290 relations: Abortion, Actus reus, Adam and Eve, Adam Smith, Age of Enlightenment, Aggression, Alcohol, American English, Ancient Germanic law, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Archbold Criminal Pleading, Evidence and Practice, Arrest, Arrestable offence, Assault, Attempt, Babylon, Babylonian law, Bar-Ilan University, Breach of contract, Bureau of Diplomatic Security, Burglary, Cambridge University Press, Canon law, Capital punishment, Card, Cross and Jones: Criminal Law, Category of being, Cheating (law), Chronos, Civil law (common law), Civil procedure, Civilization, Clan, Code of Hammurabi, Code of Ur-Nammu, Coercion, Common law, Common law offence, Commonwealth of Nations, Community sentence, Confidence trick, Consensus decision-making, Consistency, Conspiracy (criminal), Conspiracy to defraud, Contemporary society, Conviction, Corporate crime, Creativity, ..., Crime against peace, Crime displacement, Crime of apartheid, Crime prevention, Crime science, Crime statistics, Criminal accusation, Criminal charge, Criminal code, Criminal justice, Criminal Justice Act 1991, Criminal Justice Act 2003, Criminal law, Criminal procedure, Criminalization, Criminology, Crisis, Crying, Culture, Curfew, Damages, Decriminalization, Deference, Definition, Deity, Desertion, Deterrence (legal), Deterrence (psychology), Deviance (sociology), Dharmaśāstra, Discipline and Punish, Drug-related crime, Due process, Duel, Economics, Edinburgh University Press, Embezzlement, Employment, Endemic warfare, English criminal law, English language, Ernest Klein, Europol, False pretenses, Family, Fault (legal), Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal crime in the United States, Felony, Feud, Financial market, Fine (penalty), Forced disappearance, Forgery, Freedom of assembly, French language, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gaius (jurist), Gambling, Genocide, Germanic peoples, Glanville Williams, Gloss (annotation), Godfrey Rolles Driver, Government, Guilt (law), H. L. A. Hart, Harvard University Press, Hegemony, Henry James Sumner Maine, Heptarchy, Hybrid offence, Imprisonment, Inchoate offense, Incitement, Indictable offence, Indictment, Individual and group rights, Insolvency, International court, International Criminal Court, Israel, John Austin (legal philosopher), Jurisdiction, Jurisprudence, Justice, Juvenile delinquency, Kairos, Karl Brugmann, Labeling theory, Larceny, Larceny Act 1861, Latin, Law, Law and order (politics), Law enforcement agency, Legal person, Legal positivism, Legal remedy, Legislature, Libertarianism, Liberty, Life imprisonment, Lipit-Ishtar, List of national founders, Logic, Malice (law), Malum in se, Malum prohibitum, Martial law, Mens rea, Mesopotamia, Michel Foucault, Middle Ages, Military, Misdemeanor, Moral relativism, Morality, Motor vehicle theft, Murder, Mutilation, Mutiny, Natural law, Natural person, Netherlands, Norman conquest of England, Offence against the person, Online Etymology Dictionary, Original sin, Overview of gun laws by nation, Oxford Companions, Oxford University Press, Pater familias, Payment, Personation, Piracy, Plaintiff, Police, Political climate, Political freedom, Politics, Population, Post-Soviet states, Power (social and political), Princeton University Press, Private law, Prohibition, Property crime, Psychology, Public morality, Public opinion, Public policy, Public-order crime, Ramat Gan, Rape, Rationality, Reason, Religion, Rent-seeking, Research on the effects of violence in mass media, Revenge, Richard Quinney, Rights, Robbery, Roman Britain, Roman Empire, Roman law, Ronald Dworkin, Sanctions (law), Scandinavia, Sentence (law), Sex and the law, Sexual slavery, Short chronology, Sin, Singapore, Slavery, Smuggling, Social control, Social engineering (political science), Social norm, Social order, Social responsibility, Social stigma, Social welfare function, Society, Sociology, Sovereignty, Stanford University Press, State (polity), State of emergency, Statistical correlations of criminal behaviour, Statistics, Statute, Stem cell, Strict liability, Structuralism, Sumer, Summary offence, Tariff, The Birth of Tragedy, The Hague, Theft, Theocracy, Thing (assembly), Thomas Aquinas, Tort, Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992, Traffic code, Treason, Treaty, Trespass, Trial, Twelve Tables, U.S. state, Uniform Crime Reports, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Security Council, United States, University of Arizona Press, University of California Press, University of Chicago, University of Toronto Press, Ur-Nammu, Urukagina, Utilitarianism, Uttering, Veto, Victimless crime, Victimology, Violent crime, Visiting Forces Act 1952, Wage theft, War crime, War of aggression, Weregild, Western world, William Blackstone, Writ, Wrongdoing. Expand index (240 more) » « Shrink index
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Actus reus, sometimes called the external element or the objective element of a crime, is the Latin term for the "guilty act" which, when proved beyond a reasonable doubt in combination with the mens rea, "guilty mind", produces criminal liability in the common law-based criminal law jurisdictions of England and Wales, Canada, Australia, India, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand, Scotland, Nigeria, Ghana, Ireland, Israel and the United States of America.
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Several Latin law codes of the Germanic peoples written in the Early Middle Ages (also known as leges barbarorum "laws of the barbarians") survive, dating to between the 5th and 9th centuries.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Archbold Criminal Pleading, Evidence and Practice (usually called simply Archbold) is the leading practitioners' text for criminal lawyers in England & Wales and several other common law jurisdictions around the world.
An arrest is the act of apprehending a person and taking them into custody, usually because they have been suspected of committing or planning a crime.
Arrestable offence is a legal term now obsolete in English law and the legal system of Northern Ireland, but still used in the legal system of the Republic of Ireland.
An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action.
An attempt to commit a crime occurs if a criminal has an intent to commit a crime and takes a substantial step toward completing the crime, but for reasons not intended by the criminal, the final resulting crime does not occur.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonian law is a subset of cuneiform law that has received particular study, owing to the singular extent of the associated archaeological material that has been found for it.
Bar-Ilan University (אוניברסיטת בר-אילן Universitat Bar-Ilan) is a public research university in the city of Ramat Gan in the Tel Aviv District, Israel.
Breach of contract is a legal cause of action and a type of civil wrong, in which a binding agreement or bargained-for exchange is not honored by one or more of the parties to the contract by non-performance or interference with the other party's performance.
The Bureau of Diplomatic Security, more commonly known as Diplomatic Security, or DS, is the security and law enforcement arm of the United States Department of State.
Burglary (also called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking) is an unlawful entry into a building or other location for the purposes of committing an offence.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Card, Cross and Jones: Criminal Law, formerly published as An Introduction to Criminal Law and as Cross and Jones' Introduction to Criminal Law, and referred to as Cross and Jones, is a book about the criminal law of England and Wales, originally written by Sir Rupert Cross and Philip Asterley Jones, and then edited by them and Richard Card.
In ontology, the different kinds or ways of being are called categories of being; or simply categories.
At law, cheating is a specific criminal offence relating to property.
Chronos (Χρόνος, "time",, also transliterated as Khronos or Latinised as Chronus) is the personification of Time in pre-Socratic philosophy and later literature.
Civil law is a branch of the law.
Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters).
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known law code surviving today.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
Common law offences are crimes under English criminal law and the related criminal law of other Commonwealth countries.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Community sentence or alternative sentencing or non-custodial sentence is a collective name in criminal justice for all the different ways in which courts can punish a defendant who has been convicted of committing an offence, other than through a custodial sentence (serving a jail or prison term) or capital punishment (death).
A confidence trick (synonyms include con, confidence game, confidence scheme, ripoff, scam and stratagem) is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust.
Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.
In classical deductive logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.
In criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime at some time in the future.
Conspiracy to defraud is an offence under the common law of England and Wales and Northern Ireland.
Contemporary society, according to social and political scientists, is characterised by at least three fundamental directions.
In law, a conviction is the verdict that usually results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of a crime.
In criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation (i.e., a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manage its activities), or by individuals acting on behalf of a corporation or other business entity (see vicarious liability and corporate liability).
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
A crime against peace, in international law, is "planning, preparation, initiation, or waging of wars of aggression, or a war in violation of international treaties, agreements or assurances, or participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of any of the foregoing".
Crime displacement is the relocation of crime (or criminals) as a result of police crime-prevention efforts.
The crime of Apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity "committed in the context of an institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime".
Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and criminals.
Crime science is the study of crime in order to find ways to prevent it.
There are several methods for measuring the prevalence of crime.
A criminal accusation is the process of declaring one's belief in another's liability for that other's criminal action(s).
A criminal charge is a formal accusation made by a governmental authority (usually the public prosecutor or the police) asserting that somebody has committed a crime.
A criminal code (or penal code) is a document which compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law.
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.
The Criminal Justice Act 1991 (c. 53) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c.44) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Criminal procedure is the adjudication process of the criminal law.
Criminalization or criminalisation, in criminology, is "the process by which behaviors and individuals are transformed into crime and criminals".
Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation" originally derived from the Ancient Greek verb "krino" "κρίνω", and Ancient Greek -λογία, -logy|-logia, from "logos" meaning: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.
A crisis (from the Greek κρίσις - krisis; plural: "crises"; adjectival form: "critical") is any event that is going (or is expected) to lead to an unstable and dangerous situation affecting an individual, group, community, or whole society.
Crying is the shedding of tears (or welling of tears in the eyes) in response to an emotional state, pain or a physical irritation of the eye.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
A curfew is an order specifying a time during which certain regulations apply.
In law, damages are an award, typically of money, to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury.
Decriminalization or decriminalisation is the lessening of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts, perhaps retroactively, though perhaps regulated permits or fines might still apply (for contrast, see: legalization).
Deference (also called submission or passivity) is the condition of submitting to the espoused, legitimate influence of one's superior or superiors.
A definition is a statement of the meaning of a term (a word, phrase, or other set of symbols).
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning.
Deterrence is the use of punishment as a threat which is considered as a means to prevent people from offending or to reduce the probability and/or level of offending.
Deterrence is a theory from behavioral psychology about preventing or controlling actions or behavior through fear of punishment or retribution.
In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule (e.g., crime), as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores).
Dharmaśāstra (धर्मशास्त्र) is a genre of Sanskrit texts, and refers to the treatises (shastras) of Hinduism on dharma.
Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Surveiller et punir : Naissance de la prison) is a 1975 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault.
In the United States, illegal drugs are related to crime in multiple ways.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Embezzlement is the act of withholding assets for the purpose of conversion (theft) of such assets, by one or more persons to whom the assets were entrusted, either to be held or to be used for specific purposes.
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.
Endemic warfare is a state of continual or frequent warfare, such as is found in some tribal societies (but is not limited to tribal societies).
English criminal law refers to the body of law in the jurisdiction of England and Wales which deals with crimes and their consequences, and which is complementary to the civil law of England and Wales.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ernest David Klein, (July 26, 1899, Satu Mare – February 4, 1983, Ottawa, Canada) was a Romanian-born Canadian linguist, author, and rabbi.
The European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation, better known under the name Europol, formerly the European Police Office and Europol Drugs Unit, is the law enforcement agency of the European Union (EU) formed in 1998 to handle criminal intelligence and combat serious international organised crime and terrorism through cooperation between competent authorities of EU member states.
In criminal law, property is obtained by false pretenses when the acquisition results from intentional misrepresenting of a past or existing fact.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
Fault, as a legal term, refers to legal blameworthiness and responsibility in each area of law.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
In the United States, a federal crime or federal offense is an act that is made illegal by U.S. federal legislation.
The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.
A feud, referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud, vendetta, faida, beef, clan war, gang war, or private war, is a long-running argument or fight, often between social groups of people, especially families or clans.
A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.
Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item.
Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Gaius (fl. AD 130–180) was a celebrated Roman jurist.
Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning money or material goods.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Glanville Llewelyn Williams QC, FBA (15 February 1911 – 10 April 1997) was a Welsh legal scholar who was the Rouse Ball Professor of English Law at the University of Cambridge from 1968 to 1978 and the Quain Professor of Jurisprudence at University College London from 1945 to 1955.
A gloss is a brief notation, especially a marginal one or an interlinear one, of the meaning of a word or wording in a text.
Sir Godfrey Rolles Driver, CBE, FBA (20 August 1892 – 22 April 1975), known as G. R. Driver, was an English Orientalist noted for his studies of Semitic languages and Assyriology.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
In criminal law, guilt is the state of being responsible for the commission of an offense.
Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart, FBA (18 July 1907 – 19 December 1992), usually cited as H. L. A. Hart, was a British legal philosopher, and a major figure in political and legal philosophy.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Sir Henry James Sumner Maine, (15 August 1822 – 3 February 1888), was a British comparative jurist and historian.
The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven petty kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in 5th century until their unification into the Kingdom of England in the early 10th century.
A hybrid offence, dual offence, Crown option offence, dual procedure offence, or wobbler is one of the special class offences in the common law jurisdictions where the case may be prosecuted either summarily or as indictment.
Imprisonment (from imprison Old French, French emprisonner, from en in + prison prison, from Latin prensio, arrest, from prehendere, prendere, to seize) is the restraint of a person's liberty, for any cause whatsoever, whether by authority of the government, or by a person acting without such authority.
An inchoate offense, preliminary crime, inchoate crime or incomplete crime is a crime of preparing for or seeking to commit another crime.
In criminal law, incitement is the encouragement of another person to commit a crime.
In many common law jurisdictions (e.g., England and Wales, Ireland, Canada, Hong Kong, India, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Singapore), an indictable offence is an offence which can only be tried on an indictment after a preliminary hearing to determine whether there is a prima facie case to answer or by a grand jury (in contrast to a summary offence).
An indictment is a formal accusation that a person has committed a crime.
Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.
Insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the money owed, by a person or company, on time; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent.
International courts are formed by treaties between nations or under the authority of an international organization such as the United Nations and include ad hoc tribunals and permanent institutions but exclude any courts arising purely under national authority.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
John Austin (3 March 1790 – 1 December 1859) was a noted English legal theorist who strongly influenced British and American law with his analytical approach to jurisprudence and his theory of legal positivism.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
Juvenile delinquency, also known as "juvenile offending", is participation in illegal behavior by minors (juveniles, i.e. individuals younger than the statutory age of majority).
Kairos (καιρός) is an Ancient Greek word meaning the right, critical, or opportune moment.
Karl Brugmann (16 March 1849 – 29 June 1919) was a German linguist.
Labeling theory is the theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them.
Larceny is a crime involving the unlawful taking of the personal property of another person or business.
The Larceny Act 1861 (24 & 25 Vict c 96) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (as it then was).
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
In politics, law and order (also known as tough on crime and the War on Crime) refers to demands for a strict criminal justice system, especially in relation to violent and property crime, through stricter criminal penalties.
A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.
A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.
Legal positivism is a school of thought of analytical jurisprudence, largely developed by eighteenth- and nineteenth-century legal thinkers such as Jeremy Bentham and John Austin.
A legal remedy, also judicial relief or a judicial remedy, is the means with which a court of law, usually in the exercise of civil law jurisdiction, enforces a right, imposes a penalty, or makes another court order to impose its will.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.
Lipit-Ishtar (Akkadian: Lipit-Ištar; fl. c. 1870 BC — c. 1860 BC by the short chronology of the ancient near east) was the 5th king of the First Dynasty of Isin, according to the "Sumerian King List" (SKL).
The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Malice is a legal term referring to a party's intention to do injury to another party.
Malum in se (plural mala in se) is a Latin phrase meaning wrong or evil in itself.
Malum prohibitum (plural mala prohibita, literal translation: "wrong prohibited") is a Latin phrase used in law to refer to conduct that constitutes an unlawful act only by virtue of statute, as opposed to conduct that is evil in and of itself, or malum in se. Conduct that is so clearly violative of society's standards for allowable conduct that it is illegal under English common law is usually regarded as malum in se.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Mens rea (Law Latin for "guilty mind") is the mental element of a person's intention to commit a crime; or knowledge that one's action or lack of action would cause a crime to be committed.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
A misdemeanor (American English, spelled misdemeanour in British English) is any "lesser" criminal act in some common law legal systems.
Moral relativism may be any of several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different people and cultures.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Motor vehicle theft or grand theft auto is the criminal act of stealing or attempting to steal a motor vehicle.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
Mutilation or maiming (from the Latin: mutilus) is cutting off or injury to a body part of a person so that the part of the body is permanently damaged, detached or disfigured.
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people (typically members of the military or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
In jurisprudence, a natural person is a person (in legal meaning, i.e., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being, as opposed to a legal person, which may be a private (i.e., business entity or non-governmental organization) or public (i.e., government) organization.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
In UK criminal law, the term "offence against the person" usually refers to a crime which is committed by direct physical harm or force being applied to another person.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
Original sin, also called "ancestral sin", is a Christian belief of the state of sin in which humanity exists since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
Gun laws and policies (collectively referred to as firearms regulation or gun control) regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification and use of small arms by civilians.
Oxford Companions is a book series published by Oxford University Press, providing general knowledge within a specific area.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The pater familias, also written as paterfamilias (plural patres familias), was the head of a Roman family.
A payment is the trade of value from one party (such as a person or company) to another for goods, or services, or to fulfill a legal obligation.
Personation (rather than ''im''personation) is a primarily-legal term, meaning 'to assume the identity of another person with intent to deceive'.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
A plaintiff (Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
The political climate is the aggregate mood and opinions of a political society at a particular time.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Private law is that part of a civil law legal system which is part of the jus commune that involves relationships between individuals, such as the law of contracts or torts (as it is called in the common law), and the law of obligations (as it is called in civil legal systems).
Prohibition is the illegality of the manufacturing, storage in barrels or bottles, transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcohol including alcoholic beverages, or a period of time during which such illegality was enforced.
Property crime is a category of crime that includes, among other crimes, burglary, larceny, theft, motor vehicle theft, arson, shoplifting, and vandalism.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Public morality refers to moral and ethical standards enforced in a society, by law or police work or social pressure, and applied to public life, to the content of the media, and to conduct in public places.
Public opinion consists of the desires, wants, and thinking of the majority of the people; it is the collective opinion of the people of a society or state on an issue or problem.
Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.
In criminology, public-order crime is defined by Siegel (2004) as "crime which involves acts that interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to function efficiently", i.e., it is behaviour that has been labelled criminal because it is contrary to shared norms, social values, and customs.
Ramat Gan (help; رَمَات چَان) is a city in the Tel Aviv District of Israel, located east of Tel Aviv.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
In public choice theory and in economics, rent-seeking involves seeking to increase one's share of existing wealth without creating new wealth.
The studys of violence in mass media analyzes the degree of correlation between themes of violence in media sources (particularly violence in video games, television and films) with real-world aggression and violence over time.
Revenge is a form of justice enacted in the absence or defiance of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence.
Richard Quinney (born 1934) is an American sociologist, writer, and photographer known for his philosophical and critical approach to crime and social justice.
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.
Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Ronald Myles Dworkin, FBA (December 11, 1931 – February 14, 2013) was an American philosopher, jurist, and scholar of United States constitutional law.
Sanctions, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
A sentence is a decree of punishment of the court in criminal procedure.
Sex and the law deals with the regulation by law of human sexual activity.
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
The short chronology is one of the chronologies of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, which fixes the reign of Hammurabi to 1728–1686 BC and the sack of Babylon to 1531 BC.
In a religious context, sin is the act of transgression against divine law.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.
Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.
Social engineering is a discipline in social science that refers to efforts to influence particular attitudes and social behaviors on a large scale, whether by governments, media or private groups in order to produce desired characteristics in a target population.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
The term social order can be used in two senses.
Social responsibility is an ethical framework and suggests that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
In welfare economics, a social welfare function is a function that ranks social states (alternative complete descriptions of the society) as less desirable, more desirable, or indifferent for every possible pair of social states.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
The statistical correlations of criminal behavior explore the associations of specific non-criminal factors with specific crimes.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
In criminal and civil law, strict liability is a standard of liability under which a person is legally responsible for the consequences flowing from an activity even in the absence of fault or criminal intent on the part of the defendant.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
A summary offence is a crime in some common law jurisdictions that can be proceeded against summarily, without the right to a jury trial and/or indictment (required for an indictable offence).
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik) is an 1872 work of dramatic theory by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
A thing, also known as Alþing, was the governing assembly of a northern Germanic society, made up of the free people of the community presided over by lawspeakers.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
The Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 is a UK Act of Parliament which regulates British labour law.
Traffic code (also motor vehicle code) refers to the collection of local statutes, regulations, ordinances and rules that have been officially adopted in the United States to govern the orderly operation and interaction of motor vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians and others upon the public (and sometimes private) ways.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.
Trespass is an area of criminal law or tort law broadly divided into three groups: trespass to the person, trespass to chattels and trespass to land.
In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.
According to Greek tradition, the Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) compiles official data on crime in the United States, published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Arizona Press, a publishing house founded in 1959 as a department of the University of Arizona, is a nonprofit publisher of scholarly and regional books.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
Ur-Nammu (or Ur-Namma, Ur-Engur, Ur-Gur, Sumerian:, ca. 2047-2030 BC short chronology) founded the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, following several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule.
Uru-ka-gina, Uru-inim-gina, or Iri-ka-gina (𒌷𒅗𒄀𒈾; 24th century BC, short chronology) was a ruler (''ensi'') of the city-state Lagash in Mesopotamia.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Uttering is a crime involving a person with the intent to defraud that knowingly sells, publishes or passes a forged or counterfeited document.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
A victimless crime is an illegal act that typically either directly involves only the perpetrator or occurs between consenting adults; because it is consensual in nature, there is arguably no true victim.
Victimology is the study of victimization, including the psychological effects on victims, relationships between victims and offenders, the interactions between victims and the criminal justice system—that is, the police and courts, and corrections officials—and the connections between victims and other social groups and institutions, such as the media, businesses, and social movements.
A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which an offender or perpetrator uses or threatens to use force upon a victim.
The Visiting Forces Act 1952 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Wage theft is the denial of wages or employee benefits rightfully owed an employee.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation.
Weregild (also spelled wergild, wergeld (in archaic/historical usage of English), weregeld, etc.), also known as man price, was a value placed on every being and piece of property, for example in the Frankish Salic Code.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.
In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin breve) is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.
A wrong (from Old English wrang – crooked) is an act that is illegal or immoral.
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