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Index Creativity

Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. [1]

256 relations: Adaptive performance, Aesthetics, Affect (psychology), Africa, Age of Enlightenment, Alex Faickney Osborn, Alfred North Whitehead, Alice M. Isen, Alliance Manchester Business School, Ambidexterity, American Psychological Association, Analogy, Ancient Greece, Arabic, Arousal, Art, Arthur Koestler, Artificial intelligence, Artificial neural network, Artist, Autonomy, Barbara Fredrickson, Behavioral economics, Big Five personality traits, Bipolar disorder, Black box, Book of Genesis, Brainstorming, Broaden-and-build, Bullying and emotional intelligence, Business Council of Australia, Business studies, Cambridge University Press, Capital (economics), Carl Jung, Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory, Cause of action, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Child prodigy, Cholinergic, Christianity, Christopher Kasparek, CLARION (cognitive architecture), Cognitive science, Collaboration, Comedian, Competitive intelligence, Computational creativity, Computational learning theory, ..., Computer hardware, Conceptual blending, Confabulation (neural networks), Conscientiousness, Convergent thinking, Counterfactual thinking, Creative class, Creative computing, Creative destruction, Creative problem-solving, Creative professional, Creativity Research Journal, Cultural diversity, Daemon (classical mythology), Daniel J. Boorstin, Darwinism, Data compression, Default mode network, Depression (mood), Divergent thinking, Dopamine, E-scape, Economics, Economist, Education, Edward de Bono, Electroconvulsive therapy, Ellis Paul Torrance, Elsevier, Empirical evidence, Engineering, Ernest Hemingway, Eugenics, Evolution, Externality, Face, Fixation (psychology), Fluid and crystallized intelligence, Four Cs of 21st century learning, Francis Galton, Frontal lobe, Genesis creation narrative, Genius, Genius (mythology), Genrich Altshuller, Graham Wallas, Great man theory, Harvard Business Review, Help-seeking, Helping behavior, Henri Poincaré, Hermann von Helmholtz, Heroic theory of invention and scientific development, Hippocampus, Hong Kong, Humanism, Idea, Ideation (creative process), Imagination, Incubation (psychology), Innovation, Insight, Intellectual property, Intelligence, Intelligence quotient, Invention, Isaac Asimov, J. P. Guilford, J. Philippe Rushton, Jacques Hadamard, James C. Kaufman, James Melvin Rhodes, Jürgen Schmidhuber, John Cleese, Joke, Jonah Lehrer, Joseph Schumpeter, Journal of Creative Behavior, Kay Redfield Jamison, Ken Robinson (educationalist), Khan Academy, Kindergarten, Latent inhibition, Lateral thinking, Latin, Leadership style, Learned industriousness, Leonardo da Vinci, Leonid Sabaneyev, Lexeme, Liane Gabora, Limbic system, Linguistic relativity, Linguistics, Literature, Loss function, Low-complexity art, Machine learning, Major depressive disorder, Margaret Boden, Marie-Louise von Franz, Max Wertheimer, Memetics, Meta-analysis, Metaphor, Michel Weber, Michelangelo, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Mimesis, MIT Press, Mood disorder, Morphological analysis (problem-solving), Morphological derivation, Motivation, Muses, Music, Music therapy, Musical composition, Musical improvisation, Natural language processing, Negotiation, Neocortex, Neuromodulation, Neuroscience, Neurotransmitter, Non-rapid eye movement sleep, Norepinephrine, Openness to experience, Organizational culture, Originality, Outline of ancient India, Oxford University Press, Painting, PASS theory of intelligence, Paul Romer, Philosophy, Philosophy of science, Physical law, Physicist, Pierre Kolp, Plato, Poet, Polymath, Preconscious, Prefrontal cortex, Preschool, Problem solving, Process and Reality, Psychological safety, Psychology, Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, Psychometrics, Psychoticism, Punch line, Rapid eye movement sleep, Reinforcement learning, Renaissance, Republic (Plato), Resource, Revelation, Review of General Psychology, Reward system, Richard Florida, Robert Schumann, Robert Sternberg, Ruth M. J. Byrne, Schizophrenia, Schizotypal personality disorder, Scientific American, Scientific American Mind, Scientific theory, Sensory nervous system, Sid Parnes, Singularity Summit, Social norm, Sociology, Songwriter, Storytelling, Substance dependence, Supervisor, Synectics, Tacit knowledge, Team composition, Technology, Temporal lobe, The Act of Creation, The Parson's Tale, Theology, Theory, Theory of multiple intelligences, Thinking Skills and Creativity, Thomas Hobbes, Threat, Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, Triarchic theory of intelligence, TRIZ, Utility, Virginia Woolf, Visual arts, Voting behavior, Western culture, Why Man Creates, William Duff (writer), Working memory, Writer, 21st century skills. Expand index (206 more) »

Adaptive performance

Adaptive performance in the work environment refers to adjusting to and understanding change in the workplace.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Affect (psychology)

Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Alex Faickney Osborn

Alex Faickney Osborn (May 24, 1888 – May 5, 1966) was an advertising executive and the author of the creativity technique named brainstorming.

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Alfred North Whitehead

Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

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Alice M. Isen

Alice M. Isen was an American psychologist and Professor of Psychology and of Marketing at Cornell University.

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Alliance Manchester Business School

Alliance Manchester Business School (Alliance MBS) is the business school of the University of Manchester in Manchester, England.

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Ambidexterity is the state of being equally adapted in the use of both the left and the right hand.

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American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

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Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.

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Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Arthur Koestler

Arthur Koestler, (Kösztler Artúr; 5 September 1905 – 1 March 1983) was a Hungarian-British author and journalist.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Artificial neural network

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

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An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art.

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In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.

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Barbara Fredrickson

Barbara Lee Fredrickson (born June 15, 1964) is an American professor in the department of psychology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where she is the Kenan Distinguished Professor of Psychology.

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Behavioral economics

Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory.

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Big Five personality traits

The Big Five personality traits, also known as the five factor model (FFM), is a taxonomy for personality traits.

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.

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Black box

In science, computing, and engineering, a black box is a device, system or object which can be viewed in terms of its inputs and outputs (or transfer characteristics), without any knowledge of its internal workings.

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Book of Genesis

The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.

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Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members.

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The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions suggests that positive emotions (viz. enjoyment/happiness/joy, and perhaps interest/anticipation) broaden one's awareness and encourage novel, varied, and exploratory thoughts and actions.

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Bullying and emotional intelligence

Bullying is abusive social interaction between peers which can include aggression, harassment, and violence.

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Business Council of Australia

The Business Council of Australia (BCA) is an industry association that comprises the chief executives of more than 100 of Australia's biggest corporations.

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Business studies

Business Studies is an academic subject taught in schools and at university level in many countries.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

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Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

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Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory

The Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory (commonly abbreviated to CHC), is a prominent psychological theory on the structure of human cognitive abilities.

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Cause of action

A cause of action, in law, is a set of facts sufficient to justify a right to sue to obtain money, property, or the enforcement of a right against another party.

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The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Child prodigy

In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer.

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In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christopher Kasparek

Christopher Kasparek (born 1945) is a Scottish-born writer of Polish descent who has translated works by numerous authors, including Ignacy Krasicki, Bolesław Prus, Florian Znaniecki, Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Marian Rejewski, and Władysław Kozaczuk, as well as the Polish-Lithuanian Constitution of 3 May 1791.

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CLARION (cognitive architecture)

Connectionist Learning with Adaptive Rule Induction On-line (CLARION) is a computational cognitive architecture that has been used to simulate many domains and tasks in cognitive psychology and social psychology, as well as implementing intelligent systems in artificial intelligence applications.

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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Collaboration occurs when two or more people or organizations work together--> to realize or achieve a goal.

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A comedian or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience by making them laugh.

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Competitive intelligence

Competitive intelligence (CI) is the action of defining, gathering, analyzing, and distributing intelligence about products, customers, competitors, and any aspect of the environment needed to support executives and managers in strategic decision making for an organization.

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Computational creativity

Computational creativity (also known as artificial creativity, mechanical creativity, creative computing or creative computation) is a multidisciplinary endeavour that is located at the intersection of the fields of artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, philosophy, and the arts.

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Computational learning theory

In computer science, computational learning theory (or just learning theory) is a subfield of Artificial Intelligence devoted to studying the design and analysis of machine learning algorithms.

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Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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Conceptual blending

Conceptual blending, also called conceptual integration or view application, is a theory of cognition developed by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner.

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Confabulation (neural networks)

A confabulation, also known as a false, degraded, or corrupted memory, is a stable pattern of activation in an artificial neural network or neural assembly that does not correspond to any previously learned patterns.

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Conscientiousness is the personality trait of being careful, or vigilant.

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Convergent thinking

Convergent thinking is a term coined by Joy Paul Guilford as the opposite of divergent thinking.

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Counterfactual thinking

Counterfactual thinking is a concept in psychology that involves the human tendency to create possible alternatives to life events that have already occurred; something that is contrary to what actually happened.

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Creative class

The creative class is a posited socioeconomic class identified by American economist and social scientist Richard Florida, a professor and head of the Martin Prosperity Institute at the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto.

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Creative computing

Creative computing covers the interdisciplinary area at the cross-over of the creative arts and computing.

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Creative destruction

Creative destruction (German: schöpferische Zerstörung), sometimes known as Schumpeter's gale, is a concept in economics which since the 1950s has become most readily identified with the Austrian-American economist Joseph Schumpeter who derived it from the work of Karl Marx and popularized it as a theory of economic innovation and the business cycle.

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Creative problem-solving

Creative problem-solving is the mental process of searching for an original and previously unknown solution to a problem.

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Creative professional

A creative professional who is also known as a creative specialist is a person who is employed for the extraction of skills in creative endeavors.

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Creativity Research Journal

The Creativity Research Journal is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research into all aspects of creativity.

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Cultural diversity

Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay.

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Daemon (classical mythology)

Daemon is the Latin word for the Ancient Greek daimon (δαίμων: "god", "godlike", "power", "fate"), which originally referred to a lesser deity or guiding spirit; the daemons of ancient Greek religion and mythology and of later Hellenistic religion and philosophy.

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Daniel J. Boorstin

Daniel Joseph Boorstin (October 1, 1914 – February 28, 2004) was an American historian at the University of Chicago who wrote on many topics in American and world history.

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Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.

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Data compression

In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

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Default mode network

In neuroscience, the default mode network (DMN), also default network, or default state network, is a large scale brain network of interacting brain regions known to have activity highly correlated with each other and distinct from other networks in the brain.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Divergent thinking

Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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E-scape was a project run by the Technology Education Research Unit (TERU) at Goldsmiths University of London, England that developed an approach to the authentic assessment of creativity and collaboration based on open-ended but structured activities.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Edward de Bono

Edward Charles Francis Publius de Bono (born 19 May 1933) is a Maltese physician, psychologist, philosopher, author, inventor and consultant.

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Electroconvulsive therapy

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.

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Ellis Paul Torrance

Ellis Paul Torrance (October 8, 1915 – July 12, 2003) was an American psychologist from Milledgeville, Georgia.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.

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Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.

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The face is a central body region of sense and is also very central in the expression of emotion among humans and among numerous other species.

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Fixation (psychology)

"Fixation" (Fixierung) is a concept (in human psychology) that was originated by Sigmund Freud (1905) to denote the persistence of anachronistic sexual traits.

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Fluid and crystallized intelligence

In psychology, fluid and crystallized intelligence (respectively abbreviated Gf and Gc) are factors of general intelligence, originally identified by Raymond Cattell.

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Four Cs of 21st century learning

The Four Cs of 21st century learning, also known as the Four Cs or 4 Cs, are four skills that have been identified by the United States-based Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) as the most important skills required for 21st century education: critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity.

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Francis Galton

Sir Francis Galton, FRS (16 February 1822 – 17 January 1911) was an English Victorian era statistician, progressive, polymath, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, eugenicist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, and psychometrician.

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Frontal lobe

The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Genesis creation narrative

The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.

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A genius is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creative productivity, universality in genres or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of new advances in a domain of knowledge.

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Genius (mythology)

In Roman religion, the genius (plural geniī) is the individual instance of a general divine nature that is present in every individual person, place, or thing.

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Genrich Altshuller

Genrikh Saulovich Altshuller (Ге́нрих Сау́лович Альтшу́ллер) (born Tashkent, Uzbek SSR, USSR, 15 October 1926; died Petrozavodsk, Russia, 24 September 1998), was a Soviet engineer, inventor, scientist, journalist and writer.

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Graham Wallas

Graham Wallas (31 May 1858 – 9 August 1932) was an English socialist, social psychologist, educationalist, a leader of the Fabian Society and a co-founder of the London School of Economics.

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Great man theory

The great man theory is a 19th-century idea according to which history can be largely explained by the impact of great men, or heroes; highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or political skill used their power in a way that had a decisive historical impact.

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Harvard Business Review

Harvard Business Review (HBR) is a general management magazine published by Harvard Business Publishing, a wholly owned subsidiary of Harvard University.

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Help-seeking theory postulates that people follow a series of predictable steps to seek help for their inadequacies, it is a series of well-ordered and purposeful cognitive and behavioral steps, each leading to specific types of solutions.

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Helping behavior

Helping behavior refers to voluntary actions intended to help the others, with reward regarded or disregarded.

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Henri Poincaré

Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.

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Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.

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Heroic theory of invention and scientific development

The heroic theory of invention and scientific development is the hypothesis that the principal authors of inventions and scientific discoveries are unique heroic individuals "great scientists" or "geniuses." A competing hypothesis ("multiple discovery") is that most inventions and scientific discoveries are made independently and simultaneously by multiple inventors and scientists.

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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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In philosophy, ideas are usually taken as mental representational images of some object.

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Ideation (creative process)

Ideation is the creative process of generating, developing, and communicating new ideas, where an idea is understood as a basic element of thought that can be either visual, concrete, or abstract.

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Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing).

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Incubation (psychology)

Incubation is one of the four proposed stages of creativity, which are preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification.

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Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".

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Insight is the understanding of a specific cause and effect within a specific context.

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Intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.

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Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process.

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Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.

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J. P. Guilford

Joy Paul Guilford (March 7, 1897 – November 26, 1987) was an American psychologist best remembered for his psychometric study of human intelligence, including the distinction between convergent and divergent production.

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J. Philippe Rushton

John Philippe Rushton (December 3, 1943 – October 2, 2012) was a Canadian psychologist and author.

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Jacques Hadamard

Jacques Salomon Hadamard ForMemRS (8 December 1865 – 17 October 1963) was a French mathematician who made major contributions in number theory, complex function theory, differential geometry and partial differential equations.

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James C. Kaufman

James C. Kaufman (born September 21, 1974) is a psychologist known for his research on creativity.

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James Melvin Rhodes

James Melvin "Mel" Rhodes (June 14, 1916 – April 29, 1976) was an American educational scientist, assistant professor of education and creativity researcher who was the originator of the pioneering concept of the 4 P of creativity.

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Jürgen Schmidhuber

Jürgen Schmidhuber (born 17 January 1963) is a computer scientist who works in the field of artificial intelligence.

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John Cleese

John Marwood Cleese (born 27 October 1939) is an English actor, voice actor, comedian, screenwriter, and producer.

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A joke is a display of humour in which words are used within a specific and well-defined narrative structure to make people laugh and is not meant to be taken seriously.

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Jonah Lehrer

Jonah Richard Lehrer (born June 25, 1981) is an American author.

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Joseph Schumpeter

Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.

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Journal of Creative Behavior

The Journal of Creative Behavior is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Creative Education Foundation.

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Kay Redfield Jamison

Kay Redfield Jamison (born June 22, 1946) is an American clinical psychologist and writer.

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Ken Robinson (educationalist)

Sir Kenneth Robinson (born 4 March 1950) is a British author, speaker and international advisor on education in the arts to government, non-profits, education and arts bodies.

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Khan Academy

Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organization created in 2006 by educator Salman Khan with a goal of creating a set of online tools that help educate students.

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Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.

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Latent inhibition

Latent inhibition is a technical term used in classical conditioning to refer to the observation that a familiar stimulus takes longer to acquire meaning (as a signal or conditioned stimulus) than a new stimulus.

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Lateral thinking

Lateral thinking is solving problems through an indirect and creative approach, using reasoning that is not immediately obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by using only traditional step-by-step logic.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leadership style

A leadership style is a leader's style of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.

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Learned industriousness

Learned industriousness is a behaviorally rooted theory developed by Robert Eisenberger to explain the differences in general work effort among people of equivalent ability.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Leonid Sabaneyev

Leonid Leonidovich Sabaneyev or Sabaneyeff or Sabaneev (Леони́д Леони́дович Сабане́ев) (3 May 1968) was a Russian musicologist, music critic, composer and scientist.

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A lexeme is a unit of lexical meaning that exists regardless of the number of inflectional endings it may have or the number of words it may contain.

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Liane Gabora

Liane Gabora is a professor of psychology at the University of British Columbia - Okanagan.

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Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

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Linguistic relativity

The hypothesis of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers' world view or cognition.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.

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Loss function

In mathematical optimization, statistics, econometrics, decision theory, machine learning and computational neuroscience, a loss function or cost function is a function that maps an event or values of one or more variables onto a real number intuitively representing some "cost" associated with the event.

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Low-complexity art

Low-complexity art, first described by Jürgen Schmidhuber in 1997 and now established as a seminal topic within the larger field of computer science,DiChio, Cecilia, "Applications of Evolutionary Computation", Springer, 2010, p. 302.

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Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Margaret Boden

Margaret Ann Boden, OBE, ScD, FBA (born 26 November 1936) is research professor of cognitive science at the department of informatics at the University of Sussex, where her work embraces the fields of artificial intelligence, psychology, philosophy, cognitive and computer science.

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Marie-Louise von Franz

Marie-Louise von Franz (4 January 1915 – 17 February 1998) was a Swiss Jungian psychologist and scholar, renowned for her psychological interpretations of fairy tales and of alchemical manuscripts.

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Max Wertheimer

Max Wertheimer (April 15, 1880 – October 12, 1943) was an Austro-Hungarian-born psychologist who was one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology, along with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler.

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Memetics is the study of information and culture based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution.

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A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.

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Michel Weber

Michel Weber is a Belgian philosopher, born in Brussels in 1963.

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Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.

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Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (Csíkszentmihályi Mihály,; born 29 September 1934) is a Hungarian-American psychologist.

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Mimesis (μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), "to imitate", from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Mood disorder

Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.

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Morphological analysis (problem-solving)

Morphological analysis or general morphological analysis is a method developed by Fritz Zwicky (1967, 1969) for exploring all the possible solutions to a multi-dimensional, non-quantified complex problem.

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Morphological derivation

Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.

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Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.

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The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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Music therapy

Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.

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Musical composition

Musical composition can refer to an original piece of music, either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music.

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Musical improvisation

Musical improvisation (also known as musical extemporization) is the creative activity of immediate ("in the moment") musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.

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Natural language processing

Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.

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Negotiation comes from the Latin neg (no) and otsia (leisure) referring to businessmen who, unlike the patricians, had no leisure time in their industriousness; it held the meaning of business (le négoce in French) until the 17th century when it took on the diplomatic connotation as a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues.

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The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.

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Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Non-rapid eye movement sleep

Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4.

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Openness to experience

Openness to experience is one of the domains which are used to describe human personality in the Five Factor Model.

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Organizational culture

Organizational culture encompasses values and behaviours that "contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization".

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Originality is the aspect of created or invented works as being new or novel, and thus distinguishable from reproductions, clones, forgeries, or derivative works.

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Outline of ancient India

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient India: Ancient India is the Indian Subcontinent from prehistoric times to the start of Medieval India, which is typically dated (when the term is still used) to the end of the Gupta Empire.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).

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PASS theory of intelligence

The Planning, Attention-Arousal, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) theory of intelligence, first proposed in 1975 (Das, Kirby, and Jarman,1975), and later elaborated by Das, Naglieri & Kirby (1994)Das, J. P., Naglieri, J. A., & Kirby, J. R. (1994).

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Paul Romer

Paul Michael Romer (born November 7, 1955) is an American economist and pioneer of endogenous growth theory.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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Physical law

A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.

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A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

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Pierre Kolp

Pierre Kolp is a Belgian composer and music pedagogue, born in Cologne (Germany), 23 March 1969.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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A poet is a person who creates poetry.

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A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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In psychoanalysis, preconscious are the thoughts which are unconscious at the particular moment in question, but which are not repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily 'capable of becoming conscious'—a phrase attributed by Sigmund Freud to Joseph Breuer.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.

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Problem solving

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.

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Process and Reality

Process and Reality is a book by Alfred North Whitehead, in which Whitehead propounds a philosophy of organism, also called process philosophy.

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Psychological safety

Psychological safety is a shared belief that the team is safe for interpersonal risk taking.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts

Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association on behalf of Division 10.

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Psychometrics is a field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement.

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Psychoticism is one of the three traits used by the psychologist Hans Eysenck in his P–E–N model (psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism) model of personality.

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Punch line

A punch line (punch-line or punchline) concludes a joke; it is intended to make people laugh.

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Rapid eye movement sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.

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Reinforcement learning

Reinforcement learning (RL) is an area of machine learning inspired by behaviourist psychology, concerned with how software agents ought to take actions in an environment so as to maximize some notion of cumulative reward.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Republic (Plato)

The Republic (Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just, city-state, and the just man.

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A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced.

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In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

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Review of General Psychology

Review of General Psychology is the quarterly scientific journal of the American Psychological Association Division 1: The Society for General Psychology.

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Reward system

The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

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Richard Florida

Richard L. Florida (born November 26, 1957, in Newark, New Jersey) is an American urban studies theorist focusing on social and economic theory.

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Robert Schumann

Robert Schumann (8 June 181029 July 1856) was a German composer and an influential music critic.

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Robert Sternberg

Robert Sternberg (born December 8, 1949) is an American psychologist and psychometrician.

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Ruth M. J. Byrne

Ruth M.J.Byrne, FTCD, MRIA (born 1962) is an Irish cognitive scientist and author of several books on human reasoning, including (2005, MIT Press), Deduction (1991, co-author Philip Johnson-Laird, Erlbaum), and Human Reasoning (1993, with Jonathan Evans & Stephen Newstead, Erlbaum).

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Schizotypal personality disorder

Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) or schizotypal disorder is a mental disorder characterized by severe social anxiety, thought disorder, paranoid ideation, derealization, transient psychosis, and often unconventional beliefs.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Scientific American Mind

Scientific American Mind is a bimonthly American popular science magazine concentrating on psychology, neuroscience, and related fields.

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Scientific theory

A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.

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Sensory nervous system

The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.

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Sid Parnes

Sidney J. Parnes (January 5, 1922 – August 19, 2013) was an American academic who was professor at Buffalo State College (located in Buffalo, New York) and the co-founder of the International Center for Studies in Creativity.

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Singularity Summit

The Singularity Summit is the annual conference of the Machine Intelligence Research Institute.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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A songwriter is a professional who is paid to write lyrics for singers and melodies for songs, typically for a popular music genre such as rock or country music.

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Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment.

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Substance dependence

Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.

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A Supervisor, when the meaning sought is similar to foreman, foreperson, overseer, cell coach, manager, facilitator, monitor, or area coordinator, is the job title of a low level management position that is primarily based on authority over a worker or charge of a workplace.

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Synectics is a problem solving methodology that stimulates thought processes of which the subject may be unaware.

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Tacit knowledge

Tacit knowledge (as opposed to formal, codified or explicit knowledge) is the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it.

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Team composition

Team composition refers to the overall mix of characteristics among people in a team, which is a unit of two or more individuals who interact interdependently to achieve a common objective.

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Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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The Act of Creation

The Act of Creation is a 1964 book by Arthur Koestler.

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The Parson's Tale

The Parson's Tale seems, from the evidence of its prologue, to have been intended as the final tale of Geoffrey Chaucer's poetic cycle The Canterbury Tales.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.

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Theory of multiple intelligences

The theory of multiple intelligences differentiates human intelligence into specific 'modalities', rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability.

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Thinking Skills and Creativity

Thinking Skills and Creativity is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research into the teaching of thinking skills and creativity.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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A threat is a communicated intent to inflict harm or loss on another person.

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Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking is a test of creativity.

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Triarchic theory of intelligence

The triarchic theory of intelligence was formulated by Robert J. Sternberg, a prominent figure in research of human intelligence.

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TRIZ (теория решения изобретательских задач,, literally: "theory of the resolution of invention-related tasks") is "a problem-solving, analysis and forecasting tool derived from the study of patterns of invention in the global patent literature".

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Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.

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Virginia Woolf

Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.

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Visual arts

The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture.

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Voting behavior

Voting behavior is a form of electoral behavior.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Why Man Creates

Why Man Creates is a 1968 animated short documentary film that discusses the nature of creativity.

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William Duff (writer)

William Duff (1732 - 1815) was a Scottish Presbyterian minister and one of the first writers to analyse the nature of genius as a property of human psychology.

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Working memory

Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.

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A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas.

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21st century skills

21st century skills comprise skills, abilities, and learning dispositions that have been identified as being required for success in 21st century society and workplaces by educators, business leaders, academics, and governmental agencies.

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Artificial intelligence and creativity, Artistic creativity, Creative engineering, Creative force, Creative impulse, Creative process, Creative thinking, Creativeness, Creativity in art, Creativity quotient, Creativity test, Human creativity.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creativity

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