453 relations: Abdul Hamid II, Ablepharus, Abu Hafs Umar al-Iqritishi, Aceramic, Administrative regions of Greece, Adolf Hitler, Aegean Sea, Africa, Afyonkarahisar, Agioi Pantes, Agioi Theodoroi (islands), Agios Nikolaos, Crete, Ahmed Resmî Efendi, Al-Andalus, Al-Husayn I ibn Ali, Albanians, Alexandros Zaimis, Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Ali Nayip Zade, Alpine chough, Amari Valley, American toad, Ancel Keys, Ancient Greek, Andreas Musalus, ANEK Lines, Ankara, Anthotyros, Apollo, Aptera, Greece, Aquaworld Aquarium, Archaeology, Archaic Greece, Architecture of Turkey, Arkadi Monastery, Artemis, Asterousia Mountains, Athena, Athens, İzmir, Bahaettin Rahmi Bediz, Balkan green lizard, Balkan whip snake, Battle of Crete, Bülent Arınç, Bearded vulture, Bektashi Order, Berlin, Bible, Biologist, ..., Blasius's horseshoe bat, Bonelli's eagle, Boniface I, Marquess of Montferrat, Brown long-eared bat, Byzantine Empire, Candiacervus, Caphtor, Catholic Church, Cattle, Cedrus libani, Cereal, Cevat Şakir 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Abdul Hamid II (عبد الحميد ثانی, `Abdü’l-Ḥamīd-i sânî; İkinci Abdülhamit; 21 September 184210 February 1918) was the 34th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.
Ablepharus is a genus of skinks that contains the common snake-eyed skinks.
Umar ibn Hafs ibn Shuayb ibn Isa al-Balluti, surnamed al-Ghaliz ("the Fat") and later al-Iqritishi ("the Cretan"), and usually known as Abu Hafs (أبو حفص, in Greek sources Ἀπόχαψις, Apohapsis), was a Muwallad corsair who was primarily active between 816 and 827.
Aceramic is defined as "not producing pottery".
The administrative regions of Greece (περιφέρειες, peripheries) are the country's thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afyonkarahisar (afyon "poppy, opium", kara "black", hisar "fortress") is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province.
Agioi Pantes (Άγιοι Πάντες) is a settlement on the island of Zakynthos, Greece.
Agioi Theodoroi (Άγιοι Θεόδωροι) are two uninhabited islets off the coast of western Crete.
Agios Nikolaos or Aghios Nikolaos (Άγιος Νικόλαος) is a coastal town on the Greek island of Crete, lying east of the island's capital Heraklion, north of the town of Ierapetra and west of the town of Sitia.
Achmet Resmî Efendi (English, "Ahmed Efendi of Resmo"), also called by some Arabic sources as Ahmed bin İbrahim Giridî ("Ahmed the son of İbrahim the Cretan"), was a Greek-Ottoman statesman, diplomat and author of the late 18th century.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Al-Husayn I ibn Ali (1669 – 13 March 1740) (حسين بن علي التركي,; Hüseyin bin Ali) was the founder of the Husainid Dynasty, which ruled Tunisia until 1957.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Alexandros Zaimis (Αλέξανδρος Ζαΐμης; 9 November 1855 – 15 September 1936) was a Greek Prime Minister, Minister of the Interior, Minister of Justice, and High Commissioner of Crete.
Ali Fuat Cebesoy (September 1882,Ayfer Özçelik, Ali Fuad Cepesoy, Akçağ Yayınları, 1993,, p. 1. Constantinople (Istanbul) – January 10, 1968, Istanbul) was a Turkish army officer and politician.
Ali Nayip Zade (Αλί Ναΐπ Ζαντέ) was a Cretan Muslim who served in high administrative posts in Greece.
The Alpine chough, or yellow-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus), is a bird in the crow family, one of only two species in the genus Pyrrhocorax.
The Amari Valley is a fertile valley on the foothills of Mount Ida and Mount Kedros in Crete.
The American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) is a common species of toad found throughout the eastern United States and Canada.
Ancel Benjamin Keys (January 26, 1904 – November 20, 2004) was an American physiologist who studied the influence of diet on health.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andreas Musalus (Andreas Musalus, Andrea Musalo, Ανδρέας Μουσάλος; ca. 1665/6 – ca. 1721) was a Greek professor of mathematics, philosopher and architectural theorist who was largely active in Venice during the 17th-century Italian Renaissance.
ANEK Lines (Ανώνυμη Ναυτιλιακή Εταιρεία Κρήτης, Anonymi Naftiliaki Eteria Kritis, Anonymous Shipping Company of Crete) is the largest passenger shipping company in Greece.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Anthotyros (Anthotyro in modern Greek, "flowery cheese"), is a traditional fresh cheese.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Aptera (Ἄπτερα or Ἀπτερία; more anciently, Ἄptaϝra) also called Apteron was an ancient city, now an archaeological site in western Crete, a kilometre inland from the southern shore of Souda Bay, about 13 km east of Chania in the municipality of Akrotiri.
Aquaworld Aquarium is a natural history museum in Hersonissos, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.
Architecture of Turkey or Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period refers to the architecture practised in the territory of present-day Turkey since the foundation of the republic in 1923.
The Arkadi Monastery (in Greek: / Moní Arkadhíou) is an Eastern Orthodox monastery, situated on a fertile plateau 23 km (14 mi) to the southeast of Rethymnon on the island of Crete in Greece.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
The Asterousia Mountains are a range in southern Crete separating the Messara Plain from the Libyan Sea.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.
Rahmizâde Bahaeddin Bey (Bahaettin Rahmi Bediz, Rahmi Bediz after the 1934 Law on Family Names in Turkey) was a Cretan Turk who is generally agreed by historians to be the first Turkish photographer by profession.
The Balkan green lizard (Lacerta trilineata) is a species of lizard in the Lacertidae family.
The Balkan whip snake (Hierophis gemonensis, formerly known as Coluber gemonensis) is a species of snake in the family Colubridae.
The Battle of Crete (Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta, also Unternehmen Merkur, "Operation Mercury," Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during the Second World War on the Greek island of Crete.
Bülent Arınç (born 25 May 1948) is a conservative Turkish politician.
The bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), also known as the Lämmergeier or ossifrage, is a bird of prey and the only member of the genus Gypaetus.
Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah (Tarikati Bektashi; Bektaşi Tarîkatı) is a dervish order (tariqat) named after the 13th century Alevi Wali (saint) Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.
Blasius's horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus blasii) is a species of bat in the family Rhinolophidae found throughout large parts of the Mediterranean, Middle East and Northern Africa.
The Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) is a large bird of prey.
Boniface I, usually known as Boniface of Montferrat (Bonifacio del Monferrato; Βονιφάτιος Μομφερρατικός, Vonifatios Momferratikos) (c. 1150 – 4 September 1207), was Marquess of Montferrat (from 1192), the leader of the Fourth Crusade (1201–04) and the King of Thessalonica (from 1205).
The brown long-eared bat or common long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) is a small Eurasian bat.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Candiacervus is an extinct genus of deer native to Pleistocene Crete.
Caphtor (כפתור) is a locality mentioned in the Bible, in which its people are called Caphtorites (or Caphtorim) and are named as a division of the ancient Egyptians.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Cedrus libani, commonly known as the Cedar of Lebanon or Lebanon cedar, is a species of cedar native to the mountains of the Eastern Mediterranean basin.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı (17 April 1886, in Crete – 13 October 1973, in İzmir; born Musa Cevat Şakir; pen-name exclusively used in his writings, "The Fisherman of Halicarnassus", in Halikarnas Balıkçısı) was a Turkish writer of novels, short-stories and essays, as well as being a keen ethnographer and travelogue.
Chalcides ocellatus, or ocellated skink (also known as eyed skink or gongilo) is a species of skink found in Greece, southern Italy, Malta, and parts of northern Africa.
Chania (Χανιά,, Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania regional unit.
Chania (Περιφερειακή ενότητα Χανίων) is one of the four regional units of Crete; it covers the westernmost quarter of the island.
Chania International Airport, "Daskalogiannis" is an international airport located near Souda Bay on the Akrotiri, Crete Peninsula of the Greek island of Crete, serving the city of Chania, away.
The chestnut (Castanea) group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chrissi (Χρυσή or Chrisi, "golden", also Γαϊδουρονήσι - Gaidouronisi "donkey island") is an uninhabited Greek island approximately south of Crete close to Ierapetra in the South Cretan Sea.
The cicadas are a superfamily, the Cicadoidea, of insects in the order Hemiptera (true bugs).
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
The common bent-wing bat, Schreibers' long-fingered bat, or Schreibers' bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) is a species of bat in the family Miniopteridae.
The common chameleon or Mediterranean chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon), together with the African chameleon, C. africanus, is one of only two extant species of Chamaleonidae with a range that extends into Europe.
The common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is a bird of prey species belonging to the kestrel group of the falcon family Falconidae.
The common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) is a small pipistrelle bat whose very large range extends across most of Europe, North Africa, southwestern Asia, and may extend into Korea.
The common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) is a species of stingray in the family Dasyatidae, found in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean and Black Seas.
The common Tortoise (Testudo graeca) or also known as Greek tortoise, or spur-thighed tortoise, is one of the 5 species of Mediterranean tortoise (genus Testudo and Agrionemys, family Testudinidae).
Polypedates leucomystax is a species in the shrub frog family Rhacophoridae.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Constantinos Daskalakis (born 1981) is a Professor at MIT's Electrical Engineering and Computer Science department and a member of CSAIL.
The Convention of London of 1840 was a treaty with the title of Convention for the Pacification of the Levant, signed on 15 July 1840 between the Great Powers of United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, Russia on one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
In Greek mythology, the Cretan Bull (Κρὴς ταῦρος) was the bull Pasiphaë fell in love with, giving birth to the Minotaur.
Cretan Greek, or the Cretan dialect (κρητική διάλεκτος), is a variety of Modern Greek spoken in Crete and by the Cretan diaspora.
The Kritikos Lagonikos (Cretan Hound) (Greek:Kρητικός Λαγωνικός) is a hunting breed of dog from the island of Crete, in Greece.
The Cretan lyra (Κρητική λύρα) is a Greek pear-shaped, three-stringed bowed musical instrument, central to the traditional music of Crete and other islands in the Dodecanese and the Aegean Archipelago, in Greece.
The Cretan owl (Athene cretensis) is an extinct species of owl from the Pleistocene of the island of Crete, in the eastern Mediterranean.
The Cretan Revolt of 1866–1869 (Κρητική Επανάσταση του 1866) or Great Cretan Revolution (Μεγάλη Κρητική Επανάσταση) was a three-year uprising in Crete against Ottoman rule, the third and largest in a series of Cretan revolts between the end of the Greek War of Independence in 1830 and the establishment of the independent Cretan State in 1898.
Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, under the umbrella of post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries.
The Cretan shrew (Crocidura zimmermanni) is a species of mammal in the family Soricidae.
The Cretan Turks (Greek Τουρκοκρητικοί or Τουρκοκρήτες, Tourkokritikí or Tourkokrítes, Turkish Giritli, Girit Türkleri, or Giritli Türkler), Muslim-Cretans or Cretan Muslims were the Muslim inhabitants of the Greek island of Crete (until 1923) and now their descendants, who settled principally in Turkey, the Dodecanese Islands under Italian administration (now part of Greece after World War 2), Syria (notably in the village of Al-Hamidiyah), Lebanon, Palestine, Libya, and Egypt, as well as in the larger Turkish diaspora.
The Cretan War (Κρητικός Πόλεμος, Girit'in Fethi) or War of Candia (Guerra di Candia, Kandijski rat), is the name given to the Fifth Ottoman–Venetian War, a conflict between the Republic of Venice and her allies (chief among them the Knights of Malta, the Papal States and France) against the Ottoman Empire and the Barbary States, because it was largely fought over the island of Crete, Venice's largest and richest overseas possession.
The Cretan War (205–200 BC) was fought by King Philip V of Macedon, the Aetolian League, many Cretan cities (of which Olous and Hierapytna were the most important) and Spartan pirates against the forces of Rhodes and later Attalus I of Pergamum, Byzantium, Cyzicus, Athens, and Knossos.
The Cretan wildcat (Felis silvestris cretensis; φουρόγατος, fourógatos) is a European wildcat subspecies that inhabits the Greek island of Crete and was first described in 1953.
Cretan wine is wine from the Greek island of Crete.
Cretaquarium (Ενυδρείο Κρήτης, Enidrio Kritis) or Thalassocosmos (Θαλασσόκοσμος, "sea world") is a public aquarium located near the town of Gournes in Crete, Greece, 15 km east of the city of Heraklion.
Crete and Cyrenaica (Provincia Creta et Cyrenaica) was a senatorial province of the Roman Empire, established in 67 BC.
The Crete spiny mouse (Acomys minous) is a species of mouse endemic to Crete.
Crypto-Christianity is the secret practice of Christianity, usually while attempting to camouflage it as another faith or observing the rituals of another religion publicly.
Cypress is a common name for various coniferous trees or shrubs of northern temperate regions that belong to the family Cupressaceae.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyrenaica (Cyrenaica (Provincia), Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; برقة) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.
In Greek mythology, Daedalus (Δαίδαλος Daidalos "cunningly wrought", perhaps related to δαιδάλλω "to work artfully"; Daedalus; Etruscan: Taitale) was a skillful craftsman and artist.
Dakos or ntakos (ντάκος), also known as koukouvagia or koukouvayia (κουκουβάγια, "owl") or—in eastern Crete—kouloukopsomo (from koulouki + psomi, pup + bread, allegedly the bread given to puppies), is a Cretan meze consisting of a slice of soaked dried bread or barley rusk (paximadi) topped with chopped tomatoes and crumbled feta or mizithra cheese, and flavored with herbs such as dried oregano.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
Damselfishes comprise the family Pomacentridae except those of the genera Amphiprion and Premnas, which are the anemonefishes.
Ioannis Vlachos, better known as Daskalogiannis (1722/30 – June 17, 1771) was a wealthy shipbuilder and shipowner who led a Cretan revolt against Ottoman rule in the 18th century.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
The Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey is the official Deputy of the Head of Government of Turkey.
Dia (Greek Δία), also pronounced locally Ntia (Ντία), is an uninhabited island off the northern coast of the Greek island of Crete.
The dice snake (Natrix tessellata) is a European nonvenomous snake belonging to the family Colubridae, subfamily Natricinae.
Dikti or Dicte (Δίκτη) (also Lasithiotika Ori; Λασιθιώτικα Όρη "Lasithian Mountains") is a mountain range on the east of the island of Crete in the regional unit of Lasithi.
The Dionysades (Διονυσάδες, also Γιανυσάδες - Gianysades) is a small group of islands off Sitia on the northeast coast of Crete.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
DP World was founded in 2005 by merging Dubai Ports Authority and Dubai Ports International.
Dracunculus vulgaris is a species of aroid in the genus Dracunculus and is known variously as the common dracunculus, dragon lily, dragon arum, the black arum, the voodoo lily, the snake lily, the stink lily, the black dragon, the black lily, dragonwort, and ragons.
Drama (Περιφερειακή ενότητα Δράμας) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Dwarf elephants are prehistoric members of the order Proboscidea which, through the process of allopatric speciation on islands, evolved much smaller body sizes (around 1.5-2.3 metres) in comparison with their immediate ancestors.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
The economy of Greece is the 48th largest in the world with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of $192.691 billion per annum.
The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (Οἰκουμενικόν Πατριαρχεῖον Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Oikoumenikón Patriarkhíon Konstantinoupóleos,; Patriarchatus Oecumenicus Constantinopolitanus; Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi, "Roman Orthodox Patriarchate") is one of the fourteen autocephalous churches (or "jurisdictions") that together compose the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The edible dormouse or fat dormouse (Glis glis) is a large dormouse and the only living species in the genus Glis, found in most of western Europe.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
Doménikos Theotokópoulos (Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος; October 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco ("The Greek"), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.
Elafonisi (Ελαφονήσι "deer island") is an island located close to the southwestern corner of the Mediterranean island of Crete, of which it is administratively a part, in the regional unit of Chania.
Eleftherios Kyriakou Venizelos (full name Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos, Ελευθέριος Κυριάκου Βενιζέλος,; 23 August 1864 – 18 March 1936) was an eminent Greek leader of the Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century remembered for his promotion of liberal-democratic policies.
Eleni Daniilidou (Ελένη Δανιηλίδου;; born 19 September 1982) is a Greek tennis player born in Chania, on the island of Crete.
Eleonora's falcon (Falco eleonorae) is a medium-sized falcon.
Elounda (Ελούντα), alternative transliterations Elounta or Elouda, is a small town on the northern coast of the island of Crete, Greece.
The Emirate of Crete (called Iqritish or Iqritiya in Arabic) was a Muslim state that existed on the Mediterranean island of Crete from the late 820s to the Byzantine reconquest of the island in 961.
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans.
Epinephelus marginatus, the dusky grouper, the yellowbelly rock cod or yellowbelly grouper, is the best known grouper of the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa coast.
The Gymnastics Club «Ergotelis» Heraklion Crete (Γυμναστικός Σύλλογος «O Εργοτέλης» Ηρακλείου Κρήτης, Γ.Σ. Εργοτέλης), commonly known simply as Ergotelis (Εργοτέλης), is a Greek association football club, department of the multi-sport club Gymnastics Club Ergotelis, which is based in Heraklion, Crete.
Erhard's wall lizard (Podarcis erhardii), also called the Aegean wall lizard, is a species of lizard in the family Lacertidae.
Erotokritos (Ἐρωτόκριτος) is a romance composed by Vikentios (''Vitsentzos, "Vincenzo", Vincent'') Kornaros in early 17th century Crete.
EuroAfrica Interconnector is an interconnector between Greek, Cypriot, and Egypt power grids via submarine power cable.
The EuroAsia Interconnector is an interconnector between Greek, Cypriot, and Israeli power grids via the world's longest submarine power cable.
In Greek mythology, Europa (Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē) was the mother of King Minos of Crete, a woman with Phoenician origin of high lineage, and after whom the continent Europe was named.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European cat snake (Telescopus fallax), also known as the Soosan snake, is a venomous colubrid snake endemic to the Mediterranean and Caucasus regions.
The European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis, sometimes given as Tadarida insignis) is a species of free-tailed bat found in the Old World.
The European green toad (Bufo viridis) is a species of toad found in mainland Europe.
The European ratsnake or leopard snake (Zamenis situla), is a species of nonvenomous colubrid snake endemic to Europe, Asia Minor, and the Caucasus.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Euscorpius is a genus of scorpions, commonly called small wood-scorpions.
This is a list of the extreme points of Europe: the geographical points that are higher or farther north, south, east or west than any other location in Europe.
A feud, referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud, vendetta, faida, beef, clan war, gang war, or private war, is a long-running argument or fight, often between social groups of people, especially families or clans.
The flying gurnard (Dactylopterus volitans), also known as the helmet gurnard, is a bottom-dwelling fish of tropical to warm temperate waters on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
The Fortezza (Φορτέτζα, from Italian for "fortress") is the citadel of the city of Rethymno in Crete, Greece.
The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
A free-trade zone (FTZ) is a specific class of special economic zone.
Gavdopoula (Γαυδοπούλα) is an islet located north-west of its larger neighbour, Gavdos, in the Libyan Sea.
Gavdos (Γαύδος) is the southernmost Greek island, located to the south of its much larger neighbour, Crete, of which it is administratively a part, in the regional unit of Chania.
Geoffroy's bat (Myotis emarginatus) is a species of vesper bat.
George Em Karniadakis is a Greek-American researcher, known for his wide-spectrum work on high-dimensional stochastic modeling and multiscale simulations of physical and biological systems.
George Psychoundakis (Γεώργιος Ψυχουντάκης, 3 November 1920 – 29 January 2006) was a Greek Resistance fighter on Crete during the Second World War.
Georgios Kalafatis (Γεώργιος Καλαφάτης, Giorgio Calafatti, Georgius Calafattus; ca. 1652 – ca. 9 February 1720) was a Greek professor of theoretical and practical medicine who was largely active in Padua and Venice in the 17th-century Italian Renaissance.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Geropotamos (Γεροπόταμος or Ιερός Ποταμός) is a watercourse in southern Crete in Greece.
Giritli Ali Aziz Efendi (Kandiye (Heraklion), 1749-29 October 1798, Berlin) was an Ottoman ambassador and an Ottoman author of the late-18th century and he is notable for his novel "Muhayyelât" (Imaginations), a unique work of fiction blending personal and fantastic themes, well in the current of the traditional Ottoman prose, but also exhibiting influences from Western literature.
Giritli Sırrı Pasha ("Sırrı Pasha the Cretan") was a 19th-century Ottoman administrator and man of letters of Turkish Cretan origin.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
Gortyn, Gortys or Gortyna (Γόρτυν, Γόρτυς, or Γόρτυνα) is a municipality and an archaeological site on the Mediterranean island of Crete, 45 km away from the modern capital Heraklion.
The Gortyn code (also called the Great Code) was a legal code that was the codification of the civil law of the ancient Greek city-state of Gortyn in southern Crete.
Gourgouthakas (Γουργούθακας; from "small cutting on rocks, in which rain water is collected and from which animals drink water") is a cave located in the Lefka Ori mountains on the Greek island of Crete.
The Government Gazette (Εφημερίς της Κυβερνήσεως, Efimeris tis Kyverniseos) is the official journal of the Government of Greece which lists all laws passed in a set time period ratified by Cabinet and President.
Gramvousa also Grampousa (Γραμβούσα or Γραμπούσα, further names include Akra, Cavo Buso, Cavo Bouza, Garabusa and Grabusa) refers to two small uninhabited islands off the coast of a peninsula also known as Gramvousa Peninsula (Greek: Χερσόνησος Γραμβούσας) in north-western Crete in the regional unit of Chania.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
The greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) is a European bat of the genus Rhinolophus.
The Greek citron variety of Citrus medica (κιτριά, אתרוג קורפו or יְוָנִי) was botanically classified by Adolf Engler as the "variety etrog".
Greek historiography refers to Hellenic efforts to track and record history.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek literature dates from ancient Greek literature, beginning in 800 BC, to the modern Greek literature of today.
The 2010 Greek local elections were held on 7 November 2010 (first round) and 14 November 2010 (second round) to elect representatives to Greece's restructured local authorities, comprising 13 regions and 325 municipalities.
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), also known as the green turtle, black (sea) turtle or Pacific green turtle, is a large sea turtle of the family Cheloniidae.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
The griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) is a large Old World vulture in the bird of prey family Accipitridae.
Ha Gorge (Φαράγγι Χά) is a narrow gorge, at the Monasteraki Dakos, on the eastern part of the island of Crete in Greece.
Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.
Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.
The hammerhead sharks are a group of sharks in the family Sphyrnidae, so named for the unusual and distinctive structure of their heads, which are flattened and laterally extended into a "hammer" shape called a cephalofoil.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
The Hellenic Statistical Authority (Ελληνική Στατιστική Αρχή), known by its acronym ELSTAT (ΕΛ.ΣΤΑΤ), is the national statistical service of Greece.
Hemaris is a genus of sphinx moths in the subfamily Macroglossinae, which is native to the Holarctic.
Heraklion (Ηράκλειο, Irákleio) is the largest city and the administrative capital of the island of Crete.
Heraklion (Περιφερειακή ενότητα Ηρακλείου) is one of the four regional units of Crete.
The Heraklion Archaeological Museum is a museum located in Heraklion on Crete.
Heraklion International Airport, "Nikos Kazantzakis" is the primary airport on the island of Crete, Greece, and the country’s second busiest airport after Athens International Airport.
Hercules is a Roman hero and god.
Hersonissos (Χερσόνησος(meaning peninsula), Chersónisos), also transliterated as Chersonisos and Hersónisos, is a town and a municipality in the north of Crete, bordering the Mediterranean / Aegean Sea.
Hippopotamus creutzburgi is an extinct species of hippopotamus from the island of Crete.
The History of Crete goes back to the 7th millennium BC, preceding the ancient Minoan civilization by more than four millennia.
HMS Ben-my-Chree (Manx: "Woman of My Heart"Dotan, p. 133) was a packet steamer and a Royal Navy (RN) seaplane carrier of the First World War.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
The hooded crow (Corvus cornix) (also called hoodie) is a Eurasian bird species in the ''Corvus'' genus.
Hoopoes are colourful birds found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for their distinctive "crown" of feathers.
Hóra Sfakíon (Χώρα Σφακίων) or Sfakia (Σφακιά) is a town on the south coast of Crete, Greece.
The Husainid dynasty is a former ruling dynasty of Tunisia, which was of Cretan Turkish origin.
In Greek mythology, Icarus (the Latin spelling, conventionally adopted in English; Ἴκαρος, Íkaros, Etruscan: Vikare) is the son of the master craftsman Daedalus, the creator of the Labyrinth.
Ierapetra (Ιεράπετρα, meaning "sacred stone"; ancient name: Ἱεράπυτνα Hierapytna) is a town and municipality in the southeast of the Greek island of Crete.
Imbros Gorge (Φαράγγι Ίμπρου, Faragi Imbrou) is an 11 km long canyon located near Hora Sfakion in southern Crete, the Mediterranean island.
An intermodal container is a large standardized shipping container, designed and built for intermodal freight transport, meaning these containers can be used across different modes of transport – from ship to rail to truck – without unloading and reloading their cargo.
Iris is a genus of 260–300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Ismail Fazıl Pasha (İsmail Fazıl Paşa; 1856 – 18 April 1921), the son of Mustafa Fazl Pasha was a general of the Ottoman Army, a politician, statesman of the Ottoman Empire and the government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Jennifer Joanna Aniston (born February 11, 1969) is an American actress, film producer, and businessperson.
John Anthony Aniston (born Giannis Anastasakis, Greek: Γιάννης Αναστασάκης; July 24, 1933) is an American actor.
Joseph Sifakis (Ιωσήφ Σηφάκης) is a Greek computer scientist with French citizenship,, Evangélia Moussouri, in Écarts d'identités n⁰95-96, ISSN 1252-6665, reprinting information from an interview of Joseph Sifakis in Des grecs, les grecs de Grenoble, Musée Dauphinois, laureate of the 2007 Turing Award, along with Edmund M. Clarke and E. Allen Emerson, for his work on model checking.
Juniperus macrocarpa (large-fruited juniper, syn. J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball) is a species of juniper, native across the northern Mediterranean region from southwestern Spain east to western Turkey and Cyprus, growing on coastal sand dunes from sea level up to 75 m altitude.
The Kallikratis Programme (Πρόγραμμα Καλλικράτης) is the common name of Greek law 3852/2010, a major administrative reform in Greece.
Kavala Prefecture (Νομός Καβάλας) was one of the prefectures of Greece.
Kazarma (Καζάρμα), from Casa di arma, "the guard barracks"), is the Venetian-era fortress of the city of Sitia in Crete, Greece. This fortress was built in the 13th Century during Venetian rule on Crete. The Venetians abandoned the town in 1651 and destroyed parts of the fortress to prevent its use by the Turks.
Kefalotyri or kefalotiri (κεφαλοτύρι) is a hard, salty white cheese made from sheep milk or goat's milk (or both) in Greece and Cyprus.
Kephala is a hill landform in northern Crete, Greece.
A khanqah or khaniqah (also transliterated as khankahs, khaneqa, khanegah or khaneqah (خانقاه)), also known as a ribat (رباط) – among other terms – is a building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation.
Kissamos (Κίσσαμος) is a town and municipality, multiple (former) bishopric and Latin titular see in the west of the island of Crete, Greece.
Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.
Konstantinos Mitsotakis (Κωνσταντίνος Μητσοτάκης,; − 29 May 2017) was a Greek politician who was Prime Minister of Greece from 1990 to 1993.
Kotschy's gecko (Mediodactylus kotschyi) is a species of gecko native to southeastern Europe and the Middle East.
Koufonisia (Κουφονήσια) is a former community in the Cyclades, Greece.
Kournas is a mountainous village of Municipality of Apokoronas, Chania, on the Greek island of Crete.
The Kourtaliotiko Gorge (Κουρταλιώτικο Φαράγγι), also known as the Asomatos Gorge (Φαράγγι Ασώματου), is a gorge on the southern side of the western part of the island of Crete.
The kri-kri (Capra aegagrus cretica), sometimes called the Cretan goat, Agrimi, or Cretan Ibex, is a feral goat inhabiting the Eastern Mediterranean, previously considered a subspecies of wild goat.
Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii) is a species of vesper bat that lives over large areas of North Africa, southern Europe and Western Asia.
In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth (Greek: Λαβύρινθος labyrinthos) was an elaborate, confusing structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos.
Lake Voulismeni (Greek: Λίμνη Βουλισμένη, Límni Voulisméni) is a former sweetwater small lake, later connected to the sea, located at the centre of the town of Agios Nikolaos on the Greek island of Crete It has a circular shape of a diameter of 137 m and depth 48.8m.
The lanner falcon (Falco biarmicus) is a medium-sized bird of prey that breeds in Africa, southeast Europe and just into Asia.
The laouto (λαούτο) is a long-neck fretted instrument of the lute family, found in Greece and Cyprus, and similar in appearance to the oud.
Lasithi (Λασίθι) is the easternmost regional unit on the island of Crete, to the east of Heraklion.
The Lasithi Plateau (Οροπέδιο Λασιθίου, Oropedio Lasithiou), sometimes spelt Lassithi Plateau is a high endorheic plateau, located in the Lasithi regional unit in eastern Crete, Greece.
The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.
Lefka Ori (Λευκά Όρη, meaning "White Mountains") or Madares (Μαδάρες from the Cretan Greek μαδαρός meaning "without coverage, bald, bare of any vegetation for high mountain areas") is a mountain range located in Western Crete, in the Chania prefecture.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian (Leōn III ho Isauros; 675 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741.
Leon (Λέων, "lion"), also known colloquially as Nisi ("the island") and during Venetian rule as Rabbit Island, is an islet in Souda Bay on the northwest coast of Crete.
The lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros), is a type of European bat related to but smaller than its cousin, the greater horseshoe bat.
The lesser mouse-eared bat (Myotis blythii) is a species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae.
In Greek mythology, Leto (Λητώ Lētṓ; Λατώ, Lātṓ in Doric Greek) is a daughter of the Titans Coeus and Phoebe, the sister of Asteria.
Leyla Saz, also called Leyla Hanimefendi, was a Turkish composer, poet and writer.
The Libyan Sea (Greek Λιβυκό πέλαγος, Latin Libycum Mare, Arabic البحر الليبي) is the portion of the Mediterranean Sea north of the African coast of ancient Libya, i.e. Cyrenaica, and Marmarica (the coast of what is now eastern Libya and western Egypt, between Tobruk and Alexandria).
Linear A is one of two currently undeciphered writing systems used in ancient Greece (Cretan hieroglyphic is the other).
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
The following is a list of gods, goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Ancient Greek religion.
This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than and several other islands over, sorted in descending order by area.
The following is a list describing the islands located in the Mediterranean Sea.
Greece has a large number of islands, with estimates ranging from somewhere around 1,200 to 6,000, depending on the minimum size to take into account.
This is a list of notable novels set in Crete.
This is a list of the rulers and governors of the island of Crete throughout its history.
The little owl (Athene noctua) is a bird that inhabits much of the temperate and warmer parts of Europe, Asia east to Korea, and north Africa.
The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), or loggerhead, is an oceanic turtle distributed throughout the world.
The London Protocol of 3 February 1830 was an agreement between the three Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia), which amended the decisions of the 1829 protocol and established Greece as an independent, sovereign state.
The long-eared hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus) is a species of hedgehog native to Central Asian countries and some countries of the Middle East.
Louis Tikas (born 1886 in Loutra, Crete as Ηλίας Αναστασίου Σπαντιδάκης, Elias Anastasiou Spantidakis – April 20, 1914) was the main labor union organizer at the Ludlow camp during a 14-month coal strike in southern Colorado from 1913–1914.
Luwian sometimes known as Luvian or Luish is an ancient language, or group of languages, within the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Lyctus or Lyttos (Greek: Λύκτος or Λύττος), was one of the most considerable cities in ancient Crete, which appears in the Homeric catalogue.
The Lyttian War was an internal conflict fought from 220 BC between two coalitions of Cretan city-states, led by Cnossus and Polyrrhenia respectively.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Magasa (Μαγκασά) is a Neolithic settlement on the eastern part of the island of Crete in present-day Greece.
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
Mantinades (singular mantinada, Greek: μαντινάδα, μαντινάδες) is the art of musical declamation (recitative) in form of a narrative or dialogue, sung in the rhythm of accompanying music.
Marco Foscarini (February 4, 1696 in Venice – March 31, 1763 in Venice) was a Venetian poet, writer and statesman who served as the 117th Doge of Venice from May 31, 1762 until his death.
Marcus Antonius Creticus (flourished 1st century BC) was a Roman politician, member of the Antonius family.
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
The marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus) is the largest frog native to Europe and belongs to the family of true frogs.
The Massacre of Kondomari (Σφαγή στο Κοντομαρί) was an execution of male civilians from the village of Kondomari in Crete by an ad hoc firing squad consisting of German paratroopers on 2 June 1941 during World War II.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean house gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus) (not to be confused with the Asian species Hemidactylus frenatus known as common house gecko) is a small gecko common to the Mediterranean which has spread to many parts of the world.
The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is a monk seal belonging to the family Phocidae.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mehmet Atıf Ateşdağlı (1876; Crete - December 3, 1947; Istanbul) was an officer of the Ottoman Army and of the Turkish Army.
The Messara Plain or simply Messara (Μεσσαρά) is an illuvial plain in southern Crete, stretching about 50 km west-to-east and 7 km north-to-south, making it the largest plain in Crete.
Michael George Francis Ventris, OBE (12 July 1922 – 6 September 1956) was an English architect, classicist and philologist who deciphered Linear B, the ancient Mycenaean Greek script.
Michalis Kourmoulis (Μιχάλης Κουρμούλης, 1765 – 1824) was a Greek leader of the Greek War of Independence from Crete and one of the major military leaders on the island during the war.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption, Santorini eruption, or Late Bronze Age eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or 7 and a dense-rock equivalent (DRE) of, Dated to the mid-second millennium BCE, the eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history.
Minoan Lines is one of the largest passenger ferry companies in Europe, and one of the dominant passenger ferry companies in Greece, sailing between Piraeus and Crete and in the Adriatic Sea, between Patras and various Italian ports.
In Greek mythology, Minos (Μίνως, Minōs) was the first King of Crete, son of Zeus and Europa.
In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (Μῑνώταυρος, Minotaurus, Etruscan: Θevrumineś) is a mythical creature portrayed in Classical times with the head of a bull and the body of a man or, as described by Roman poet Ovid, a being "part man and part bull".
There were three Mithridatic Wars between Rome and the Kingdom of Pontus in the 1st century BC.
Mizithra or myzithra is a fresh cheese made with milk and whey from sheep or goats, or both.
Mount Ida, known variously as Idha, Ídhi, Idi, Ita and now Psiloritis (Ψηλορείτης, "high mountain"), at 2,456 m (8,057 feet), is the highest mountain on Crete.
Mount Kedros (Όρος Κέντρος), is a mountain on the island of Crete in Greece.
The Muladi (mulaˈði, pl. muladíes; mulɐˈði, pl. muladis; muɫəˈðitə or muladí, pl. muladites or muladís; مولد trans. muwallad, pl. مولدون muwalladūn or مولدين muwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed Arab, Berber, and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages.
The municipalities of Greece (δήμοι, dímoi) are the lowest level of government within the organizational structure of that country.
The Muses (/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology.
The music of Crete (Κρητική μουσική), also called kritika (κρητικά.), refers to traditional forms of Greek folk music prevalent on the island of Crete in Greece.
Mustafa Ertuğrul (full name after the Surname Law of 1934 in Turkey; Mustafa Ertuğrul Aker) was an officer of the Ottoman Army during World War I and of the Turkish Army in the early stages of the Turkish War of Independence (he was wounded near Aydın in 1919).
Mustafa Naili Pasha (Mustafa Naili Paşa or Giritli Mustafa Naili Paşa, literally "Mustafa Naili Pasha the Cretan"; 1798–1871) was an Ottoman statesman who held the office of grand vizier twice during the reign of Abdülmecid I, the first time between 14 May 1853 and 29 May 1854, and the second time between 6 August 1857 and 22 October 1857.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
The Myrtoan Sea (Mυρτώο Πέλαγος, Myrtoo Pelagos), also written as the Mirtoan Sea, is a subdivision of the Mediterranean Sea that lies between the Cyclades and Peloponnese.
Iōánna Moúschouri (Ιωάννα Μούσχουρη;; born October 13, 1934), known professionally as Nana Mouskouri (Νάνα Μούσχουρη), is a Greek singer.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The Natural History Museum of Crete (NHMC) (Μουσείο Φυσικής Ιστορίας Κρήτης, ΜΦΙΚ) in Heraklion, Crete is a natural history museum that operates under the auspices of the University of Crete.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nicholas Kalliakis (Νικόλαος Καλλιάκης, Nikolaos Kalliakis; Nicolaus Calliachius; Niccolò Calliachi; c. 1645 - May 8, 1707) was a Cretan scholar and philosopher who flourished in Italy in the 17th century.
Nicholas Andrea Dandolos (Νίκος Δάνδολος; 27 April 1883 – 25 December 1966), commonly known as Nick the Greek, was a professional gambler and high roller from Rethymnon, Crete.
Nikephoros II Phokas (Latinized: Nicephorus II Phocas; Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphóros II Phōkãs; c. 912 – 11 December 969) was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969.
Nikos Kazantzakis (Νίκος Καζαντζάκης; 18 February 188326 October 1957) was a Greek writer.
Nikos Xylouris (Νίκος Ξυλούρης; 7 July 1936 – 8 February 1980), nicknamed Psaronikos (Ψαρονίκος), was a Greek composer and singer.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.
Odysseus Elytis (Οδυσσέας Ελύτης,, pen name of Odysseus Alepoudellis, Οδυσσέας Αλεπουδέλλης; 2 November 1911 – 18 March 1996) was regarded as a major exponent of romantic modernism in Greece and the world.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Omilos Filathlon Irakleiou 1925 (Όμιλος Φιλάθλων Ηρακλείου 1925, Club of Fans of Heraklion 1925), is a Greek association football club based in Heraklion, on the island of Crete.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Omalos (Ομαλός) is a small village in western Crete, in the Mousouroi unit of the Chania region.
The genus Ophrys is a large group of orchids from the alliance Orchis in the subtribe Orchidinae.
Opuntia, commonly called prickly pear, is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) is a flowering plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae).
Origanum dictamnus (dittany of Crete, Cretan dittany or hop marjoram), known in Greek as δίκταμο (díktamo, cf. "dittany") or in Cretan dialect έρωντας (erontas, "love"), is a tender perennial plant that grows 20–30 cm high.
The Orlov revolt (Ορλωφικά, Ορλοφικά, Ορλώφεια) was a Greek uprising in the Peloponnese and later also in Crete that broke out in February 1770, following the arrival of Russian Admiral Alexey Orlov, commander of the Imperial Russian Navy during the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), to the Mani Peninsula.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
Ottoman–Venetian wars were a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice that started in 1396 and lasted until 1718.
The painted comber (Serranus scriba) is a subtropical marine fish, classified in family Serranidae, the groupers and sea basses.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
The Pankritio Stadium (Παγκρήτιο Στάδιο, Pagkritio Stadio literally:Pancretan Stadium) is a multi-purpose sports stadium located in Heraklion on the island of Crete.
Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
The Panhellenic Socialist Movement (Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα), known mostly by its acronym PASOK (ΠΑΣΟΚ), was a social-democratic political party in Greece.
Paul Mulla (1882-1959) (formerly Mollazade Mehmed Ali) was a Turkish Cretan Catholic prelate.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Paximadia (Παξιμάδια, "rusks") are two small uninhabited islands in the gulf of Mesara located approximately south of Agia Galini in Rethymno regional unit.
The pearly razorfish or cleaver wrasse, Xyrichtys novacula, is a species of wrasse.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
The Pentozali or Pentozalis (Πεντοζάλης) is the trademark folk dance of the island of Crete.
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae.
Petras (Πετράς) is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan town on northeastern Crete.
Phaistos (Φαιστός,; Ancient Greek: Φαιστός), also transliterated as Phaestos, Festos and Latin Phaestus, currently refers to a Bronze Age archaeological site at modern Phaistos, a municipality in south central Crete.
Philip V (Φίλιππος; 238–179 BC) was King (Basileus) of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Platanias Football Club is a Greek football club based in Platanias, Chania.
Platanus is a genus consisting of a small number of tree species native to the Northern Hemisphere.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Polyrrhenia (modern Πολυρρηνία, Polyrrinia) is a village and an archaeological site in the Chania regional unit of Crete.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.
Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales).
Potamon potamios is a semi-terrestrial crab occurring around the eastern Mediterranean, including many Mediterranean islands, extending as far south and west as the Sinai Peninsula.
During the first administrative division of independent Greece in 1833–1836 and again from 1845 until their abolition with the Kallikratis reform in 2010, the prefectures (translit) were the country's main administrative unit.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
Prince George of Greece and Denmark (Greek: Πρίγκιπας Γεώργιος; 24 June 1869 – 25 November 1957) was the second son of George I of Greece and Olga Konstantinovna of Russia, and is remembered chiefly for having once saved the life of the future Emperor of Russia, Nicholas II in 1891 during their visit to Japan together.
Antonis Xylouris (Αντώνης Ξυλούρης; born September 6, 1942), nicknamed Psarantonis (Ψαραντώνης), is a Greek composer, singer and performer of lyra, the bowed string instrument of Crete and most popular surviving form of the medieval Byzantine lyra.
Psychro Cave (Σπήλαιο Ψυχρού) is an ancient Minoan sacred cave in Lasithi plateau in the Lasithi district of eastern Crete.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Pylos ((Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. Greece Ministry of Interior It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2. Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site. Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
The red-billed chough, Cornish chough or simply chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax), is a bird in the crow family, one of only two species in the genus Pyrrhocorax.
The 74 regional units (περιφερειακές ενότητες, perifereiakés enóti̱tes, sing.) are administrative units of Greece.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Rethymno (Ρέθυμνο,, also Rethimno, Rethymnon, Réthymnon, and Rhíthymnos) is a city of approximately 40,000 people in Greece, the capital of Rethymno regional unit on the island of Crete, a former Latin Catholic bishopric as Retimo(–Ario) and former Latin titular see.
Rethymno is one of the four regional units of Crete, Greece.
In Greek mythology, Rhadamanthus or Rhadamanthys (Ῥαδάμανθυς) was a wise king of Crete.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
Richtis Gorge (Φαράγγι του Ρίχτη, Faraggi tou Richti) is a gorge in Crete, Greece.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Rosmarinus officinalis, commonly known as rosemary, is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region.
Salacıoğlu (also named in full as Salacıoğlu Mustafa Celveti or Giritli Salacıoğlu Mustafa Celveti, sometimes with the title sheikh added) was a Turkish Cretan sufi poet of the late 18th century and early 19th century, author of one collection of poetry and of two mesnevis.
Salih Zeki (1864, Istanbul – 1921, Istanbul) was Ottoman mathematician, astronomer and the founder of the mathematics, physics, and astronomy departments of Istanbul University.
Salvia officinalis (sage, also called garden sage, common sage, or culinary sage) is a perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers.
The Samariá Gorge (Φαράγγι Σαμαριάς or just Φάραγγας) is a National Park of Greece since 1962 on the island of Crete – a major tourist attraction of the island – and a World's Biosphere Reserve.
Santorini (Σαντορίνη), classically Thera (English pronunciation), and officially Thira (Greek: Θήρα), is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Greece's mainland.
Sarpedon (Σαρπηδών, Sarpēdṓn) was a common name in ancient Greece and in the Roman Empire.
Savi's pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii sometimes classified as Pipistrellus savii) is a species of vesper bat found across North West Africa, the Mediterranean region and the Middle East.
Söke is a town and a large district of Aydın Province in the Aegean region of western Turkey, 54 km (34 miles) south-west of the city of Aydın, near the Aegean coast.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scorpaenidae (also known as the scorpionfish) are a family of mostly marine fish that includes many of the world's most venomous species.
Map of the Sea of Crete The Sea of Crete (Kritiko Pelagos) is a sea, part of the Aegean Sea, located in its Southern extremity.
Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
Sefāret-nāme (سفارت نامه), literally the book of embassy, was a genre in the Turkish literature which was closely related to seyahatname (the book of travels), but was specific to the recounting of journeys and experiences of an Ottoman ambassador in a foreign, usually European, land and capital.
The serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus), also known as the common serotine bat, big brown bat, or silky bat, is a fairly large Eurasian bat with quite large ears.
Sfakiá (Σφακιά) is a mountainous area in the southwestern part of the island of Crete, in the Chania regional unit.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Sideritis (Gr: σιδηρίτις), also known as ironwort, mountain tea and shepherd's tea, is a genus of flowering plants well known for their use as herbal medicine, commonly as an herbal tea.
Sideritis syriaca, commonly known as ironwort, is a plant similar to chamomile, used in the Balkans (where it is known as "mountain tea") to make a sweet beverage.
The Siege of Candia (modern Heraklion, Crete) was a military conflict in which Ottoman forces besieged the Venetian-ruled city.
The Siege of Chandax was the centerpiece of the Byzantine Empire's campaign to recover the island of Crete, which since the 820s had been ruled by Muslim Arabs.
Simone Stratigo (Συμεών Φίλιππος Στρατηγός, Symeon Filippos Stratigos; Simone Filippo Stratico; 1733–1824) was an Italian Greek mathematician and a nautical science expert who studied and lived in Padua and Pavia in 18th-century Italy.
In Greek mythology, the Sirens (Greek singular: Σειρήν Seirēn; Greek plural: Σειρῆνες Seirēnes) were dangerous creatures, who lured nearby sailors with their enchanting music and singing voices to shipwreck on the rocky coast of their island.
Sitia (Σητεία) is a port town and a municipality in Lasithi, Crete, Greece.
Sitia Airport is a small community airport in the region Mponta of Sitia Municipality, on the eastern part of Crete in Greece.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Souda (Σούδα) is an islet in Souda Bay on the northwest coast of Crete.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
The island of Spinalonga (Σπιναλόγκα), officially known as Kalydon (Καλυδών), is located in the Gulf of Elounda in north-eastern Crete, in Lasithi, next to the town of Plaka.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
Stavros Arnaoutakis (Greek: Σταύρος Αρναουτάκης; born 25 May 1956) is a Greek politician and former Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK); part of the Party of European Socialists.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The Super League Greece (Ελληνική Σούπερ Λιγκ) or Souroti Super League for sponsorship reasons, is the highest professional football league in Greece.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
The swallows and martins, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents except Antarctica.
Swallowtail butterflies are large, colorful butterflies in the family Papilionidae, and include over 550 species.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The genus Tamarix (tamarisk, salt cedar) is composed of about 50–60 species of flowering plants in the family Tamaricaceae, native to drier areas of Eurasia and Africa.
Tarentola mauritanica is a species of gecko (Gekkota) native to the western Mediterranean area of Northwestern Africa and Europe and widely introduced to America and Asia.
The tawny owl or brown owl (Strix aluco) is a stocky, medium-sized owl commonly found in woodlands across much of Eurasia.
The Seattle Times is a daily newspaper serving Seattle, Washington, United States.
Theodoros Vardinogiannis Stadium (Γήπεδο Θεόδωρος Βαρδινογιάννης) is a stadium in Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
Theoktistos (died November 20, 855) was a leading Byzantine official during the second quarter of the 9th century and the de facto head of the regency for the underage Michael III from 842 until his dismissal and murder in 855.
Theseus (Θησεύς) was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens.
Thyme is an aromatic perennial evergreen herb with culinary, medicinal, and ornamental uses.
Trapeza, Crete is a Neolithic and Bronze Age settlement on the island of Crete in Greece.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".
Turkish folk literature is an oral tradition deeply rooted, in its form, in Central Asian nomadic traditions.
The Turkish Historical Society also known as Turkish Historical Association or Turkish History Foundation (Türk Tarih Kurumu, TTK) is a research society studying the history of Turkey and the Turkish people, founded in 1931 by the initiative of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, with headquarters in Ankara, Turkey.
Tympaki (Τυμπάκι) is a town and a former municipality in the Heraklion regional unit, Crete, Greece.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The University of Crete (UoC; Greek: Πανεπιστήμιο Κρήτης) is a multi-disciplinary, research-oriented institution in the island of Crete, Greece, located in the cities of Rethymnon (official seat) and Heraklion, and one of the country's most academically acclaimed and reputable ones.
The palm beach of Vai (Βάι) is one of the largest attractions of the Mediterranean island of Crete.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Mehmet Vedat Tek (1873–1942) was a notable Turkish architect, who has been one of the leading figures of the First Turkish National Architectural Movement.
The Viannos massacres (Σφαγές της Βιάννου ή Ολοκαύτωμα της Βιάννου) were a mass extermination campaign launched by Nazi forces against the civilian residents of around 20 villages located in the areas of east Viannos and west Ierapetra provinces on the Greek island of Crete during World War II.
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes.
Vitsentzos or Vikentios Kornaros (Βιτσέντζος or Βικέντιος Κορνάρος) or Vincenzo Cornaro (March 29, 1553 – 1613/1614) was a Cretan poet, who wrote the romantic epic poem Erotokritos.
Weevers (or weeverfish) are 9 extant species of fishes of family Trachinidae, order Trachiniformes, part of the Percomorpha clade.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
The whiskered bat (Myotis mystacinus) and related species, are small European bats with long fur.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored.
Zakros (Ζάκρος) is a site on the eastern coast of the island of Crete, Greece, containing ruins from the Minoan civilization.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
The 365 Crete earthquake occurred at about sunrise on 21 July 365 in the Eastern Mediterranean, with an assumed epicentre near Crete.
Creta, Cretan, Cretans, Crete (Greece), Crete Periphery, Crete, Greece, Geography of Crete, Girit, Island of Crete, Greece, Kphthe, Kreta, Kretan, Krete, Kriti (periphery), Kríti, Krētē, Krḗtē, Κρήτη.