsign Dustoff or colloquially Dust Off, is a military term for the emergency patient evacuation of casualties from a combat zone.
The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) is the largest of India's Central Armed Police Forces.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Major-General Sir Charles Edward Callwell (2 April 1859 – May 1928), was an Anglo-Irish officer of the British Army, who served in the artillery, as an intelligence officer, and as a staff officer and commander during the Second Boer War, and as Director of Operations & Intelligence during World War I. He was also a noted writer of military biography, history, and theory.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
CORDS (Civil Operations and Rural Development Support) was a pacification program of the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
A civilian is "a person who is not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force".
In armed conflicts, the civilian casualty ratio (also civilian death ratio, civilian-combatant ratio, etc.) is the ratio of civilian casualties to combatant casualties, or total casualties.
COINTELPRO (Portmanteau derived from '''CO'''unter '''INTEL'''ligence PROgram) (1956-1971) was a series of covert, and at times illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations.
Collateral damage is a general term for deaths, injuries, or other damage inflicted on an unintended target.
Collective punishment is a form of retaliation whereby a suspected perpetrator's family members, friends, acquaintances, sect, neighbors or entire ethnic group is targeted.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Combatant is a term of art which describes the legal status of an individual who has the right to engage in hostilities during an international armed conflict.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
Cordon and search is a military tactic to cordon off an area and search the premises for weapons or insurgents.
Counter-IED efforts are done primarily by military and law enforcement (led by intelligence efforts) with the assistance of the diplomatic and financial communities.
The Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS) in Vairengte, Mizoram, India is a training and research establishment of the Indian Army specialising in unconventional warfare, especially counter-insurgency and guerrilla warfare.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
David Galula (1919–1967) was a French military officer and scholar who was influential in developing the theory and practice of counterinsurgency warfare.
David John Kilcullen FRGS (born 1967) is an Australian author, strategist and counterinsurgency expert and is currently the non-executive Chairman of Caerus Associates, a strategy and design consulting firm that he founded.
David Howell Petraeus (born November 7, 1952) is a retired United States Army general and public official.
A death squad is an armed group that conducts extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror.
The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D), commonly referred to as Delta Force, Combat Applications Group (CAG), "The Unit", Army Compartmented Element (ACE), or within JSOC as Task Force Green, is an elite special mission unit of the United States Army, under operational control of the Joint Special Operations Command.
Demoralization is, in a context of warfare, national security, and law enforcement, a process in psychological warfare with the objective to erode morale among enemy combatants and/or noncombatants.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.
The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; Jawi: ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو) was a federation of 11 states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca)See: Cabinet Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
Fireforce is a variant of the military tactic of vertical envelopment of a target by helicopter-borne and parachute infantry developed by the Rhodesian Security Forces during the Rhodesian Bush War.
Foreign internal defense (FID) is a term by the militaries of some countries, including the United States, France, and the United Kingdom, to describe an integrated and synchronized, multi-disciplinary (and often joint, interagency, and international as well) approach to combating actual or threatened insurgency in a foreign state.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
General Sir Frank Edward Kitson, & Bar, DL (born 15 December 1926) is a retired British Army officer and writer on military subjects, notably low intensity operations.
A free-fire zone in U.S. military parlance is a fire control measure, used for coordination between adjacent combat units.
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
The Groupement de commandos mixtes aéroportés (Mixed Airborne Commando Group) commonly referred as just GCMA, was the "Action Service" of the SDECE French counter-intelligence service active during the Cold War.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Guinea-Bissau War of Independence was an armed independence conflict that took place in Portuguese Guinea between 1963 and 1974.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد,; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian politician and field marshal of the Syrian Armed Forces who served as President of Syria from 1971 to 2000.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
Hendrikus "Hendrik" Colijn (22 June 1869 – 18 September 1944) was a Dutch military officer, businessman and politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1925 to 1926 and again from 1933 to 1939.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey (17 November 1854 – 21 July 1934) was a French Army general and colonial administrator.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) is one of the five Central Armed Police Forces of India, raised on 24 October 1962, under the CRPF Act, in the wake of the Sino-Indian War of 1962.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
Information warfare (IW) is a concept involving the battlespace use and management of information and communication technology (ICT) in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
The insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir or the Kashmiri Insurgency (also known as Kashmir Intifada) is a conflict between various Kashmiri separatists and the Government of India.
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
An insurgency began in Iraq after the 2003 US-led invasion, and lasted throughout the ensuing Iraq War (2003–2011).
Irregular warfare is defined in US joint doctrine as “A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations.” Irregular warfare favors indirect and asymmetric warfare approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capabilities, in order to erode the adversary’s power, influence, and will.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
The Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon took place after Israel invaded Lebanon during the 1982 Lebanon War and subsequently retained its forces to support the Christian South Lebanon Army in Southern Lebanon.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Joannes Benedictus van Heutsz (3 February 1851 – 11 July 1924) was a Dutch military officer who was appointed governor general of the Dutch East Indies in 1904.
Jacques Émile Massu (5 May 1908 – 26 October 2002) was a French general who fought in World War II, the First Indochina War, the Algerian War and the Suez crisis.
Jacques Pâris de Bollardière (16 December 1907 in Châteaubriant, Loire-Atlantique – 22 February 1986) was a French Army general, famous for his non-violent positions during the 1960s.
James Sterling Corum is an American air power historian and scholar of counter-insurgency. He has written several books on counterinsurgency and other topics. He is a retired lieutenant colonel in the US Army Reserve.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
In the Vietnam War, after the assassinations of Ngo Dinh Diem and John F. Kennedy in late 1963 and the Gulf of Tonkin incident in 1964 and the continuing political instability in the South, the United States made a policy commitment to begin joint warfare in South Vietnam, a period of gradual escalation and Americanization, involving the commitment of large-scale combat forces from the United States and allied countries.
Jules-Martin Cambon (5 April 1845 in Paris – 19 September 1935 in Vevey, Switzerland) was a French diplomat and brother to Paul Cambon.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
Korps Speciale Troepen (KST) was a Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) special forces unit who was involved in the Indonesian National Revolution.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.
This is a list of current and former French intelligence agencies.
A logical line of operation (LLO) is an obsolete American military doctrinal concept.
A low-intensity conflict (LIC) is a military conflict, usually localised, between two or more state or non-state groups which is below the intensity of conventional war.
The Malayan Communist Party (MCP), officially known as the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM), was a political party in the Federation of Malaya and Malaysia.
The Malayan Emergency (Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960.
The Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), often mistranslated as the Malayan Races Liberation Army or MRLA, was a guerrilla army based in the Malayan peninsula and Singapore.
The Malaysian Chinese consist of people of full or partial Chinese—particularly Han Chinese—ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Martin Levi van Creveld (מרטין ון קרפלד; born 5 March 1946) is an Israeli military historian and theorist.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Mizoram is a state in Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital city.
The Mozambican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front or FRELIMO (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique), and Portugal.
The Society of the Muslim Brothers (جماعة الإخوان المسلمين), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood (الإخوان المسلمون), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīru l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria.
The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) is a graduate school operated by the United States Navy.
For other places named "Kampung Baru", see: Kampung Baru (disambiguation).
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Operation Gladio is the codename for a clandestine North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) "stay-behind" operation in Europe during the Cold War.
The Organisation armée secrète or OAS (meaning Secret Army Organisation) was a short-lived right-wing French dissident paramilitary organization during the Algerian War (1954–62).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Pentagon Papers, officially titled Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.
The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam), also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Colonel Phạm Ngọc Thảo (IPA), also known as Albert Thảo (1922–1965), was a communist sleeper agent of the Viet Minh (and, later, of the Vietnam People's Army) who infiltrated the Army of the Republic of Vietnam and also became a major provincial leader in South Vietnam.
The Philippine–American War (also referred to as the Filipino-American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection, the Tagalog Insurgency; Filipino: Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano; Spanish: Guerra Filipino-Estadounidense) was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902.
The Phoenix Program (Chiến dịch Phụng Hoàng, a word related to fenghuang, the Chinese phoenix) was a program designed, coordinated, and executed by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), United States special operations forces, U.S. Army intelligence collection units from the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV—the joint-service command that provided command and control for all U.S. advisory and assistance efforts in Vietnam), special forces operatives from the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam (AATTV), and the Republic of Vietnam's (South Vietnam) security apparatus during the Vietnam War.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa.
The Portuguese Armed Forces (Forças Armadas) are the military of Portugal.
The Portuguese Colonial War (Guerra Colonial Portuguesa), also known in Portugal as the Overseas War (Guerra do Ultramar) or in the former colonies as the War of Liberation (Guerra de Libertação), was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies between 1961 and 1974.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Portuguese Guinea (Guiné), called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951, was a West African colony of Portugal from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.
Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
In international relations, public diplomacy or people's diplomacy, broadly speaking, is the communication with and dissemination of propaganda to the general public of foreign nations to establish a dialogue designed to inform and influence.
Public opinion consists of the desires, wants, and thinking of the majority of the people; it is the collective opinion of the people of a society or state on an issue or problem.
Raoul Albin Louis Salan (10 June 1899 – 3 July 1984) was a French Army general.
The Rashtriya Rifles or RR (Hindi: राष्ट्रीय राइफल्स; rarely National Rifles if translated verbatim to English) is a branch of the Indian Army under the authority of the Indian Ministry of Defence.
Raymond Pierre Paul Westerling (31 August 1919 – 26 November 1987) was a Dutch military officer of the KNIL (Royal Netherlands East Indies Army).
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Rifaat Ali al-Assad (رفعت علي الأسد; born 22 August 1937) is the younger brother of the former President of Syria, Hafez Assad and Jamil Assad, and the uncle of the incumbent President Bashar al-Assad.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Sir Robert Grainger Ker Thompson KBE CMG DSO MC (1916–1992) was a British military officer and counter-insurgency expert and "He was widely regarded on both sides of the Atlantic as the world's leading expert on countering the Mao Tse-tung technique of rural guerrilla insurgency".
Roger Trinquier (20 March 1908 – 11 January 1986) was a French Army officer during World War II, the First Indochina War and the Algerian War, serving mainly in airborne and special forces units.
The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger; KNIL) was the military force maintained by the Netherlands in its colony of the Netherlands East Indies (also known as the Dutch East Indies), in areas that are now part of Indonesia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group (NSWDG), commonly known as DEVGRU or SEAL Team Six, is the U.S. Navy component of the Joint Special Operations Command.
The Second Battle of Tikrit was a battle in which the Iraqi forces recaptured the city of Tikrit (the provincial capital of the Saladin Governorate) from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
The Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
The Communist Party of Peru - Shining Path (Partido Comunista del Perú - Sendero Luminoso), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla group in Peru.
The South Sulawesi Campaign (10 December 1946 – 21 February 1947) was a campaign of the Indonesian National Revolution.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.
The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, and counter-terrorism.
Special operations (S.O.) are military operations that are "special" or unconventional and carried out by dedicated special forces and other special operations forces units using unconventional methods and resources.
Stability and support operations is an anachronistic term briefly used by the U.S. military for stability operations.
Stan Goff (born November 12, 1951 in San Diego, California) is an American anti-war activist, writer, and blogger.
Stanley Allen McChrystal (born August 14, 1954) is a retired United States Army general best known for his command of Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) in the mid-2000s.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
The Strategic Hamlet Program (SHP; Ấp Chiến lược) was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the communist insurgency by pacifying the countryside and reducing the influence of the communists among the rural population.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.
In warfare, a theater or theatre (see spelling differences) is an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.
Tonkin (historically Đàng Ngoài), also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
Trường Chinh (9 February 1907, Xuân Trường District, Nam Định Province – 30 September 1988, Hanoi) was a Vietnamese communist political leader and theoretician.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
United States Army Field Manuals are published by the United States Army's Army Publishing Directorate.
The United States Army War College (USAWC) is a U.S. Army educational institution in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500-acre (2 km²) campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
Vairengte is a town in the Kolasib district of Mizoram state, India.
Vang Pao (Hmong: Vaj Pov; 8 December 1929 – 6 January 2011) was a major general in the Royal Lao Army.
The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam) also known as the Việt Cộng was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
William B. "Bill" Caldwell IV (born January 24, 1954) is a retired United States Army officer and the current President of Georgia Military College.
William Childs Westmoreland (March 26, 1914 – July 18, 2005) was a United States Army general, who most notably commanded U.S. forces during the Vietnam War from 1964 to 1968.
Winning hearts and minds is a concept occasionally expressed in the resolution of war, insurgency, and other conflicts, in which one side seeks to prevail not by the use of superior force, but by making emotional or intellectual appeals to sway supporters of the other side.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 101st Airborne Division ("Screaming Eagles") is an elite modular specialized light infantry division of the US Army.
The Hama massacre (مجزرة حماة) occurred in 2 February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.
In 2004, an armed conflict took place between France and Côte d'Ivoire.
The 24th Special Tactics Squadron is one of the Special Tactics units of the United States Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC).
Anti insurgency, Anti-partisan, COIN Operations, Cordon and Knock, Cordon and kick, Counter Insurgency, Counter Revolutionary Operations, Counter insurgency, Counter-Insurgency, Counter-guerrilla, Counter-insurgent, Counter-revolutionary war, Counter-revolutionary warfare, Counterguerrilla, Counterinsurgency, Counterinsurgency operations, Counterinsurgent, Counterinsurgents.