Logo
Unionpedia
Communication
Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Free
Faster access than browser!
 

Cracking (chemistry)

Index Cracking (chemistry)

In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors. [1]

100 relations: Acid, Alkane, Alkene, Alkylation, Allene, Aluminium, Aluminium oxide, Amorphous silica-alumina, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromaticity, Baku, Benzene, Beta scission, Burton process, Butane, Carbocation, Carbon, Catalysis, Cetane number, Chemical bond, Chemical reaction, Coke (fuel), Contamination, Cycloalkane, Cyclonic separation, Cyclopentadiene, Delayed coker, Destructive distillation, Dicyclopentadiene, Diels–Alder reaction, Diesel fuel, Electrode, Endothermic process, Enthalpy, Entropy, Ethane, Ethylene, Fluid catalytic cracking, Fluidized bed, Fractionation, Fuel injection, Fuel oil, Fuel tank, Gasoline, Heat exchanger, Homolysis (chemistry), Hydride, Hydrocarbon, Hydrodesulfurization, Hydrogen, ..., Hydrogen sulfide, Intermolecular force, Intramolecular force, Ion, Isobutane, Jet fuel, Kerogen, Kerosene, Laboratory, Leuna, Lignite, Liquefied petroleum gas, Molecule, Naphtha, Octane rating, Oil refinery, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Oxygen, Petrochemical, Petrochemistry, Petroleum coke, Petroleum geology, Polymer, Polypropylene, Propadiene, Propane, Propene, Propyne, Pumice, Pyrolysis, Reaction rate, Russian Revolution, Secondary school, Shukhov cracking process, Silicon dioxide, Sinclair Oil Corporation, Soviet Union, Speed of sound, Steam reforming, Steel, Sulfur, Temperature, University, UOP LLC, Visbreaker, Vladimir Shukhov, William Merriam Burton, Zeolite, 1,3-Butadiene. Expand index (50 more) »

Acid

An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Acid · See more »

Alkane

In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Alkane · See more »

Alkene

In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Alkene · See more »

Alkylation

Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Alkylation · See more »

Allene

An allene is a compound in which one carbon atom has double bonds with each of its two adjacent carbon centres.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Allene · See more »

Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Aluminium · See more »

Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Aluminium oxide · See more »

Amorphous silica-alumina

Amorphous silica alumina is a synthetic substance that is used as a catalyst or catalyst support.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Amorphous silica-alumina · See more »

Aromatic hydrocarbon

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Aromatic hydrocarbon · See more »

Aromaticity

In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Aromaticity · See more »

Baku

Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Baku · See more »

Benzene

Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Benzene · See more »

Beta scission

Beta scission is an important reaction in the chemistry of thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and the formation of free radicals.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Beta scission · See more »

Burton process

The Burton process is a thermal cracking process invented by William Merriam Burton and Robert E. Humphreys, each of whom held a Ph.D. in chemistry from Johns Hopkins University.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Burton process · See more »

Butane

Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Butane · See more »

Carbocation

A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Carbocation · See more »

Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Carbon · See more »

Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Catalysis · See more »

Cetane number

Cetane number (cetane rating) is an indicator of the combustion speed of diesel fuel and compression needed for ignition.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Cetane number · See more »

Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Chemical bond · See more »

Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Chemical reaction · See more »

Coke (fuel)

Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Coke (fuel) · See more »

Contamination

Contamination is the presence of an unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Contamination · See more »

Cycloalkane

In organic chemistry, the cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, but distinct from naphthalene) are the monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Cycloalkane · See more »

Cyclonic separation

A cyclonic separation is a method of removing particulates from an air, gas or liquid stream, without the use of filters, through vortex separation.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Cyclonic separation · See more »

Cyclopentadiene

Cyclopentadiene is an organic compound with the formula C5H6.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Cyclopentadiene · See more »

Delayed coker

A delayed coker is a type of coker whose process consists of heating a residual oil feed to its thermal cracking temperature in a furnace with multiple parallel passes.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Delayed coker · See more »

Destructive distillation

Destructive distillation is the chemical process of the decomposition of unprocessed material by heating it to a high temperature; the term generally applies to processing of organic material in the absence of air or in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or other reagents, catalysts, or solvents, such as steam or phenols.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Destructive distillation · See more »

Dicyclopentadiene

Dicyclopentadiene, abbreviated DCPD, is a chemical compound with formula C10H12.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Dicyclopentadiene · See more »

Diels–Alder reaction

The Diels–Alder reaction is an organic chemical reaction (specifically, a cycloaddition) between a conjugated diene and a substituted alkene, commonly termed the dienophile, to form a substituted cyclohexene derivative.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Diels–Alder reaction · See more »

Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Diesel fuel · See more »

Electrode

An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Electrode · See more »

Endothermic process

The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Endothermic process · See more »

Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Enthalpy · See more »

Entropy

In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Entropy · See more »

Ethane

Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Ethane · See more »

Ethylene

Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Ethylene · See more »

Fluid catalytic cracking

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Fluid catalytic cracking · See more »

Fluidized bed

A fluidised bed is a physical phenomenon occurring when a quantity of a solid particulate substance (usually present in a holding vessel) is placed under appropriate conditions to cause a solid/fluid mixture to behave as a fluid.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Fluidized bed · See more »

Fractionation

Fractionation is a separation process in which a certain quantity of a mixture (gas, solid, liquid, enzymes, suspension, or isotope) is divided during a phase transition, into a number of smaller quantities (fractions) in which the composition varies according to a gradient.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Fractionation · See more »

Fuel injection

Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Fuel injection · See more »

Fuel oil

Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Fuel oil · See more »

Fuel tank

A fuel tank (or petrol tank) is a safe container for flammable fluids.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Fuel tank · See more »

Gasoline

Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Gasoline · See more »

Heat exchanger

A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Heat exchanger · See more »

Homolysis (chemistry)

In chemistry, homolysis (from Greek ὅμοιος, homoios, "equal," and λύσις, lusis, "loosening") or homolytic fission is chemical bond dissociation of a molecule by a process where each of the fragments retains one of the originally bonded electrons.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Homolysis (chemistry) · See more »

Hydride

In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Hydride · See more »

Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Hydrocarbon · See more »

Hydrodesulfurization

Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Hydrodesulfurization · See more »

Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Hydrogen · See more »

Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Hydrogen sulfide · See more »

Intermolecular force

Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Intermolecular force · See more »

Intramolecular force

An intramolecular force is any force that binds together the atoms making up a molecule or compound, not to be confused with intermolecular forces, which are the forces present between molecules.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Intramolecular force · See more »

Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Ion · See more »

Isobutane

Isobutane, also known as i-butane or methylpropane, is a chemical compound with molecular formula HC(CH3)3.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Isobutane · See more »

Jet fuel

Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Jet fuel · See more »

Kerogen

Kerogen is a solid organic matter in sedimentary rocks.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Kerogen · See more »

Kerosene

Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Kerosene · See more »

Laboratory

A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Laboratory · See more »

Leuna

Leuna is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, south of Merseburg and Halle.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Leuna · See more »

Lignite

Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Lignite · See more »

Liquefied petroleum gas

Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Liquefied petroleum gas · See more »

Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Molecule · See more »

Naphtha

Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Naphtha · See more »

Octane rating

An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Octane rating · See more »

Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Oil refinery · See more »

Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Organic chemistry · See more »

Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Organic compound · See more »

Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Oxygen · See more »

Petrochemical

Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Petrochemical · See more »

Petrochemistry

Petrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of crude oil (petroleum) and natural gas into useful products or raw materials.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Petrochemistry · See more »

Petroleum coke

Petroleum coke, abbreviated coke or petcoke, is a final carbon-rich solid material that derives from oil refining, and is one type of the group of fuels referred to as cokes.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Petroleum coke · See more »

Petroleum geology

Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Petroleum geology · See more »

Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Polymer · See more »

Polypropylene

Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Polypropylene · See more »

Propadiene

Propadiene is the organic compound with the formula H2C.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Propadiene · See more »

Propane

Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Propane · See more »

Propene

Propene, also known as propylene or methyl ethylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Propene · See more »

Propyne

Propyne (methylacetylene) is an alkyne with the chemical formula H3C≡CH.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Propyne · See more »

Pumice

Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Pumice · See more »

Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Pyrolysis · See more »

Reaction rate

The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Reaction rate · See more »

Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Russian Revolution · See more »

Secondary school

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Secondary school · See more »

Shukhov cracking process

The Shukhov cracking process is a thermal cracking process invented by Vladimir Shukhov and Sergei Gavrilov.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Shukhov cracking process · See more »

Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Silicon dioxide · See more »

Sinclair Oil Corporation

Sinclair Oil Corporation is an American petroleum corporation, founded by Harry F. Sinclair on May 1, 1916, as the Sinclair Oil and Refining Corporation by combining the assets of 11 small petroleum companies.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Sinclair Oil Corporation · See more »

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Soviet Union · See more »

Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Speed of sound · See more »

Steam reforming

Steam reforming is a method for producing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or other useful products from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Steam reforming · See more »

Steel

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Steel · See more »

Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Sulfur · See more »

Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Temperature · See more »

University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and University · See more »

UOP LLC

Honeywell UOP, formerly known as UOP LLC or Universal Oil Products, is a multi-national company developing and delivering technology to the petroleum refining, gas processing, petrochemical production, and major manufacturing industries.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and UOP LLC · See more »

Visbreaker

A visbreaker is a processing unit in an oil refinery whose purpose is to reduce the quantity of residual oil produced in the distillation of crude oil and to increase the yield of more valuable middle distillates (heating oil and diesel) by the refinery.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Visbreaker · See more »

Vladimir Shukhov

Vladimir Grigoryevich Shukhov (Влади́мир Григо́рьевич Шу́хов; – 2 February 1939) was a Russian engineer-polymath, scientist and architect renowned for his pioneering works on new methods of analysis for structural engineering that led to breakthroughs in industrial design of the world's first hyperboloid structures, diagrid shell structures, tensile structures, gridshell structures, oil reservoirs, pipelines, boilers, ships and barges.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Vladimir Shukhov · See more »

William Merriam Burton

William Merriam Burton (November 17, 1865 – December 29, 1954) was an American chemist who developed the first thermal cracking process for crude oil.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and William Merriam Burton · See more »

Zeolite

Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and Zeolite · See more »

1,3-Butadiene

1,3-Butadiene is the organic compound with the formula (CH2.

New!!: Cracking (chemistry) and 1,3-Butadiene · See more »

Redirects here:

Catalytic hydrocracking, Chemical cracking, Crack (chemistry), Cracking of petroleum, FCCU, Hydrocracker, Hydrocracking, Hydrogen catalytic cracking, Petroleum cracking, Pyrolytic Cracking, Steam Cracking, Steam crackers, Steam cracking, Thermal cracking, Unicracking.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cracking_(chemistry)

OutgoingIncoming
Hey! We are on Facebook now! »