139 relations: Advanced Micro Devices, Alliant Computer Systems, Altix, Application-specific integrated circuit, Appro, Bankruptcy, Blade server, Bloomington, Minnesota, Blue Waters, Boulder, Colorado, Bus (computing), CDC 6600, CDC 7600, CDC 8600, Central processing unit, Chief executive officer, Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, CMOS, CNET, Cold War, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Control Data Corporation, Convex Computer, Cray C90, Cray CS6400, Cray CX1, Cray CX1000, Cray EL90, Cray J90, Cray MTA-2, Cray S-MP, Cray SV1, Cray T3D, Cray T3E, Cray T90, Cray Time Sharing System, Cray X-MP, Cray X1, Cray XD1, Cray XE6, Cray XK6, Cray XK7, Cray XMS, Cray XMT, Cray XT3, Cray XT4, Cray XT5, Cray Y-MP, Cray-1, Cray-2, ..., Cray-3, Cray-3/SSS, DEC Alpha, Digital electronics, Digital Equipment Corporation, Engineering Research Associates, Epyc, Field-programmable gate array, File server, Floating Point Systems, FLOPS, Fortran, Gallium arsenide, General-purpose computing on graphics processing units, Gnodal, HIPPI, ILLIAC IV, Intel, Intellectual property, Jaguar (supercomputer), Kendall Square Research, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LINPACK, Linux, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lustre (file system), Mainframe computer, Manycore processor, MasPar, Massively parallel, Meiko Scientific, Microsoft, Microsoft Azure, Minisupercomputer, Minneapolis, National Center for Computational Sciences, National flag, NCUBE, NEC SX architecture, NEC SX-6, Necktie, Nvidia, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Opteron, Peter Ungaro, PowerPC, Public company, Pyramid Technology, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Red Storm (computing), S&P 600, Saint Paul, Minnesota, Sandia National Laboratories, Seattle, Semiconductor, Seymour Cray, SGI Origin 2000, SGI Origin 3000 and Onyx 3000, Silicon Graphics, Solaris (operating system), SPARC, Steve Chen (computer engineer), Sun Enterprise, Sun Microsystems, Supercomputer, Supertek Computers, Symmetric multiprocessing, Tera Computer Company, Thinking Machines Corporation, Tianhe-1, Tianhe-2, Titan (supercomputer), TOP500, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of Energy national laboratories, United States dollar, UNIVAC, UNIVAC 1103, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Unix, Vector processor, Very-large-scale integration, Vice president, Warsaw Pact, Washington (state), Windows HPC Server 2008, Xeon, Xilinx, 64-bit computing. Expand index (89 more) » « Shrink index
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.
Alliant Computer Systems was a computer company that designed and manufactured parallel computing systems.
Altix is a line of server computers and supercomputers produced by Silicon Graphics (and successor company Silicon Graphics International), based on Intel processors.
An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.
Appro was a developer of supercomputing supporting High Performance Computing (HPC) markets focused on medium to large-scale deployments.
Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.
A blade server is a stripped-down server computer with a modular design optimized to minimize the use of physical space and energy.
Bloomington is the fifth largest city, as of 2016 estimates, in the U.S. state of Minnesota.
Blue Waters is a petascale supercomputer at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Boulder is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, and the 11th most populous municipality in the U.S. state of Colorado.
In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin omnibus) is a communication system that transfers data between components inside a computer, or between computers.
The CDC 6600 was the flagship of the 6000 series of mainframe computer systems manufactured by Control Data Corporation.
The CDC 7600 was the Seymour Cray-designed successor to the CDC 6600, extending Control Data's dominance of the supercomputer field into the 1970s.
The CDC 8600 was the last of Seymour Cray's supercomputer designs while he worked for Control Data Corporation.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.
Chippewa Falls is a city located on the Chippewa River in Chippewa County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
CNET (stylized as c|net) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality that is the largest city by area in Colorado as well as the county seat and the most populous municipality of El Paso County, Colorado, United States.
Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a mainframe and supercomputer firm.
Convex Computer Corporation was a company that developed, manufactured and marketed vector minisupercomputers and supercomputers for small-to-medium-sized businesses.
The Cray C90 series (initially named the Y-MP C90) was a vector processor supercomputer launched by Cray Research in 1991.
The Cray Superserver 6400, or CS6400, is a discontinued multiprocessor server computer system produced by Cray Research Superservers, Inc., a subsidiary of Cray Research, and launched in 1993.
The Cray CX1 is a deskside high-performance workstation designed by Cray Inc., based on the x86-64 processor architecture.
The Cray CX1000 is a family of high-performance computers which is manufactured by Cray Inc., and consists of two individual groups of computer systems.
The Cray EL90 series was an air-cooled vector processor supercomputer first sold by Cray Research in 1993.
The Cray J90 series (code-named Jedi during development) was an air-cooled vector processor supercomputer first sold by Cray Research in 1994.
The Cray MTA-2 is a shared-memory MIMD computer marketed by Cray Inc. It is an unusual design based on the Tera computer designed by Tera Computer Company.
The Cray S-MP was a multiprocessor server computer sold by Cray Research from 1992 to 1993.
The Cray SV1 is a vector processor supercomputer from the Cray Research division of Silicon Graphics introduced in 1998.
The T3D (Torus, 3-Dimensional) was Cray Research's first attempt at a massively parallel supercomputer architecture.
The Cray T3E was Cray Research's second-generation massively parallel supercomputer architecture, launched in late November 1995.
The Cray T90 series (code-named Triton during development) was the last of a line of vector processing supercomputers manufactured by Cray Research, Inc, superseding the Cray C90 series.
The Cray Time Sharing System, also known in the Cray user community as CTSS, was developed as an operating system for the Cray-1 or Cray X-MP line of supercomputers.
The Cray X-MP is a supercomputer designed, built and sold by Cray Research.
The Cray X1 is a non-uniform memory access, vector processor supercomputer manufactured and sold by Cray Inc. since 2003.
The Cray XD1 was an entry-level supercomputer range, made by Cray Inc. The XD1 uses AMD Opteron 64-bit CPUs, and utilizes the Direct Connect Architecture over HyperTransport to remove the bottleneck at the PCI and contention at the memory.
The Cray XE6 (codenamed Baker during development) is an enhanced version of the Cray XT6 supercomputer, officially announced on 25 May 2010.
The Cray XK6 is an enhanced version of the Cray XE6 supercomputer, announced in May 2011.
XK7 is a supercomputing platform, produced by Cray, launched on October 29, 2012.
The Cray XMS was a vector processor minisupercomputer sold by Cray Research from 1990 to 1991.
The Cray XMT (codenamed Eldorado) is the third generation of the Cray MTA supercomputer architecture originally developed by Tera.
The Cray XT3 is a distributed memory massively parallel MIMD supercomputer designed by Cray Inc. with Sandia National Laboratories under the codename Red Storm.
The Cray XT4 (codenamed Hood during development) is an updated version of the Cray XT3 supercomputer.
The Cray XT5 is an updated version of the Cray XT4 supercomputer, launched on November 6, 2007.
The Cray Y-MP was a supercomputer sold by Cray Research from 1988, and the successor to the company's X-MP.
The Cray-1 was a supercomputer designed, manufactured and marketed by Cray Research.
The Cray-2 is a supercomputer with four vector processors made by Cray Research starting in 1985.
The Cray-3 was a vector supercomputer, Seymour Cray's designated successor to the Cray-2.
The Cray-3/SSS (Super Scalable System) was a pioneering massively parallel supercomputer project that bonded a two-processor Cray-3 to a new SIMD processing unit based entirely in the computer's main memory.
Alpha, originally known as Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), designed to replace their 32-bit VAX complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA.
Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
Engineering Research Associates, commonly known as ERA, was a pioneering computer firm from the 1950s.
Epyc is AMD's x86 server processor line based on the company's Zen microarchitecture.
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".
In computing, a file server (or fileserver) is a computer attached to a network that provides a location for shared disk access, i.e. shared storage of computer files (such as text, image, sound, video) that can be accessed by the workstations that are able to reach the computer that shares the access through a computer network.
Floating Point Systems Inc. (FPS) was a Beaverton, Oregon vendor of attached array processors and minisupercomputers.
In computing, floating point operations per second (FLOPS, flops or flop/s) is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, rarely GPGP) is the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU), which typically handles computation only for computer graphics, to perform computation in applications traditionally handled by the central processing unit (CPU).
Gnodal was a computer networking company headquartered in Bristol, UK.
HIPPI (High Performance Parallel Interface) is a computer bus for the attachment of high speed storage devices to supercomputers, in a point-to-point link.
The ILLIAC IV was the first massively parallel computer.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
Jaguar or OLCF-2 was a petascale supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Kendall Square Research (KSR) was a supercomputer company headquartered originally in Kendall Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1986, near Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.
LINPACK is a software library for performing numerical linear algebra on digital computers.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Lustre is a type of parallel distributed file system, generally used for large-scale cluster computing.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Manycore processors are specialist multi-core processors designed for a high degree of parallel processing, containing a large number of simpler, independent processor cores (e.g. 10s, 100s, or 1,000s).
MasPar Computer Corporation was a minisupercomputer vendor that was founded in 1987 by Jeff Kalb.
In computing, massively parallel refers to the use of a large number of processors (or separate computers) to perform a set of coordinated computations in parallel (simultaneously).
Meiko Scientific Ltd.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Azure (formerly Windows Azure) is a cloud computing service created by Microsoft for building, testing, deploying, and managing applications and services through a global network of Microsoft-managed data centers.
Minisupercomputers constituted a short-lived class of computers that emerged in the mid-1980s, characterized by the combination of vector processing and small-scale multiprocessing.
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States.
The National Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) is a United States Department of Energy Leadership Computing Facility.
A national flag is a flag that represents and symbolizes a country.
nCUBE was a series of parallel computing computers from the company of the same name.
The SX series are vector supercomputers designed, manufactured, and marketed by NEC.
The SX-6 is a supercomputer built by NEC Corporation that debuted in 2001; the SX-6 was sold under license by Cray Inc. in the U.S. Each SX-6 single-node system contains up to eight vector processors, which share up to 64 GB of computer memory.
A necktie, or simply a tie, is a long piece of cloth, worn usually by men, for decorative purposes around the neck, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat.
Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
Opteron is AMD's x86 former server and workstation processor line, and was the first processor which supported the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64).
Peter J. Ungaro (born 1969) is an American businessman and CEO of Cray.
PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets.
Pyramid Technology Corporation was a computer company that produced a number of RISC-based minicomputers at the upper end of the performance range.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) is a Linux distribution developed by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial market.
Red Storm is a supercomputer architecture designed for the US Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration Advanced Simulation and Computing Program.
The S&P SmallCap 600 Index, more commonly known as the S&P 600, is a stock market index from Standard & Poor's.
Saint Paul (abbreviated St. Paul) is the capital and second-most populous city of the U.S. state of Minnesota.
The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Seymour Roger Cray (September 28, 1925 – October 5, 1996) was an American electrical engineer and supercomputer architect who designed a series of computers that were the fastest in the world for decades, and founded Cray Research which built many of these machines.
The SGI Origin 2000 is a family of mid-range and high-end server computers developed and manufactured by Silicon Graphics (SGI).
The Origin 3000 and the Onyx 3000 is a family of mid-range and high-end computers developed and manufactured by SGI.
Silicon Graphics, Inc. (later rebranded SGI, historically known as Silicon Graphics Computer Systems or SGCS) was an American high-performance computing manufacturer, producing computer hardware and software.
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
Steve Chen (pinyin: Chén Shìqīng) (born 1944 in Taiwan) is a Taiwanese computer engineer and internet entrepreneur.
Sun Enterprise is a range of UNIX server computers produced by Sun Microsystems from 1996 to 2001.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
Supertek Computers Inc. was a computer company founded in Santa Clara, California in 1985 by Mike Fung, an ex-Hewlett-Packard project manager, with the aim of designing and selling low-cost minisupercomputers compatible with those from Cray Research.
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) involves a multiprocessor computer hardware and software architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single, shared main memory, have full access to all input and output devices, and are controlled by a single operating system instance that treats all processors equally, reserving none for special purposes.
The Tera Computer Company was a manufacturer of high-performance computing software and hardware, founded in 1987 in Washington, D.C. and moved 1988 to Seattle, Washington by James Rottsolk and Burton Smith.
Thinking Machines Corporation was a supercomputer manufacturer and Artificial Intelligence company,founded in Waltham, Massachusetts, in 1983 by Sheryl Handler and W. Daniel "Danny" Hillis to turn Hillis's doctoral work at MIT on massively parallel computing architectures into a commercial product known as the Connection Machine.
Tianhe-I, Tianhe-1, or TH-1 (Sky River Number One) is a supercomputer capable of an Rmax (maximum range) of 2.5 petaFLOPS.
Tianhe-2 or TH-2 (that is, "Milky Way 2") is a 33.86-petaflop supercomputer located in National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou, China.
Titan or OLCF-3 is a supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a variety of science projects. Titan is an upgrade of Jaguar, a previous supercomputer at Oak Ridge, that uses graphics processing units (GPUs) in addition to conventional central processing units (CPUs). Titan is the first such hybrid to perform over 10 petaFLOPS. The upgrade began in October 2011, commenced stability testing in October 2012 and it became available to researchers in early 2013. The initial cost of the upgrade was US$60 million, funded primarily by the United States Department of Energy. Titan is due to be eclipsed at Oak Ridge by Summit in 2019, which is being built by IBM and features fewer nodes with much greater GPU capability per node as well as local per-node non-volatile caching of file data from the system's parallel file system. Titan employs AMD Opteron CPUs in conjunction with Nvidia Tesla GPUs to improve energy efficiency while providing an order of magnitude increase in computational power over Jaguar. It uses 18,688 CPUs paired with an equal number of GPUs to perform at a theoretical peak of 27 petaFLOPS; in the LINPACK benchmark used to rank supercomputers' speed, it performed at 17.59 petaFLOPS. This was enough to take first place in the November 2012 list by the TOP500 organization, but Tianhe-2 overtook it on the June 2013 list. Titan is available for any scientific purpose; access depends on the importance of the project and its potential to exploit the hybrid architecture. Any selected programs must also be executable on other supercomputers to avoid sole dependence on Titan. Six vanguard programs were the first selected. They dealt mostly with molecular scale physics or climate models, while 25 others were queued behind them. The inclusion of GPUs compelled authors to alter their programs. The modifications typically increased the degree of parallelism, given that GPUs offer many more simultaneous threads than CPUs. The changes often yield greater performance even on CPU-only machines.
The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful non-distributed computer systems in the world.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories and Technology Centers are a system of facilities and laboratories overseen by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of advancing science and technology to fulfill the DOE mission.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) is a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation.
The UNIVAC 1103 or ERA 1103, a successor to the UNIVAC 1101, was a computer system designed by Engineering Research Associates and built by the Remington Rand corporation in October 1953.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
In computing, a vector processor or array processor is a central processing unit (CPU) that implements an instruction set containing instructions that operate on one-dimensional arrays of data called vectors, compared to scalar processors, whose instructions operate on single data items.
Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.
A vice president (in British English: vice-president for governments and director for businesses) is an officer in government or business who is below a president (managing director) in rank.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Windows HPC Server 2008, released by Microsoft on 22 September 2008, is the successor product to Windows Compute Cluster Server 2003.
Xeon is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets.
In computer architecture, 64-bit computing is the use of processors that have datapath widths, integer size, and memory address widths of 64 bits (eight octets).
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