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Cracking (chemistry)

Index Cracking (chemistry)

In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors. [1]

100 relations: Acid, Alkane, Alkene, Alkylation, Allene, Aluminium, Aluminium oxide, Amorphous silica-alumina, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromaticity, Baku, Benzene, Beta scission, Burton process, Butane, Carbocation, Carbon, Catalysis, Cetane number, Chemical bond, Chemical reaction, Coke (fuel), Contamination, Cycloalkane, Cyclonic separation, Cyclopentadiene, Delayed coker, Destructive distillation, Dicyclopentadiene, Diels–Alder reaction, Diesel fuel, Electrode, Endothermic process, Enthalpy, Entropy, Ethane, Ethylene, Fluid catalytic cracking, Fluidized bed, Fractionation, Fuel injection, Fuel oil, Fuel tank, Gasoline, Heat exchanger, Homolysis (chemistry), Hydride, Hydrocarbon, Hydrodesulfurization, Hydrogen, ..., Hydrogen sulfide, Intermolecular force, Intramolecular force, Ion, Isobutane, Jet fuel, Kerogen, Kerosene, Laboratory, Leuna, Lignite, Liquefied petroleum gas, Molecule, Naphtha, Octane rating, Oil refinery, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Oxygen, Petrochemical, Petrochemistry, Petroleum coke, Petroleum geology, Polymer, Polypropylene, Propadiene, Propane, Propene, Propyne, Pumice, Pyrolysis, Reaction rate, Russian Revolution, Secondary school, Shukhov cracking process, Silicon dioxide, Sinclair Oil Corporation, Soviet Union, Speed of sound, Steam reforming, Steel, Sulfur, Temperature, University, UOP LLC, Visbreaker, Vladimir Shukhov, William Merriam Burton, Zeolite, 1,3-Butadiene. Expand index (50 more) »


An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.

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An allene is a compound in which one carbon atom has double bonds with each of its two adjacent carbon centres.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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Amorphous silica-alumina

Amorphous silica alumina is a synthetic substance that is used as a catalyst or catalyst support.

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Aromatic hydrocarbon

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.

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In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.

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Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.

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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Beta scission

Beta scission is an important reaction in the chemistry of thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and the formation of free radicals.

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Burton process

The Burton process is a thermal cracking process invented by William Merriam Burton and Robert E. Humphreys, each of whom held a Ph.D. in chemistry from Johns Hopkins University.

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Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.

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A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Cetane number

Cetane number (cetane rating) is an indicator of the combustion speed of diesel fuel and compression needed for ignition.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Coke (fuel)

Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.

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Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.

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In organic chemistry, the cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, but distinct from naphthalene) are the monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons.

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Cyclonic separation

A cyclonic separation is a method of removing particulates from an air, gas or liquid stream, without the use of filters, through vortex separation.

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Cyclopentadiene is an organic compound with the formula C5H6.

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Delayed coker

A delayed coker is a type of coker whose process consists of heating a residual oil feed to its thermal cracking temperature in a furnace with multiple parallel passes.

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Destructive distillation

Destructive distillation is the chemical process of the decomposition of unprocessed material by heating it to a high temperature; the term generally applies to processing of organic material in the absence of air or in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or other reagents, catalysts, or solvents, such as steam or phenols.

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Dicyclopentadiene, abbreviated DCPD, is a chemical compound with formula C10H12.

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Diels–Alder reaction

The Diels–Alder reaction is an organic chemical reaction (specifically, a cycloaddition) between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene derivative.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).

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Endothermic process

The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.

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Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

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In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

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Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.

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Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.

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Fluid catalytic cracking

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.

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Fluidized bed

A fluidised bed is a physical phenomenon occurring when a quantity of a solid particulate substance (usually present in a holding vessel) is placed under appropriate conditions to cause a solid/fluid mixture to behave as a fluid.

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Fractionation is a separation process in which a certain quantity of a mixture (gas, solid, liquid, enzymes, suspension, or isotope) is divided during a phase transition, into a number of smaller quantities (fractions) in which the composition varies according to a gradient.

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Fuel injection

Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector.

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Fuel oil

Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.

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Fuel tank

A fuel tank (or petrol tank) is a safe container for flammable fluids.

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Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Heat exchanger

A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.

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Homolysis (chemistry)

In chemistry, homolysis (from Greek ὅμοιος, homoios, "equal," and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") or homolytic fission is chemical bond dissociation of a molecule by a process where each of the fragments retains one of the originally bonded electrons.

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In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Intermolecular force

Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.

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Intramolecular force

An intramolecular force is any force that binds together the atoms making up a molecule or compound, not to be confused with intermolecular forces, which are the forces present between molecules.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Isobutane, also known as i-butane or methylpropane, is a chemical compound with molecular formula HC(CH3)3.

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Jet fuel

Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.

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Kerogen is a solid organic matter in sedimentary rocks.

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Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

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A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

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Leuna is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, south of Merseburg and Halle.

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Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.

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Liquefied petroleum gas

Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.

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Octane rating

An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.

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Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.

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Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into useful products or raw materials.

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Petroleum coke

Petroleum coke, abbreviated coke or petcoke, is a final carbon-rich solid material that derives from oil refining, and is one type of the group of fuels referred to as cokes.

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Petroleum geology

Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.

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Propadiene is the organic compound with the formula H2C.

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Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

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Propene, also known as propylene or methyl ethylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6.

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Propyne (methylacetylene) is an alkyne with the chemical formula H3C≡CH.

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Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.

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Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.

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Reaction rate

The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Secondary school

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.

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Shukhov cracking process

The Shukhov cracking process is a thermal cracking process invented by Vladimir Shukhov and Sergei Gavrilov.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Sinclair Oil Corporation

Sinclair Oil Corporation is an American petroleum corporation, founded by Harry F. Sinclair on May 1, 1916, as the Sinclair Oil and Refining Corporation by combining the assets of 11 small petroleum companies.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

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Steam reforming

Steam reforming is a method for producing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or other useful products from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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Honeywell UOP, formerly known as UOP LLC or Universal Oil Products, is a multi-national company developing and delivering technology to the petroleum refining, gas processing, petrochemical production, and major manufacturing industries.

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A visbreaker is a processing unit in an oil refinery whose purpose is to reduce the quantity of residual oil produced in the distillation of crude oil and to increase the yield of more valuable middle distillates (heating oil and diesel) by the refinery.

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Vladimir Shukhov

Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov (Влади́мир Григо́рьевич Шу́хов; – 2 February 1939) was a Russian engineer-polymath, scientist and architect renowned for his pioneering works on new methods of analysis for structural engineering that led to breakthroughs in industrial design of the world's first hyperboloid structures, diagrid shell structures, tensile structures, gridshell structures, oil reservoirs, pipelines, boilers, ships and barges.

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William Merriam Burton

William Merriam Burton (November 17, 1865 – December 29, 1954) was an American chemist who developed the first thermal cracking process for crude oil.

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Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.

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1,3-Butadiene is the organic compound with the formula (CH2.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cracking_(chemistry)

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