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CpG site

Index CpG site

The CpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence of bases along its 5' → 3' direction. [1]

53 relations: Alu element, ATM serine/threonine kinase, B cell, Base pair, Cancer, CG suppression, Coding region, Cytosine, Deamination, Directionality (molecular biology), DNA, DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferase, DNA replication, Enzyme, Epigenetic clock, Epigenetics, ERCC1, FANCB, Flap structure-specific endonuclease 1, GC-content, Gene set enrichment analysis, Genetic hitchhiking, Genome Biology, Genomic imprinting, Guanine, Head and neck cancer, Histone, Housekeeping gene, LIG4, Mammal, Messenger RNA, Methylation, Microhomology-mediated end joining, MicroRNA, MLH1, Mutation, Nature Genetics, NEIL1, Non-small-cell lung carcinoma, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleoside, Nucleotide, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, PARP1, Phosphate, Plasmacytoid dendritic cell, Promoter (genetics), Thymine, Thymine-DNA glycosylase, ..., TLR9, Transcription (biology), 5-Methylcytosine. Expand index (3 more) »

Alu element

An Alu element is a short stretch of DNA originally characterized by the action of the Arthrobacter luteus (Alu) restriction endonuclease.

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ATM serine/threonine kinase

ATM serine/threonine kinase, symbol ATM, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks.

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B cell

B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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CG suppression

CG suppression is a term for the phenomenon that CG dinucleotides are very uncommon in most portions of vertebrate genomes.

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Coding region

The coding region of a gene, also known as the CDS (from CoDing Sequence), is that portion of a gene's DNA or RNA that codes for protein.

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Cytosine

Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Deamination

Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.

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Directionality (molecular biology)

Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA methylation

DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.

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DNA methyltransferase

In biochemistry, the DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase) family of enzymes catalyze the transfer of a methyl group to DNA.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epigenetic clock

An epigenetic clock is a type of a molecular age estimation method based on DNA methylation levels.

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Epigenetics

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.

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ERCC1

DNA excision repair protein ERCC-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERCC1 gene.

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FANCB

Fanconi anemia group B protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FANCB gene.

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Flap structure-specific endonuclease 1

Flap endonuclease 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FEN1 gene.

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GC-content

In molecular biology and genetics, GC-content (or guanine-cytosine content) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA or RNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine in DNA and adenine and uracil in RNA).

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Gene set enrichment analysis

Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) (also functional enrichment analysis) is a method to identify classes of genes or proteins that are over-represented in a large set of genes or proteins, and may have an association with disease phenotypes.

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Genetic hitchhiking

Genetic hitchhiking, also called genetic draft or the hitchhiking effect, is when an allele changes frequency not because it itself is under natural selection, but because it is near another gene that is undergoing a selective sweep and that is on the same DNA chain.

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Genome Biology

Genome Biology is a fully open access scientific journal that publishes original, peer-reviewed research in genomics.

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Genomic imprinting

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner.

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Guanine

Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Head and neck cancer

Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts in the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands.

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Histone

In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.

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Housekeeping gene

In molecular biology, housekeeping genes are typically constitutive genes that are required for the maintenance of basic cellular function, and are expressed in all cells of an organism under normal and patho-physiological conditions.

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LIG4

DNA ligase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LIG4 gene.

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Mammal

Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Methylation

In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.

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Microhomology-mediated end joining

Microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ), also known as alternative nonhomologous end-joining (Alt-NHEJ) is one of the pathways for repairing double-strand breaks in DNA.

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MicroRNA

A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

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MLH1

MutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2 (E. coli) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLH1 gene located on Chromosome 3.

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Mutation

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Nature Genetics

Nature Genetics is a scientific journal founded as part of the ''Nature'' family of journals in 1992.

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NEIL1

Endonuclease VIII-like 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NEIL1 gene.

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Non-small-cell lung carcinoma

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Nucleoside

Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.

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Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase

O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (also known as AGT, MGMT or AGAT) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene.

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PARP1

Poly polymerase 1 (PARP-1) also known as NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase 1 or poly synthase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PARP1 gene.

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Phosphate

A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Plasmacytoid dendritic cell

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a rare type of immune cell that are known to secrete large quantities of type 1 interferon (IFNs) in response to a viral infection.

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Promoter (genetics)

In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.

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Thymine

---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

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Thymine-DNA glycosylase

G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TDG gene.

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TLR9

Toll-like receptor 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR9 gene.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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5-Methylcytosine

5-Methylcytosine is a methylated form of the DNA base cytosine that may be involved in the regulation of gene transcription.

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Redirects here:

CG Island, CG site, CpG dinucleotide, CpG island, CpG islands, CpG sites, CpG-island, Cpg island, Cpg islands, Cpg-islands, Gc-rich area.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CpG_site

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