365 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Adam Mickiewicz, Ai-Petri, Alans, Alexander Pushkin, Alexios I of Trebizond, Alma River (Crimea), Alupka, Alushta, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Empire, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Aqtas Lake, Arabat Spit, Armenians, Armyansk, Artek (camp), Artemis, Ashkenazi Jews, Atheism, Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ayu-Dag, Bakhchisaray Palace, Bakhchysarai, Balkans, Baltic Sea, Bay of Arabat, BBC News, Belarusians, Bild, Bilohirsk, Bilohirsk Raion, Black Sea, Bosporan Kingdom, Brian Glyn Williams, Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances, Bulgar language, Bulgars, Business Insider, Cambridge University Press, Cape Aya, Cape Fonar, Caspian Sea, Catherine the Great, Caucasus, Central Bank of Russia, Cherson (theme), Chersonesus, Chornaya River (Crimea), Chornomorske, Chornomorske Raion, ..., Cimmerians, Classical antiquity, Colonies in antiquity, Constitution of Russia, Constitution of the Republic of Crimea, Continental climate, Crimea, Crimea Germans, Crimea in the Roman era, Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, Crimean Bridge (Crimea), Crimean Campaign, Crimean Federal District Census (2014), Crimean Gothic, Crimean Karaites, Crimean Khanate, Crimean legends, Crimean Mountains, Crimean Oblast, Crimean Offensive, Crimean parliamentary election, 2010, Crimean parliamentary election, 2014, Crimean Premier League, Crimean sovereignty referendum, 1991, Crimean status referendum, 2014, Crimean Submediterranean forest complex, Crimean Tatar language, Crimean Tatars, Crimean Trolleybus, Crimean War, Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands, Cruise ship, Cuesta, Dacha, Darius I, Demographics of Crimea, Deportation of the Crimean Tatars, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dmitry Medvedev, Dmitry Ovsyannikov, Dnieper, Donuzlav, Doping in Russia, Dulber, Dzerkalo Tyzhnia, Dzhankoy, Early modern period, Early Slavs, East Germany, Eastern Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Eastern Orthodox Church, Economic sanctions, Edward Gibbon, Elections in Russia, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Ethnologue, Eugenios Voulgaris, Eurasian nomads, European route E105, European route E97, European Scythian campaign of Darius I, European Union, Eurovision Song Contest 2016, Federal cities of Russia, Federal city, Federal districts of Russia, Federal subjects of Russia, Feodosia, First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union, Football Federation of Ukraine, Gazaria (Genoese colonies), Gedik Ahmed Pasha, Georgiy Starostin, Golden Horde, Goods, Goths, Government budget balance, Government of Ukraine, Governor of Sevastopol (Russia), Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Greek language, Greeks, Greeks in pre-Roman Crimea, Gurzuf, Head of the Republic of Crimea, Heidelberg Journal of International Law, Henichesk Raion, Heracles Peninsula, Herodotus, History of Crimea, History of Germans in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union, History of the Jews in Russia, Holitsynske gas field, Huns, Inkerman, Interfax-Ukraine, International reactions to the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis, International Transport Workers' Federation, Iphigenia, Ironstone, Islam, Istanbul, Isthmus of Perekop, Italians of Crimea, Ivan Aivazovsky, Jamala, Jamestown Foundation, Jews, John Krueger, Joseph Stalin, KaZantip, Kazantyp, Kerch, Kerch Peninsula, Kerch Strait, Kerch Strait ferry line, Kharkiv Pact, Khazars, Kherson, Kherson Oblast, Kiev, Kimmerikon, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kipchaks, Koine Greek, Koktebel, Koreiz, Krasnodar Krai, Krasnoperekopsk, Kremlin.ru, Krymchaks, Kuban, Kul-Oba, Kurgan, Lagoon, Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol, Limestone, List of cities in Crimea, Livadia Palace, Maeotian Swamp, Massandra, Mastercard, Maximilian Voloshin, Mediterranean Basin, Mediterranean climate, Melitopol, Middle Ages, Mir (payment system), Monastery, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasions and conquests, Mongolian language, Mount Mithridat, Muslim, National Geographic Society, Natural gas, Natural gas field, Naval museum complex Balaklava, Nazi Germany, Nazism, Nestor Makhno, Nikitsky Botanical Garden, North Crimean Canal, Novorossiya Governorate, Novyi Svit, Oblast, Odeske gas field, Offshore (hydrocarbons), Oil field, Onshore (hydrocarbons), Ottoman Empire, Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet, Party of Regions, Paul I of Russia, Peninsula, Perateia, Perekop, Political status of Crimea, Politics of Crimea, Polybius, Pontic Greeks, Pontic–Caspian steppe, Porphyry (geology), Prairie, Principality of Theodoro, Ptolemy, Pyotr Wrangel, Red Army, Red Terror, Reichskommissariat Ukraine, Republic of Crimea, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Venice, Roman Empire, Romania, Romanian Land Forces, Rozdolne Raion, Rus' Khaganate, Russia, Russian Armed Forces, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian Empire Census, Russian language, Russian language in Ukraine, Russian legislative election, 2016, Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present), Russian presidential election, 2018, Russian Revolution, Russian ruble, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty, Russians, Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), Salhir River, Salt pan (geology), Saqaliba, Sarmatians, Sarych, SC Tavriya Simferopol, Scythia, Scythians, Sea of Azov, Second French Empire, Sergey Aksyonov, Sergey Menyaylo, Sevastopol, Sevastopol gubernatorial election, 2017, Shchaslyvtseve, Shmidtivske gas field, Shtormove gas field, Siege of Sevastopol (1941–42), Simferopol, Simferopol International Airport, Sonnet, Southern Federal District, Soviet Census (1959), Soviet Census (1970), Soviet Census (1989), Soviet Union, St. Vladimir's Cathedral, Sevastopol, Stary Krym, State Council of Crimea, Strabo, Strilkove, Subbotinske field, Subtropics, Sudak, Supreme Soviet, Swallow's Nest, Syvash, Taman Peninsula, Tarkhankut Peninsula, TASS, Tatar language, Tatar Legions, Tauri, Taurida Governorate, Taurida Oblast, Tavrida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Temperate climate, The Crimean Sonnets, The Fountain of Bakhchisaray, The Guardian, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The Holocaust in Russia, Tourist attraction, Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, Tufts University, Tumulus, Turkey, Turkic languages, Uchan-su (river), Uchan-su (waterfall), UEFA, Ukraine, Ukrainian Census (2001), Ukrainian football league system, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian Navy, Ukrainians, Ukrayinska Pravda, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262, United Russia, United States dollar, University of California Press, Urban-type settlement, Urums, Uyezd, Uzbekistan, Valley of Ghosts (Crimea), Vasily Radlov, Vera Rebrik, Verkhovna Rada, Verkhovna Rada of Crimea, Viktor Yanukovych, Visa Inc., Vladimir Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization, Vladimir Putin, Vorontsov Palace (Alupka), White movement, Winemaking in Crimea, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, World War II, Yalta, Yevpatoria, Young Pioneer camp, 1944 (song), 1954 transfer of Crimea, 2014 Ukrainian revolution. 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The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.
Ai-Petri (Ай-Петрі, Ай-Петри, Ay Petri); (translated from Greek. Saint Peter) is a peak in the Crimean Mountains.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Megas Comnenus (translit; c. 1182 – 1 February 1222) was, with his brother David, the founder of the Empire of Trebizond, which he ruled from 1204 until his death in 1222.
The Alma is a small river in Crimea that flows into the Black Sea.
Alupka (Alupka; Ἀλώπηξ) is a resort city located in the Crimean peninsula, currently subject to a territorial dispute between the Russian Federation and Ukraine (see 2014 Crimean crisis).
Alushta (Ukrainian and Russian: Алу́шта; Aluşta) is a city of regional significance on the southern coast of the Crimean peninsula which, de facto, is within the Republic of Crimea, a federal subject of the Russian Federation but, de jure, is within the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine.
The territory of Crimea, previously controlled by the Crimean Khanate, was annexed by the Russian Empire on.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
Aqtas Lake (Aqtaş gölü) is a drying salt lake at the Kerch peninsula in the Lenine Raion, Crimea.
The Arabat Spit (Арабатська коса, Араба́тская коса́) or Arabat Arrow is a spit (narrow strip of land) which separates a large, shallow and very salty system of lagoons named Syvash from the Sea of Azov.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armyansk (Армянськ, Армянск, Արմյանսկ, Ermeni Bazar) is a town of regional significance in northern Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine, but de facto under control and administration of Russia.
Artek (Cyrillic: Арте́к) is an international children center (a former Young Pioneer camp) on the Black Sea in the town of Hurzuf located on the Crimean Peninsula, near Ayu-Dag.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Автономна Республіка Крим, Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Автономная Республика Крым, Avtonomnaya Respublika Krym; Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti, Къырым Мухтар Джумхуриети, Ҡырым Мухтар Җумхуриети) was an autonomous republic of Ukraine, encompassing most of Crimea, that was annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014.
Ayu-Dag (Ayuv Dağ, Аю-Даг, Аю-Даг, Αγια (Aya - "Holy")) is a summit of Crimea.
The Khan's Palace or Hansaray is located in the town of Bakhchysarai, Crimea.
Bakhchysarai (Бахчисарáй; Bağçasaray; Бахчисарáй; Bahçesaray; باغچه سرای Bāghche Sarāy) is a city in central Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Bay of Arabat, (Арабатська затока, Арабатский залив, Arabat körfezi), is in the southwestern Azov Sea in eastern Europe.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belarusians (беларусы, biełarusy, or Byelorussians (from the Byelorussian SSR), are an East Slavic ethnic group who are native to modern-day Belarus and the immediate region. There are over 9.5 million people who proclaim Belarusian ethnicity worldwide, with the overwhelming majority residing either in Belarus or the adjacent countries where they are an autochthonous minority.
The Bild newspaper (or Bild-Zeitung, literally Picture) is a German tabloid published by Axel Springer AG.
Bilohirsk or Belogorsk (Білогірськ; Белого́рск; Qarasuvbazar; Karasubazar) is a town and the administrative center in Bilohirsk Raion, one of the raions (districts) of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and annexed by Russia.
Bilohirsk Raion is one of the 25 regions of Crimea, currently subject to a territorial dispute between the Russian Federation and Ukraine.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou), was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch (it was not named after the more famous Bosphorus beside Istanbul at the other end of the Black Sea).
Brian Glyn Williams is a professor of Islamic History at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.
The Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances refers to three identical political agreements signed at the OSCE conference in Budapest, Hungary on 5 December 1994, providing security assurances by its signatories relating to the accession of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
Bulgar (also spelled Bolğar, Bulghar) is an extinct language which was spoken by the Bulgars.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cape Aya ("the holy one" in Greek, Άγια) is a rocky promontory jutting out into the Black Sea southeast of Balaklava.
Cape Fonar (Мыс Фонарь, Мис Фонар, Fener, Фенер, Παρθένιον) is the easternmost point of the Crimean peninsula.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Центральный банк Российской Федерации Tsentral'nyy bank Rossiyskoy Federatsii) also known as the Bank of Russia (Банк России Bank Rossii) is the central bank of the Russian Federation, founded in 1860 as The State Bank of the Russian Empire, headquartered on Neglinnaya Street in Moscow.
The Theme of Cherson (θέμα Χερσῶνος, thema Chersōnos), originally and formally called the Klimata (Greek: τὰ Κλίματα) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) located in the southern Crimea, headquartered at Cherson.
Chersonesus (Khersónēsos; Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; also rendered as Chersonese, Chersonesos), in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson (Χερσών; Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun) is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula.
The Chorna, Chornaya or Chorhun River (Chorna), which translates from the Ukrainian and Russian as "Black River", is a small river in Crimea.
Chernomorskoye or Chornomorske (Чорномо́рське; Черномо́рское; Aqmeçit, Καλός Λιμήν) is an urban-type settlement and the administrative center of Chornomorske Raion in Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine (the Autonomous Republic of Crimea) and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.
Chornomorske Raion (Чорноморський район, Черноморский район, Aqmeçit rayonı) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea, currently subject to a territorial dispute between the Russian Federation and Ukraine.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.
The Constitution of the Republic of Crimea is the basic law of the Republic of Crimea as a federal subject of Russia formed in the aftermath of the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimea Germans (Krimdeutsche) were ethnic German settlers who were invited to settle in the Crimea as part of the East Colonization.
The Crimean Peninsula (at the time known as Taurica) was under partial control of the Roman Empire during the period of 47 BCE to c. 340 CE.
Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Modern Qırım Muhtar Sotsialist Sovet Cumhuriyeti; Official Crimean Tatar name in the; Крымская Автономная Социалистическая Советская Республика Krymskaya Avtonomnaya Socialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika) was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Russian SFSR located on the Crimean Peninsula.
The Crimean Bridge (p), or colloquially the Kerch Strait Bridge, is a pair of parallel bridges constructed by the Russian Federation, to span the Strait of Kerch between the Taman Peninsula of Krasnodar Krai (Russia) and the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea (Russian-annexed, internationally recognised as part of Ukraine).
The Crimea Campaign was an eight-month-long campaign by Axis forces to conquer the Crimea peninsula, and was the scene of some of the bloodiest battles on the Eastern Front during World War II.
The first Crimean Federal District census (Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе), transliterated as Perepis naseleniya v Krymskom federalnom okruge, was carried out in Crimea by Russia in 2014, following its annexation by Russia.
Crimean Gothic was a Gothic dialect spoken by the Crimean Goths in some isolated locations in Crimea until the late 18th century.
The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар sg. къарай – qaray; Trakai Karaim: sg. karaj, pl. karajlar; קראי מזרח אירופה; Karaylar), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the former Russian Empire.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
The interest in Crimean legends started at the end of the 19th century.
The Crimean Mountains (translit. Krymski hory; Крымские горы, translit. Krymskie gory; Qırım dağları) are a range of mountains running parallel to the south-eastern coast of Crimea, between about 8–13 kilometers (5–8 miles) from the sea.
The Crimean Oblast (Кримська область, Kryms'ka oblast'; Крымская область, Krymskaya oblast'; Qırım vilâyeti) was an oblast (province) of the former Russian SFSR (1945–1954) and Ukrainian SSR (1954–1991) within the Soviet Union.
The Crimean Offensive (8 April – 12 May 1944), known in German sources as the Battle of the Crimea, was a series of offensives by the Red Army directed at the German-held Crimea.
The 2010 Crimean parliamentary election were held on 31 October 2010 as a part of the general 2010 Ukrainian local elections.
Parliamentary elections took place in the Republic of Crimea and Federal City of Sevastopol on 14 September 2014.
The Crimean Premier League (Премьер-лига КФС) is a professional association football league in Crimea devised by Russia after UEFA refused to allow Crimean clubs to switch to the Russian leagues in the wake of the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea.
A referendum on sovereignty was held in the Crimean Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR on 20 January 1991 UNPO two months before the 1991 All-Union referendum.
A controversial referendum on the status of Crimea was held on March 16, 2014, by the legislature of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and by the local government of Sevastopol (both subdivisions of Ukraine).
The Crimean Submediterranean forest complex ecoregion, in the temperate mixed forest biome of Ukraine and Russia.
Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
Crimean Trolleybus Line (Krymskiy trolleybus; Kryms’kyi troleibus; Qırım trolleybusı) in Crimea is the longest trolleybus line in the world.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Crimean-Nogai raids were slave raids carried out by the Khanate of Crimea and by the Nogai Horde into the region of Rus' then controlled by the Grand Duchy of Moscow (until 1547), by the Tsardom of Russia (1547-1721), by the Russian Empire (1721 onwards) and by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569).
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, and sometimes the different destinations along the way (i.e., ports of call), are part of the experience.
A cuesta is a hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side, and a steep slope on the other.
A dacha (a) is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian and other post-Soviet cities.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
, the total population of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol was at 2,248,400 people (Republic of Crimea: 1,889,485, Sevastopol: 395,000).
The deportation of the Crimean Tatars (Crimean Tatar Qırımtatar sürgünligi; Ukrainian Депортація кримських татар; Russian Депортация крымских татар) was the ethnic cleansing of at least 191,044 Tatars from Crimea in May 1944.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
Dmitry Vladimirovich Ovsyannikov (Russian: Дмитрий Владимирович Овсянников; born in 21 February 1977), is a Russian politician, and the Governor of Sevastopol as of 18 September 2017.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
Lake Donuzlav (Doñuzlav/Донъузлав, Донузлав) also referred to as Donuzlav Bay is the deepest lakeOliferov, A.M..
Doping in Russian sports has a systemic nature.
Dulber is a Moorish Revival palace designed by Nikolay Krasnov in Koreiz, near Yalta in Crimea.
Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (Дзеркало тижня; Зеркало недели, Zerkalo Nedeli), usually referred to in English as the Mirror Weekly, is one of Ukraine’s most influential analytical newspapers published weekly in Kiev, the nation's capital.
Dzhankoy, Jankoy (Ukrainian and Джанкóй, Canköy) is a town of regional significance in the north of the Crimea.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
On the federal level, Russia elects a president as head of state and a legislature, one of the two chambers of the Federal Assembly.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Eugenios Voulgaris or Boulgaris (Εὐγένιος Βούλγαρης, Евгений Булгарский, Евгений Булгар, 1716–1806) was a Greek scholar, prominent Greek Orthodox educator, and bishop of Kherson (in Ukraine).
The Eurasian nomads were a large group of nomadic peoples from the Eurasian Steppe, who often appear in history as invaders of Europe, the Middle East and China.
is part of the International E-road network, which is a series of main roads in Europe.
European route E 97 is an A-class European Route in Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, and Turkey.
The European Scythian campaign of Darius I was a military expedition into parts of European Scythia by Darius I, the king of the Achaemenid Empire, in 513 BC.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2016 was the 61st edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
A city of federal importance (r) or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.
The term federal city (Bundesstadt in German) is a title for certain cities in Germany, Switzerland, the Russian Federation, India, and the United States.
The federal districts (федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
The First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union took place in December 1926.
The Football Federation of Ukraine (FFU) (Федерація Футболу України) is the governing body of football in Ukraine.
Gazara (Gazaria is a Russified version of the name; also Cassaria, Cacsarea, Gazaria, Gasaria) is the name given to the Genoese colonies in Crimea and around the Black Sea from the mid-13th century to the late 15th century.
Gedik Ahmed Pasha (died 18 November 1482) was an Ottoman statesman and admiral who served as Grand Vizier and Kapudan Pasha (Grand Admiral of the Ottoman Navy) during the reigns of sultans Mehmed II and Bayezid II.
Georgiy Sergeevich "George" Starostin (Гео́ргий Серге́евич Ста́ростин; born 4 July 1976) is a Russian linguist who presides the Center of Comparative Studies at the Russian State University for the Humanities.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (Кабінет Міністрів України, Kabinet ministriv Ukrayiny; shortened to CabMin), commonly referred to as the Government of Ukraine (Уряд України, Uryad Ukrayiny), is the highest body of state executive power in Ukraine.
The Governor of the City of Sevastopol (In Russian: Губернатор города Севастополя; In Ukrainian: Губернатор міста Севастополя) is head of the executive branch of the political system in the city of Sevastopol.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Greek city-states began establishing colonies along the Black Sea coast of Crimea in the 7th or 6th century BC.
Gurzuf or Hurzuf is a resort-town (urban-type settlement) in Yalta Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.
Head of the Republic of Crimea is the highest official and the head of the executive power of the Republic of Crimea.
The Heidelberg Journal of International Law (Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht) is an academic journal in public international law, comparative law and European law.
Henichesk Raion (Генічеський район) is one of the 18 administrative raions (districts) of Kherson Oblast in southern Ukraine.
Heracles Peninsula (Гераклійський півострів, Гераклейский полуостров) is a triangular headland in Black Sea at the southwestern portion of Crimea.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The recorded history of the Crimean Peninsula, historically known as Tauris (Ταυρική), Taurica, and the Tauric Chersonese (Χερσόνησος Ταυρική, "Tauric Peninsula"), begins around the 5th century BC when several Greek colonies were established along its coast.
The German minority in Russia, Ukraine and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves.
Jews in the Russian Empire have historically constituted a large religious diaspora; the vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.
The Holitsynske gas field natural gas field located on the continental shelf of the Black Sea.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Inkerman (Інкерман, Инкерман, İnkerman) is a city in the Crimean peninsula, ‘de facto’ within the federal city of Sevastopol within the Russian Federation but, ‘de jure’, within Ukraine.
The Interfax-Ukraine News Agency (Інтерфакс-Україна) is a Kiev-based Ukrainian news agency founded in 1992.
International reactions to the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation have almost always been condemnatory of Russia's decision to intervene, supportive of Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity, while also supportive of finding a quick end to the crisis.
International sanctions were imposed during the Ukrainian crisis by a large number of countries against Russia and Crimea following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, which began in late February 2014.
The International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF) is a global union federation of transport workers' trade unions, founded in 1896.
In Greek mythology, Iphigenia (Ἰφιγένεια, Iphigeneia) was a daughter of King Agamemnon and Queen Clytemnestra, and thus a princess of Mycenae.
Ironstone is a sedimentary rock, either deposited directly as a ferruginous sediment or created by chemical replacement, that contains a substantial proportion of an iron compound from which iron either can be or once was smelted commercially.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
The Isthmus of Perekop (Перекопський перешийок; translit. Perekops'kyy pereshyyok; Перекопский перешеек; translit. Perekopskiy peresheek Or boynu, Orkapı;; translit. Taphros) is the narrow, wide strip of land that connects the Crimean Peninsula to the mainland of Ukraine.
The Italians of Crimea are a small ethnic minority residing in Crimea.
Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Ива́н Константи́нович Айвазо́вский; 29 July 18172 May 1900) was an Armenian-Russian Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art.
Susana Alimivna Jamaladinova (Susana Alim qızı Camaladinova; Susana Alimivna Dzhamaladinova; sʊˈsanə ɐˈlʲiməvnə dʐəməlɐˈdʲinəvə, born 27 August 1983), better known by her stage name Jamala (Camala, Dzhamala; dʐɐˈmalə), is a Ukrainian singer, actress and songwriter.
The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based institute for research and analysis, founded in 1984 as a platform to support Soviet defectors.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Richard Krueger (March 14,1927 – February 7, 2018) was a professor at Indiana University, specialized in studies of Chuvash and Yakut, and Mongolian languages.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
KaZantip, also known simply as "Z", is an electronic dance music festival that took place every year from 1992 to 2013 on the Crimean Peninsula; from 2002 to 2013, it was held in the village of Popovka, near Myrnyi.
Kazantyp (translit-Kazantyp or Каза́н-Тип, Kazan-Typ; kəzɐnʲˈtʲip or Каза́н-Тип Kazan-Tip; Qazan Tip) is a headland (or a cape) located in the northeastern part of the Crimean peninsula on the shore of the Azov Sea.
Kerch (Керчь, Керч, Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ, Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikapaion, Keriç, Kerç) is a city of regional significance on the Kerch Peninsula in the east of the Crimea.
The Kerch Peninsula is a major and prominent geographic peninsula located at the eastern end of the Crimean Peninsula.
The Kerch Strait (Керченский пролив, Керченська протока, Keriç boğazı) is a strait connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, separating the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea in the west from the Taman Peninsula of Russia's Krasnodar Krai in the east.
The Kerch Strait ferry line (Керченская паромная переправа (also, переправа «Крым — Кавказ»), Керченська поромна переправа) is the ferry connection across the Strait of Kerch in Russia that connects the Crimean Peninsula and Krasnodar Krai.
The Agreement between Ukraine and Russia on the Black Sea Fleet in Ukraine, widely referred to as the Kharkiv Pact (Харківський пакт) or Kharkiv Accords (Харьковские соглашения), was a treaty between Ukraine and Russia whereby the Russian lease on naval facilities in Crimea was extended beyond 2017 until 2042, with an additional five-year renewal option in exchange for a multiyear discounted contract to provide Ukraine with Russian natural gas.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
Kherson is a city in southern Ukraine.
Kherson Oblast (Херсонська область, translit. Khersons’ka oblast’; also referred to as Khersonshchyna – Херсонщина) is an oblast (province) in southern Ukraine, just north of Crimea.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kimmerikón (Greek Κιμμερικόν, Cimmericum) was an ancient Greek town in Crimea, on the southern shore of the Kerch Peninsula, at the western slope of Mount Opuk, roughly 50 kilometres south-west of modern Kerch.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
Koktebel (Коктебéль, Коктебéль, Köktöbel), formerly known as Planerskoye, is an urban-type settlement and one of the most popular resort townlets in South-Eastern Crimea.
Koreiz is an urban-type settlement lying south-west of Yalta in the Yalta Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.
Krasnodar Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District.
Krasnoperekopsk (Краснопереко́пск, Краснопереко́пськ, Krasnoperekopsk) is a town of regional significance in the Republic of Crimea, within the Russian Federation, though the territory is recognised by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine within the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
Kremlin.ru is the official website of the President of Russia.
The Krymchaks (Krymchak: sg. кърымчах -, pl. кърымчахлар -) are Jewish ethno-religious communities of Crimea derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Orthodox Judaism.
Kuban (Кубань; Пшызэ; Кубань) is a geographic region of Southern Russia surrounding the Kuban River, on the Black Sea between the Don Steppe, the Volga Delta and the Caucasus, and separated from the Crimean Peninsula to the west by the Kerch Strait.
Kul-Oba (Kül Oba; meaning "hill of ash" in Crimean Tatar) is an ancient archaeological site, a Scythian burial tumulus (kurgan), located near Kerch in eastern Crimea, on the right side of the M25 road to Feodosiya.
In English, the archaeological term kurgan is a loanword from East Slavic languages (and, indirectly, from Turkic languages), equivalent to the archaic English term barrow, also known by the Latin loanword tumulus and terms such as burial mound.
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
The Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol (Законодательное собрание города Севастополя) is the unicameral legislature of Sevastopol since 2014, following the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a complete list of cities in Crimea by population at the 2014 Crimean Federal District Census.
Livadia Palace (Ливадийский дворец, Лівадійський палац) was a summer retreat of the last Russian tsar, Nicholas II, and his family in Livadiya, Crimea.
The Maeotian Swamp (ἡ Μαιῶτις λίμνη, ē Maiōtis límnē; Palus Maeotis) was a name applied in antiquity variously to the swamps at the mouth of the Tanais River in Scythia (the modern Don in southern Russia) and to the entire Sea of Azov which it forms there.
Massandra or Masandra (Масандра; Массандра; Massandra) is an urban-type settlement in the Yalta Municipality of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.
Mastercard Incorporated (stylized as MasterCard from 1979 to 2016 and mastercard since 2016) is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in the Mastercard International Global Headquarters in Purchase, New York, United States.
Maximilian Alexandrovich Kirienko-Voloshin (Максимилиа́н Алекса́ндрович Кирие́нко-Воло́шин), commonly known as Max Voloshin (May 28, 1877 – November 8, 1932), was a Russian poet of Ukrainian-German origin.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Melitopol (Меліто́поль, translit. Melitópol’, Мелитополь) is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast (region) of southeastern Ukraine.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) is a payment system established by the Central Bank of Russia.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Mount Mithridat is a large hill located in the center of Kerch, a city on the eastern Kerch Peninsula of Crimea, Russia.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural gas originates by the same geological thermal cracking process that converts kerogen to petroleum.
Naval museum complex Balaklava (Морський музейний комплекс "Балаклава", Russian: Музей холодной войны, "The Cold War Museum", designation K-825) is an underground submarine base in Balaklava, Crimea, (originally known as Object 825 GTS).
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nestor Ivanovych Makhno or Bat'ko ("Father") Makhno (Не́стор Івáнович Махно́; October 26, 1888 (N.S. November 7) – July 25, 1934) was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist revolutionary and the commander of an independent anarchist army in Ukraine in 1917–22.
Nikita Botanical Garden - (Нікітський ботанічний сад) is one of the oldest botanical gardens in Europe.
The North Crimean Canal (Северо-Крымский канал, Північно-Кримський канал; in the Soviet Union – North Crimean Canal of the Lenin's Komsomol of Ukraine) is a land improvement canal for irrigation and watering of Kherson Oblast in southern Ukraine, and the Crimean Peninsula.
New Russia Governorate, or Novorossiya Governorate (Новоросси́йская губе́рния; translit.: Novorossiyskaya guberniya), was a governorate of the Russian Empire in the previously Ottoman and Cossack territories, that existed from 1764 until the 1783 administrative reform.
Novyi Svit (translit; r; Novıy Svet; literally: 'New World' or more correctly 'New Community') is a resort, an urban-type settlement in Sudak Municipality in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The Odeske gas field natural gas field located on the continental shelf of the Black Sea.
"Offshore", when used relative to hydrocarbons, refers to an oil, natural gas or condensate field that is under the sea, or to activities or operations carried out in relation to such a field.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Onshore, when used relative to hydrocarbons, refers to an oil, natural gas or condensate field that is under dry land or to activities or operations carried out in relation to such a field.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The agreement between the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the Parameters of the Division of the Black Sea Fleet, the agreement between the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the Status and Conditions of the Presence of the Russian Federation Black Sea Fleet on the territory of Ukraine and agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Ukraine on Payments Associated with the Division of the Black Sea Fleet and Its Presence on the territory of Ukraine were the three treaties signed between Russia and Ukraine on 28 May 1997 whereby the two countries established two independent national fleets, divided armaments and bases between them., and set out conditions for basing of the Russian Black Sea Fleet in Crimea.
The Party of Regions (Партія регіонів, pronounced; Партия регионов) is a pro-Russia political party of Ukraine created in late 1997 that then grew to be the biggest party of Ukraine between 2006 and 2014.
Paul I (Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel Petrovich) (–) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801.
A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
Perateia (Περάτεια, "place beyond ", cf. peraia) was the overseas territory of the Empire of Trebizond, comprising the Crimean cities of Cherson, Kerch and their hinterlands.
Perekop is an urban-type settlement located on the Perekop Isthmus connecting the Crimean peninsula to the Ukrainian mainland.
The political status of Crimea is the subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine and Russia.
The politics of Crimea today is that of the Republic of Crimea on one hand, and that of the federal city of Sevastopol on the other, within the context of the largely unrecognised annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in March 2014.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
The Pontic Greeks, also known as Pontian Greeks (Πόντιοι, Ελληνοπόντιοι, Póntioi, Ellinopóntioi; Pontus Rumları, Karadeniz Rumları, პონტოელი ბერძნები, P’ont’oeli Berdznebi), are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia.
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.
Porphyry is a textural term for an igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals such as feldspar or quartz dispersed in a fine-grained silicate rich, generally aphanitic matrix or groundmass.
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.
The Principality of Theodoro (Πριγκιπάτο της Θεοδωρούς), also known as Gothia (Γοτθία) or the Principality of Theodoro-Mangup, was a Greek-speaking principality in the south-west of Crimea and both the final rump state of the Byzantine Empire and vestige of the Crimean Goths until its conquest by the Ottoman Turks in 1475.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, also Vrangel; Freiherr Peter von Wrangel; (August 27, 1878 April 25, 1928) was a Russian officer in the Imperial Russian Army and later commanding general of the anti-Bolshevik White Army in Southern Russia in the later stages of the Russian Civil War.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Red Terror was a period of political repression and mass killings carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918.
During World War II, Reichskommissariat Ukraine (abbreviated as RKU), was the civilian occupation regime (Reichskommissariat) of much of Nazi German-occupied Ukraine (which included adjacent areas of modern-day Belarus and pre-war Second Polish Republic).
The Republic of Crimea (or; Республика Крым, Respublika Krym, Республіка Крим, Respublika Krym, Къырым Джумхуриети, Qirim Cumhuriyeti) is a federal subject of Russia that is located on the Crimean Peninsula.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Romanian Land Forces (Forțele Terestre Române) is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces.
Rozdolne Raion (Роздольненський район, Раздольненский район, Aqşeyh rayonı) is, de facto, one of the 25 regions of the Republic of Crimea within the Russian Federation, though the territory is recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.
The Rus' Khaganate is the name applied by some modern historians to a hypothetical polity postulated to exist during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe, roughly the late 8th and early-to-mid-9th centuries AD.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Imperial Census of 1897 was first and only census carried out in the Russian Empire (Finland was excluded).
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian language is the most common first language in the Donbass and Crimea regions of Ukraine, and the predominant language in large cities in the East and South of the country.
Legislative elections were held in Russia on 18 September 2016, having been brought forward from 4 December.
In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory.
Presidential elections were held in Russia on 18 March 2018.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Treaty on Friendship, Cooperation, and Partnership between Ukraine and the Russian Federation — an agreement between Ukraine and the Russian Federation, signed in 1997, which fixed the principle of strategic partnership, the recognition of the inviolability of existing borders, respect for territorial integrity and mutual commitment not to use its territory to harm the security of each other.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence.
The Salgir River (Cyrillic: Салгир) is the longest river of the Crimean Peninsula.
Natural salt pans or salt flats are flat expanses of ground covered with salt and other minerals, usually shining white under the sun.
Ṣaqāliba (Arabic: صقالبة, sg. ṣaqlabī) refers to Slavs, captured on the coasts of Europe in raids or wars, as well as mercenaries in the medieval Muslim world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
Sarych (Са́рич; Са́рыч; Sarıç) is a headland (Мыс; translit: mys) located on shore of the Black Sea on the Crimean Peninsula.
Sports Club Tavriya (Спортивний клуб "Таврія") is a Ukrainian football club from Simferopol.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.
The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.
Sergey Valeryevich Aksyonov (Сергей Валерьевич Аксёнов, Сергій Валерійович Аксьонов, Serghei Valerievici Aksionov; born November 26, 1972) is the Head and Prime Minister of the Republic of Crimea, which is an internationally disputed federal subject of the Russian Federation located on the Crimean Peninsula.
Sergey Ivanovich Menyaylo (Russian: Сергей Иванович Меняйло; born in 22 August 1960) is a Russian political military commander, former deputy commander of the Black Sea Fleet and between April 2014 and July 2016.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
Governor Election in Sevastopol were held on 10 September 2017.
Shchaslyvtseve (Щасливцеве) is a village in southern Ukraine.
The Shmidtivske gas field natural gas field located on the continental shelf of the Black Sea.
The Shtormove gas field natural gas field located on the continental shelf of the Black Sea.
The Siege of Sevastopol also known as the Defence of Sevastopol (Оборона Севастополя, transliteration: Oborona Sevastopolya) or the Battle of Sevastopol (German: Schlacht um Sewastopol) was a military battle that took place on the Eastern Front of the Second World War.
Simferopol (p; Сімферополь,; Aqmescit, Акъмесджит) is a city on the Crimean peninsula which, de facto, is the capital city of the Republic of Crimea within the Russian Federation but, de jure, is the capital city of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine.
Simferopol International Airport (Международный аэропорт "Симферополь", Mezhdunarodnyy aeroport "Simferopol’"; Міжнародний аеропорт "Сімферополь", Mizhnarodnyy aeroport "Simferopol’"; Aqmescit Halqara Ava Limanı, Акъмесджит Халкъара Ава Лиманы; (Russian AIP: URFF, УРФФ) is an airport in Simferopol, the capital of the Republic of Crimea. It was built in 1936. The airport has one international terminal and one domestic terminal. On 14 May 2015, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (which de facto has no control over the airport) voted to rename it to Amet-khan Sultan International Airport, in memory of Amet-khan Sultan. Another airport named after Amet-khan Sultan is Uytash Airport located in Makhachkala, Russia. Since the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014, the airport is only used for flights to and from Russia.
A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy; Giacomo da Lentini is credited with its invention.
The Southern Federal District (ˈjuʐnɨj fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnɨj ˈokrʊk) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia.
The Soviet Census conducted in January 1959 was the first post-World War II census held in the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Census conducted in January 1970 was the first census held in Soviet Union (USSR) in eleven years (since January 1959).
The 1989 Soviet census (Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989, "1989 All-Union Census"), conducted between 12-19 January of that year, was the last one that took place in the former USSR.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Staryi Krym (Старий Крим, Старый Крым, Eski Qırım) is a small historical town and former bishopric in Kirovske Raion of Crimea, an area currently disputed between Russia and Ukraine.
The State Council of Crimea (Госуда́рственный Сове́т Респу́блики Крым, Державна Рада Республіки Крим, Къырым Джумхуриетининъ Девлет Шурасы) is the parliament of the Republic of Crimea.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Strilkove (Стрілкове, Стрелковое, Çoqraq) is a Ukrainian village in the Henichesk raion of the Kherson oblast.
The Subbotinske field is a Ukrainian oil field that was discovered in 2009 and located on the continental shelf of the Black Sea.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sudak (Судак; Судак; Sudaq; Σουγδαία; sometimes spelled Sudac or Sudagh) is a town, multiple former Eastern Orthodox bishopric and double Latin Catholic titular see.
The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verkhóvnyj Sovét, literally "Supreme Council") was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Soviet Union.
The Swallow's Nest (Ластівчине гніздо, Lastivchyne hnizdo, Ласточкино гнездo, Lastochkino gnezdo) is a decorative castle located at Gaspra, a small spa town between Yalta and Alupka, in the Crimean Peninsula.
The Syvash or Sivash (Russian and Ukrainian: Сива́ш;, Cyrillic: Сываш, "dirt"), also known as the or (Gniloye More;, Hnile More;, Cyrillic: Чюрюк Денъиз), consists of a large system of shallow lagoons on the west coast of the Sea of Azov.
The Taman Peninsula (Тама́нский полуо́стров, Tamanskiy poluostrov) is a peninsula in the present-day Krasnodar Krai of Russia, which borders the Sea of Azov to the North, the Strait of Kerch to the West and the Black Sea to the South.
The Tarkhankut Peninsula (Тарханкутський півострів, Тарханкутский полуостров)) is the peninsula which constitutes the western extremity of Crimea into the Black sea. Its northern shore is a southern coast of the Karkinit Bay. Its westernmost point is Cape Priboyny, to the south of it is Cape Tarkhankut. The terrain of the peninsula is the Tarkhankut Highlands.
Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
The Tatar Legions were auxiliary units of the Waffen-SS formed after the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.
The Tauri (Ταῦροι in Ancient Greek), also Scythotauri, Tauri Scythae, Tauroscythae (Pliny, H. N. 4.85) were a people settled on the southern coast of the Crimea peninsula, inhabiting the Crimean Mountains and the narrow strip of land between the mountains and the Black Sea.
The Taurida Governorate (Таврическая губернія, modern spelling Таврическая губерния, Tavricheskaya guberniya; Таврiйська губернія, Tavrijśka gubernija; Tavrida guberniyası, Таврида губерниясы) or the Government of Taurida was an historical governorate of the Russian Empire.
Taurida Oblast (Таврическая область, Tavricheskaya oblast′) was an oblast (province) of the Russian Empire.
Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University (TNU) (Таврійський національний університет імені В.І. Вернадського (ТНУ).) is a name used for 2 State Universities, in Kyiv and in Simferopol, both are public, coeducational universities located in Kyiv / Simferopol.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The Crimean Sonnets (Sonety krymskie) are a series of 18 Polish sonnets by Adam Mickiewicz, constituting an artistic telling of a journey through the Crimea.
For Boris Asafyev's ballet of the same name, see The Fountain of Bakhchisarai (ballet) The Fountain of Bakhchisaray («Бахчисарайский фонтан») is a poem by Alexander Pushkin, written during the years 1821 to 1823.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon.
The Holocaust in Russia refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of Russia (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) by Nazi Germany.
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.
The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Vägen från varjagerna till grekerna, Shlyakh' z varahaw u hreki, Shlyakh iz varyahiv u hreky, Put' iz varjag v greki, Εμπορική οδός Βαράγγων–Ελλήνων) was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca (today Kaynardzha, Bulgaria) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.
Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Uchan-su (Учан-Су, Уча́н-Су or Водопадная Vodopadnaya, Uçan Suv), is a river that flows in the South Coast of Crimea.
Uchan-su (Учан-Су, Уча́н-Су Uçan Suv), is a waterfall on the river Uchan-su on the southern slopes of the Crimean Mountains in Crimea.
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The first Ukrainian census was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on 5 December 2001, twelve years after the last Soviet Union census in 1989 and was so far the only census held in independent Ukraine.
Ukrainian football league system has developed over the years.
The Ukrainian Naval Forces (Військово-Морські Сили України, ВМСУ, Viys’kovo-Mors’ki Syly Ukrayiny, VMSU) is the navy of Ukraine and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда, literally Ukrainian Truth) is a popular Ukrainian Internet newspaper, founded by Georgiy R. Gongadze in April, 2000 (the day of the Ukrainian constitutional referendum).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 was adopted on March 27, 2014 by the sixty-eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly in response to the Russian annexation of Crimea and entitled "Territorial integrity of Ukraine".
United Russia ((j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Urban-type settlement (посёлок городско́го ти́па - posyolok gorodskogo tipa, abbreviated: п.г.т. - p.g.t.; селище міського типу – selyshche mis'koho typu, abbreviated: с.м.т. - s.m.t.; пасёлак гарадскога тыпу; osiedle typu miejskiego; селище от градски тип – selishte ot gradski tip) is an official designation for a semi-urban settlement (or a former town).
The Urums, singular Urum (Ουρούμ, Urúm; Turkish and Crimean Tatar: Urum) are several groups of Turkic-speaking Greeks in the Crimea and Georgia.
An uyezd (p) was an administrative subdivision of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Russian Empire, and the early Russian SFSR, which was in use from the 13th century.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The Valley of Ghosts (Russian: Долина привидений, Долина привидів, Hayalet vadiysi) is a valley located in the Crimea, made up of naturally shaped rocks on the Southern Demerdzhi Mountain, located near Alushta city.
Vasily Vasilievich Radlov or Friedrich Wilhelm Radloff (Васи́лий Васи́льевич Ра́длов;, Berlin – 12 May 1918, Petrograd) was a German-born Russian founder of Turkology, a scientific study of Turkic peoples.
Vera Yuryevna Rebrik (Вера Юрьевна Ребрик; Віра Юріївна Ребрик; born 25 February 1989) is a Russian (formerly Ukrainian) track and field athlete who competes in the javelin throw.
The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Верхо́вна Ра́да Украї́ни, Ukrainian abbreviation ВРУ; literally Supreme Council of Ukraine), often simply Verkhovna Rada or just Rada, is the unicameral parliament of Ukraine.
Verhovna Rada of Crimea or the Supreme Council of Crimea, officially the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Verhovna Rada Avtonomnoï Respubliky Krym; Verkhovny Sovet Avtonomnoy Respubliki Krym; Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyetiniñ Yuqarı Radası) was a Ukrainian legislative body of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea before the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014.
Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич,; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who was elected as the fourth President of Ukraine on 7 February 2010.
Visa Inc. (also known as Visa, stylized as VISA) is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Foster City, California, United States.
The Vladimir Lenin All-Union Pioneer Organization, abbreviated as or the Young Pioneers, was a mass youth organization of the Soviet Union for children of age 9–15 that existed between 1922 and 1991.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
The Vorontsov Palace (Воронцовський палац; Воронцо́вский дворе́ц) or the Alupka Palace is an historic palace situated at the foot of the Crimean Mountains near the town of Alupka in Crimea.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
Winemaking in Crimea has existed for over two thousand years.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center), located in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yalta (Yalta; Я́лта; Я́лта) is a resort city on the south coast of the Crimean Peninsula surrounded by the Black Sea.
Yevpatoriya is a city of regional significance in Crimea, Ukraine (as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea).
Young Pioneer camp (Пионерский лагерь) was the name for the vacation or summer camp of Young Pioneers.
"1944" is a song written and performed by Ukrainian singer Jamala.
The transfer of the Crimean Oblast in 1954 was an administrative action of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union which transferred the government of the Crimean Peninsula from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian SSR.
The Ukrainian revolution of 2014 (also known as the Euromaidan Revolution or Revolution of Dignity; Революція гідності, Revoliutsiia hidnosti) took place in Ukraine in February 2014, when a series of violent events involving protesters, riot police, and unknown shooters in the capital, Kiev, culminated in the ousting of the democratically elected Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, and the overthrow of the Ukrainian Government.
1992-94 Crimean Crisis, 1992-94 Crimean crisis, 1992–94 Crimean Crisis, 1992–94 Crimean crisis, 1994 Crimean crisis, Climate of Crimea, Crimea Autonomous Republic, Crimea Peninsula, Crimea peninsula, Crimea region, Crimean, Crimean Peninsula, Crimean Riviera, Crimean coast, Crimean peninsula, Crimia, Crymea, Culture of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Demographics of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Economy of Crimea, Economy of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Geography of Crimea, Geography of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Kirim, Krymsky poluostrov, Name of Crimea, Northern Tavria, Qirim, Qirim Muhtar Cumhuriyeti, Qırım, Russian Occupied Ukraine, Tauric Peninsula, Tauric peninsula, Tourism in Crimea, Автономная Республика Крым, Крим, Крым.