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Crimean War

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The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia. [1]

421 relations: A. J. P. Taylor, Abdülkerim Nadir Pasha, Abdulmejid I, Aide-de-camp, Aimable Pélissier, Alaska, Alaska Purchase, Alessandro Ferrero La Marmora, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov, Alexandre Ferdinand Parseval-Deschenes, Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora, Alfred Nobel, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Alternate history, American Civil War, Amputation, Anatolia, Anesthetic, Anti-war movement, Antoni Aleksander Iliński, Arkhangelsk, Armenia, Asia, Auguste Febvrier Despointes, Auspicious Incident, Austria, Austria-Hungary, Austrian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Austro-Prussian War, Azov, Åland Islands, Balaklava, Balance of power (international relations), Balkans, Baltic Fleet, Baltic Medal, Baltic Sea, Bastion fort, Battle of Balaclava, Battle of Bomarsund, Battle of Cetate, Battle of Eupatoria, Battle of Inkerman, Battle of Kinburn (1855), Battle of Kurekdere, Battle of Malakoff, Battle of Navarino, Battle of Nezib, ..., Battle of Oltenița, Battle of Sinop, Battle of Suomenlinna, Battle of the Alma, Battle of the Chernaya, Beşik Bay, Çanakkale, Beirut, Benjamin Disraeli, Bessarabia, Black Sea, Black Sea Fleet, Blockship, Bombardment of Odessa, Bosporus, Brison D. 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Expand index (371 more) »

A. J. P. Taylor

Alan John Percivale Taylor (25 March 1906 – 7 September 1990) was an English historian who specialised in 19th- and 20th-century European diplomacy.

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Abdülkerim Nadir Pasha

Abdülkerim Nadir Pasha (1807–1883), also known as Çırpanlı Abdi Pasha or Abdul Kerim Pasha, son of Ahmed Ağa, was an Ottoman military commander, born in Chirpan, Ottoman Bulgaria.

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Abdulmejid I

Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجيد اول ‘Abdü’l-Mecīd-i evvel; 23/25 April 182325 June 1861), also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839.

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Aide-de-camp

An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.

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Aimable Pélissier

Aimable-Jean-Jacques Pélissier, 1st Duc de Malakoff (6 November 179422 May 1864), was a Marshal of France.

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Alaska

Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Alaska Purchase

The Alaska Purchase (r) was the United States' acquisition of Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, by a treaty ratified by the United States Senate, and signed by President Andrew Johnson.

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Alessandro Ferrero La Marmora

Alessandro Ferrero La Marmora (27 March 1799 in Turin, Kingdom of Sardinia – 7 June 1855 in Balaklava, Russian Empire) was an Italian general who is best remembered for founding the military unit known as the Bersaglieri.

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Alexander II of Russia

Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.

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Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov

Prince Alexander Sergeyevich Menshikov (Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Ме́ншиков; 26 August 17872 May 1869) was a Finno-Russian nobleman, military commander and statesman.

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Alexandre Ferdinand Parseval-Deschenes

Alexandre Ferdinand Parseval-Deschenes (27 November 1790 – 10 June 1860) was a French admiral and senator.

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Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora

Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora, 1.

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Alfred Nobel

Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist.

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Alfred, Lord Tennyson

Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets.

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Alternate history

Alternate history or alternative history (Commonwealth English), sometimes abbreviated as AH, is a genre of fiction consisting of stories in which one or more historical events occur differently.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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Amputation

Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Anesthetic

An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.

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Anti-war movement

An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.

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Antoni Aleksander Iliński

Antoni Aleksander Iliński, also known as Iskender Pasha (Mehmet İskender Paşa; 1814–1861), was a Polish-Ottoman military officer and general.

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Arkhangelsk

Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.

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Armenia

Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Auguste Febvrier Despointes

Auguste Febvrier-Despointes (1796 – 5 March 1855) was a French counter admiral.

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Auspicious Incident

The Auspicious Incident (or EventGoodwin, pp. 296–299.) (Turkish: (in Istanbul) Vaka-i Hayriye "Fortunate Event"; (in the Balkans) Vaka-i Şerriyye, "Unfortunate Incident") was the forced disbandment of the centuries-old Janissary corps by Sultan Mahmud II on 15 June 1826.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Austrian Empire

The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.

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Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

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Austro-Prussian War

The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.

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Azov

Azov (Азов), formerly known as Azoff, is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town.

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Åland Islands

The Åland Islands or Åland (Åland,; Ahvenanmaa) is an archipelago province at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia in the Baltic Sea belonging to Finland.

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Balaklava

Balaklava (Балаклáва, Балаклáва, Balıqlava, Σύμβολον) is a former city on the Crimean Peninsula and part of the city of Sevastopol.

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Balance of power (international relations)

The balance of power theory in international relations suggests that national security is enhanced when military capability is distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others.

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Balkans

The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Baltic Fleet

The Baltic Fleet (Балтийский флот) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.

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Baltic Medal

The Baltic Medal was a campaign medal approved in 1856, for issue to officers and men of the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, and Royal Sappers and Miners who served in Baltic Sea operations against Russia in the Baltic theatre of the Crimean War between March 1854 and August 1855.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Bastion fort

A bastion fort, a type of trace Italienne (literally, Italian outline), is a fortification in a style that evolved during the early modern period of gunpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield.

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Battle of Balaclava

The Battle of Balaclava, fought on 25 October 1854 during the Crimean War, was part of Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) to capture the port and fortress of Sevastopol, Russia's principal naval base on the Black Sea.

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Battle of Bomarsund

The Battle of Bomarsund, in August 1854, took place during the Crimean War, when an Anglo-French expeditionary force attacked a Russian fortress.

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Battle of Cetate

The Battle of Cetate was fought during the Crimean War.

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Battle of Eupatoria

The Battle of Eupatoria (Russian: Штурм Евпатории (Storm of Eupatoria), Turkish: Gözleve Muharebesi) was the most important military engagement of the Crimean War on the Crimean theatre in 1855 outside Sevastopol.

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Battle of Inkerman

The Battle of Inkerman was fought during the Crimean War on 5 November 1854 between the allied armies of Britain, France and Ottoman Empire against the Imperial Russian Army.

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Battle of Kinburn (1855)

The Battle of Kinburn was a combined land-naval engagement during the final stage of the Crimean War.

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Battle of Kurekdere

The Battle of Kurekdere took place in 1854 as part of the Crimean War.

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Battle of Malakoff

The Battle of Malakoff was a major battle during the Crimean War, fought between French-British forces against Russia on 8 September 1855 as a part of the Siege of Sevastopol.

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Battle of Navarino

The Battle of Navarino was a naval battle fought on 20 October 1827, during the Greek War of Independence (1821–32), in Navarino Bay (modern Pylos), on the west coast of the Peloponnese peninsula, in the Ionian Sea.

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Battle of Nezib

The Battle of Nezib or Battle of Nisib or Battle of Nizib (present-day Nizip) was fought on 24 June 1839 between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire.

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Battle of Oltenița

The Battle of Oltenița (or Oltenitza) was fought on 4 November 1853 and was the first engagement of the Crimean War.

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Battle of Sinop

The Battle of Sinop, or the Battle of Sinope, was a Russian naval victory over the Ottoman Empire during the Crimean War that took place on 30 November 1853 at Sinop, a sea port in northern Anatolia, when a squadron of Imperial Russian warships struck and defeated a squadron of Ottoman ships anchored in the harbor.

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Battle of Suomenlinna

The Battle of Suomenlinna (also known as the Battle of Viapori or the Bombardment of Sweaborg) was fought on 7–8 August 1855 between Russian defenders and a joint British/French fleet.

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Battle of the Alma

The Battle of the Alma was a battle in the Crimean War between an allied expeditionary force made up of French, British and Turkish forces and Russian forces defending the Crimean Peninsula on 20September 1854.

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Battle of the Chernaya

The Battle of the Chernaya (also Tchernaïa; Russian: Сражение у Черной речки, Сражение у реки Черной, literally: Battle of the Black River) was a battle by the Chornaya River fought during the Crimean War on August 16, 1855.

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Beşik Bay, Çanakkale

Beşik Bay (italic or italic) is a small bay on the Aegean shore of Troy, at the mouth of the Hellespont in present day Asiatic Turkey.

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Beirut

Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

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Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

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Bessarabia

Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Black Sea Fleet

The Black Sea Fleet (Черноморский Флот, Chernomorsky Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea.

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Blockship

A blockship is a ship deliberately sunk to prevent a river, channel, or canal from being used.

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Bombardment of Odessa

The Bombardment of Odessa was an action during the Crimean War in which a joint Anglo-French squadron of warships attacked the Russian port of Odessa.

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Bosporus

The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.

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Brison D. Gooch

Brison Dowling Gooch (March 1, 1925 – November 25, 2014) was an American historian who was a professor emeritus of 19th-century European history at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas (TAMU).

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British Columbia

British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Budjak

Budjak or Budzhak (Russian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian: Буджак; Bugeac; Bucak, historical Cyrillic: Буӂак; Bucak) is a historical region in Ukraine.

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Bulgaria

Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Bulgarians

Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.

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Buoy

A buoy is a floating device that can have many purposes.

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Calafat

Calafat is a city in Dolj County, Romania, on the river Danube, opposite the Bulgarian city of Vidin, to which it is linked by the Calafat-Vidin Bridge, opened in 2013.

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Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour

Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri (10 August 1810 – 6 June 1861), generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.

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Caracal, Romania

Caracal is a city in Olt county, Romania, situated in the historic region of Oltenia, on the plains between the lower reaches of the Jiu and Olt rivers.

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Casus belli

Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Caucasian Imamate

The Caucasian Imamate, also known as the Caucasus Imamate (`Imāmat al-Qawqāz), was the state established by the imams in Dagestan and Chechnya during the early-to-mid 19th century in the Northern Caucasus, to fight against the Russian Empire during the Caucasian War, where Russia sought to conquer the Caucasus in order to secure communications with its new territories south of the mountains.

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Caucasus

The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Cavalry

Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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Cetate, Dolj

Cetate is a commune in Dolj County, Romania with a population of 6,000 people.

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Chargé d'affaires

A chargé d'affaires, often shortened to chargé (French) and sometimes to charge-D (abbreviated in colloquial English), is a diplomat who heads an embassy in the absence of the ambassador.

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Charge (warfare)

A charge is a maneuver in battle in which combatants advance towards their enemy at their best speed in an attempt to engage in close combat.

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Charge of the Light Brigade

The Charge of the Light Brigade was a charge of British light cavalry led by Lord Cardigan against Russian forces during the Battle of Balaclava on 25 October 1854 in the Crimean War.

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Charles Napier (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral Sir Charles John Napier KCB GOTE RN (6 March 1786 – 6 November 1860) was a British naval officer whose sixty years in the Royal Navy included service in the War of 1812 (with the United States), the Napoleonic Wars, Syrian War and the Crimean War (with the Russians), and a period commanding the Portuguese navy in the Liberal Wars.

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Charles, marquis de La Valette

Charles-Jean-Marie-Félix, marquis de La Valette (25 November 1806, Senlis – 2 May 1881, Paris) was a French politician and diplomat.

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Chłopomania

Chłopomania or Khlopomanstvo (Хлопоманство) are historical and literary terms inspired by the Young Poland modernist movement and the Ukrainian Hromady.

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Chechens

Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.

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Chernigov Governorate

The Chernigov Governorate (Черниговская губерния; translit.: Chernigovskaya guberniya), also known as the Government of Chernigov, was a guberniya in the historical Left-bank Ukraine region of the Russian Empire, which was officially created in 1802 from the Malorossiya Governorate with an administrative centre of Chernihiv.

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Chios massacre

The Chios massacre (in Η σφαγή της Χίου) was the killing of tens of thousands of Greeks on the island of Chios by Ottoman troops during the Greek War of Independence in 1822.

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Choloki River

The Choloki River (ჩოლოქი, also Cholok River) in Georgia forms the border between the autonomous province of Ajaria and the province of Guria.

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Church of the Nativity

The Church of the Nativity, also Basilica of the Nativity (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْمَهْد; Βασιλική της Γεννήσεως; Սուրբ Ծննդյան տաճար; Basilica Nativitatis) is a basilica located in Bethlehem in the West Bank.

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Circassia

Circassia (Адыгэ Хэку, Черке́сия, ჩერქეზეთი, شيركاسيا, Çerkesya) is a region in the and along the northeast shore of the Black Sea.

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Circassians

The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.

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Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde

Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde, (20 October 1792– 14 August 1863), was a British Army officer.

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Concert of Europe

The Concert of Europe, also known as the Congress System or the Vienna System after the Congress of Vienna, was a system of dispute resolution adopted by the major conservative powers of Europe to maintain their power, oppose revolutionary movements, weaken the forces of nationalism, and uphold the balance of power.

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Congress of Paris (1856)

The Congress of Paris was a diplomatic meeting held in Paris, France, in 1856,"Paris, Treaty of(1856)".

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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.

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Constanța

Constanța (Κωνστάντζα or Κωνστάντια, Konstantia, Кюстенджа or Констанца, Köstence), historically known as Tomis (Τόμις), is the oldest continuously inhabited city in Romania.

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Corvette

A corvette is a small warship.

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Cossacks

Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.

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Count Karl Ferdinand von Buol

Karl Ferdinand von Buol (Karl Ferdinand Graf von Buol-Schauenstein; 17 May 1797 – 28 October 1865) was an Austrian diplomatist and statesman, who served as Foreign Minister from 1852 to 1859.

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Crete

Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Crimea

Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.

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Crimea Medal

The Crimea Medal was a campaign medal approved on 15 December 1854, for issue to officers and men of British units (land and naval) which fought in the Crimean War of 1854–56 against Russia.

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Crimean Khanate

The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.

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Crimean Tatars

Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.

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Crimean War Research Society

The Crimean War Research Society (CWRS) is an international society of professional and amateur historians who research the Crimean War of 1854-56.

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Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands

The Crimean-Nogai raids were slave raids carried out by the Khanate of Crimea and by the Nogai Horde into the region of Rus' then controlled by the Grand Duchy of Moscow (until 1547), by the Tsardom of Russia (1547-1721), by the Russian Empire (1721 onwards) and by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569).

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Danube

The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.

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Danubian Principalities

Danubian Principalities (Principatele Dunărene, translit) was a conventional name given to the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which emerged in the early 14th century.

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Dardanelles

The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.

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David Price (Royal Navy officer)

Rear Admiral David Powell Price (1790 – 31 August 1854) was a Royal Navy officer of the 19th century, who served as Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Station from 1853 until his death.

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Death by natural causes

A death by natural causes, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is the end result of an illness or an internal malfunction of the body not directly caused by external forces, typically due to old age.

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Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire

Beginning from the late eighteenth century, the Ottoman Empire faced challenges defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation.

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Depaldo Stairs

The Depaldo Stone Steps (also Старая каменная лестница) was constructed in 1823 by the project of the Italian architect Francesco Boffo with the money of Taganrog's Greek merchant Gerasim Depaldo at the crossroads of Greek Street (near Tchaikovsky House in Taganrog) and Depaldo Street (now Turgenevskaya Street) in Taganrog.

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Distinguished Conduct Medal

The Distinguished Conduct Medal, post-nominal letters DCM, was established in 1854 by Queen Victoria as a decoration for gallantry in the field by other ranks of the British Army.

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Dnieper

The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.

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Dobruja

Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.

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Don Cossacks

Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.

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Don River (Russia)

The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.

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Duchy of Modena and Reggio

The Duchy of Modena and Reggio (Ducato di Modena e Reggio, Ducatus Mutinae et Regii) was a small northwestern Italian state that existed from 1452 to 1859, with a break during the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1814) when Emperor Napoleon I reorganized the states and republics of renaissance-era Italy, then under the domination of his French Empire.

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Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.

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Eastern Front (World War I)

The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Edmund Lyons, 1st Baron Lyons

Admiral Edmund Lyons, 1st Baron Lyons (21 November 1790 – 23 November 1858) was an eminent British Admiral of the Royal Navy, and an eminent British diplomat, who was responsible for encouraging the Crimean War, during which he was Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet, and for the securing the subsequent allied victory in the conflict, through his efforts at the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) with both the Navy and the British Army.

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Eduard Totleben

Eduard Ivanovich Totleben (Эдуа́рд Ива́нович Тотле́бен, sometimes transliterated as Todleben; &ndash) was a Baltic German military engineer and Imperial Russian Army general.

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Edwin Bezar

Sergeant Major Edwin Bezar (18 February 1838 – 6 February 1936) was an English soldier and author who fought in the Crimean War, counter-insurgency in the Aden Settlement and the New Zealand Wars.

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Edwin Hughes (soldier)

Edwin Hughes (12 December 1830 – 18 May 1927), known as Balaclava Ned, was a British Army soldier and the last survivor of the famous Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean War of 1854–56.

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Egypt Eyalet

The Eyalet of Egypt was the result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516.

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Egyptian–Ottoman War (1839–41)

The Second Egyptian–Ottoman War or Second Turko–Egyptian War lasted from 1839 until 1841 and was fought mainly in Syria, whence it is sometimes referred as the (Second) Syrian War.

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Ekaterine Dadiani, Princess of Mingrelia

Princess Ekateriné Dadiani (ეკატერინე დადიანი; née Chavchavadze; March 19, 1816August 13, 1882) was a prominent 19th-century Georgian aristocrat and the last ruling princess of the Western Georgian Principality of Mingrelia.

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Electrical telegraph

An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.

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Emancipation reform of 1861

The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia (translit, literally: "the peasants Reform of 1861") was the first and most important of liberal reforms passed during the reign (1855-1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.

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Empire (Kasabian song)

"Empire" is a song by English rock band Kasabian and is the title track for their second album, Empire.

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Encyclopedia of Ukraine

The Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Енциклопедія українознавства) is a fundamental work of Ukrainian Studies created under the auspices of the Shevchenko Scientific Society in Europe (Sarcelles, near Paris).

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Enguri River

The Enguri (ენგური, Егры, Egry Ингури, Inguri) is a river in western Georgia.

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Epirus Revolt of 1854

The 1854 revolt in Epirus was one of the most important of a series of Greek uprisings that occurred in the Ottoman-occupied Greek world during that period.

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Errol Flynn

Errol Leslie Flynn (20 June 1909 – 14 October 1959) was an Australian-born American actor who achieved fame in Hollywood after 1935.

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Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Far East

The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.

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Fascine

A fascine is a rough bundle of brushwood or other material used for strengthening an earthen structure, or making a path across uneven or wet terrain.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finnegans Wake

Finnegans Wake is a work of fiction by Irish writer James Joyce.

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First Lord of the Admiralty

The First Lord of the Admiralty, or formally the Office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, was the political head of the Royal Navy who was the government's senior adviser on all naval affairs and responsible for the direction and control of Admiralty Department as well as general administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, that encompassed the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services.

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FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan

Field Marshal FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan, (30 September 1788 – 28 June 1855), known before 1852 as Lord FitzRoy Somerset, was a British Army officer.

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Flashman at the Charge

Flashman at the Charge is a 1973 novel by George MacDonald Fraser.

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Fleet in being

In naval warfare, a "fleet in being" is a naval force that extends a controlling influence without ever leaving port.

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Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale, (12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was an English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing.

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Foreign policy of the Russian Empire

The Foreign policy of the Russian Empire covers Russian foreign relations down to 1917.

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François Achille Bazaine

François Achille Bazaine (13 February 181123 September 1888) was an officer of the French army.

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François Certain Canrobert

François Marcellin Certain de Canrobert, born François Certain de Canrobert at Saint-Céré on June 27, 1809, and died in Paris on January 28, 1895, was a French Marshal.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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Franz Roubaud

Franz Alekseyevich Roubaud (Франц Алексеевич Рубо) was a Russian painter who created some of the largest and best known panoramic paintings.

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French conquest of Algeria

The French conquest of Algeria took place between 1830 and 1847.

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French Navy

The French Navy (Marine Nationale), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces.

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French ship Charlemagne (1852)

Charlemagne was an 80-gun French ship of the line commissioned in 1852.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

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Frigate

A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.

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Gabion

A gabion (from Italian gabbione meaning "big cage"; from Italian gabbia and Latin cavea meaning "cage") is a cage, cylinder, or box filled with rocks, concrete, or sometimes sand and soil for use in civil engineering, road building, military applications and landscaping.

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Gallipoli

The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.

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George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan

Field Marshal George Charles Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan, (16 April 1800 – 10 November 1888), styled Lord Bingham before 1839, was an Anglo-Irish aristocrat and British Army officer.

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George Hamilton Seymour

Sir George Hamilton Seymour (21 September 1797 – 2 February 1880) was a British diplomat.

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George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen

George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, (28 January 178414 December 1860), styled Lord Haddo from 1791 to 1801, was a British politician, diplomat and landowner, successively a Tory, Conservative and Peelite, who served as Prime Minister from 1852 until 1855 in a coalition between the Whigs and Peelites, with Radical and Irish support.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Giovanni Durando

Giovanni Durando (23 June 1804 – 27 May 1869) was an Italian general and politician.

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Giurgiu

Giurgiu is a city in southern Romania.

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Gogland

Gogland or Hogland (Гогланд; Suursaari; Hogland, Suursaar, Hochland) is an island in the Gulf of Finland in the eastern Baltic Sea, about 180 km west from Saint Petersburg and 35 km from the coast of Finland (near Kotka).

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Gorchakov

Gorchakov, or Gortchakoff (Горчако́в), is a Russian princely family of Rurikid stock, descended from the Rurikid sovereigns of Peremyshl, Russia.

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Governor of Taganrog

The Governor of Taganrog (Таганрогское градоначальство) was the head of the Taganrog borough or governorate (incorporated municipality with privileges given by royal charter), between October 8, 1802 and May 19, 1887.

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Grand Crimean Central Railway

The Grand Crimean Central Railway was a military railway built in 1855 during the Crimean War by Great Britain.

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Grand Duchy of Finland

The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.

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Grand Duchy of Tuscany

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.

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Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia

Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia (Константи́н Никола́евич Рома́нов; 21 September 1827 – 25 January 1892) was the second son of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and younger brother of Tsar Alexander II.

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Great Gold Robbery

The Great Gold Robbery took place on the night of 15 May 1855, when three London firms each sent a box of gold bars and coins from London Bridge station for Paris via the South Eastern Railway.

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Greek Orthodox Church of Jerusalem

The Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἱεροσολύμων, Patriarcheîon Hierosolýmōn) or Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem (كنيسة الروم الأرثوذكس في القدس Kanisatt Ar-rum al-Urtudoks fi al-Quds, literally Rûm/Roman Orthodox Church of Jerusalem), and officially called simply the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, is an autocephalous Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

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Greek War of Independence

The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.

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Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Grigol Dadiani

Grigol Dadiani (გრიგოლ დადიანი; 1770 – 23 October 1804), of the House of Dadiani, was Prince of Mingrelia from 1788 to 1804, with intermissions from 1791 to 1794 and in 1802 when his position was filled by his rivaling brothers.

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Gulf of Finland

The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.

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Gunboat

A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.

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Gunboat diplomacy

In international politics, gunboat diplomacy (or "Big Stick ideology" in U.S. history) refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of naval powerimplying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force.

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Gunpowder

Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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György Kmety

György Kmety (Felsőpokorágy, – London) was a general in the Hungarian Army, and in the Ottoman Army under the name Ismail Pasha.

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Gyumri

Gyumri (Գյումրի), is an urban municipal community and the second largest city in Armenia, serving as the administrative centre of Shirak Province in the northwestern part of the country.

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Hellenic Army

The Hellenic Army (Ελληνικός Στρατός, Ellinikós Stratós, sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece (with Hellenic being a synonym for Greek).

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Helsinki

Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.

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Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston

Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century.

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Henry Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley

Henry Richard Charles Wellesley, 1st Earl Cowley (17 June 1804 – 15 July 1884), known as The Lord Cowley between 1847 and 1857, was a British diplomat.

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History of the Eastern Orthodox Church under the Ottoman Empire

In AD 1453, the city of Constantinople, the capital and last stronghold of the Byzantine Empire, fell to the Ottoman Empire.

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History of the foreign relations of the United Kingdom

The history of the foreign relations of the United Kingdom covers British foreign policy from about 1500 to 2000.

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History of the Russo-Turkish wars

The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.

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HMS Grinder (1855)

HMS Grinder was a wooden 3-gun, launched on 7 March 1855.

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HMS Miranda (1851)

HMS Miranda was a 14-gun (15-gun from 1856) wooden screw sloop of the Royal Navy, launched in 1851 and sold for breaking in 1869.

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HMS Queen (1839)

HMS Queen was a 110-gun first rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 15 May 1839 at Portsmouth.

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Holy Alliance

The Holy Alliance (Heilige Allianz; Священный союз, Svyashchennyy soyuz; also called the Grand Alliance) was a coalition created by the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria and Prussia.

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Holy Land

The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.

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Hromada (secret society)

A hromada ("community") was one of a network of secret societies of Ukrainian intelligentsia that appeared soon after the Crimean War.

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Hugh Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn

Field Marshal Hugh Henry Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn, (6 April 1801 – 16 October 1885) was a senior British Army officer.

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Hungarian Revolution of 1848

The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 ("1848–49 Revolution and War") was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas.

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Hungarians

Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.

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Hurst and Blackett

Hurst and Blackett was a publisher founded in 1852 by Henry Blackett (May 26, 1825 - March 7, 1871), the grandson of a London shipbuilder, and Daniel William Stow Hurst (February 17, 1802 - July 6, 1870).

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Immanuel Nobel

Immanuel Nobel the Younger (24 March 1801 – 3 September 1872) was a Swedish engineer, architect, inventor and industrialist.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Rebellion of 1857

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

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Inkerman

Inkerman (Інкерман, Инкерман, İnkerman) is a city in the Crimean peninsula, ‘de facto’ within the federal city of Sevastopol within the Russian Federation but, ‘de jure’, within Ukraine.

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International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

This article covers worldwide diplomacy and, more generally, the international relations of the major powers from 1814 to 1919, particularly the "Big Four".

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iron Maiden

Iron Maiden are an English heavy metal band formed in Leyton, East London, in 1975 by bassist and primary songwriter Steve Harris.

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Ironclad warship

An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates used in the early part of the second half of the 19th century.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.

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Italian unification

Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.

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Ivan Krasnov

Ivan Ivanovich Krasnov Краснов, Иван Иванович (1802–1871) was a Russian general and author.

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Ivan Paskevich

Prince (1831) Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Ива́н Фёдорович Паске́вич; &ndash) was an imperial Russian military leader.

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Ivane Andronikashvili

Prince Ivane Andronikashvili (ივანე ანდრონიკაშვილი), also known as Knyaz Ivan Malkhazovich Andronnikov (Иван Малхазович Андронников) (1798 – November 19, 1868) was a Georgian nobleman and general in the Imperial Russian service.

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Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud

Armand-Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud (20 August 1798 – 29 September 1854) was a French soldier and Marshal of France.

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James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan

Lieutenant General James Thomas Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan (16 October 1797 – 28 March 1868) was an officer in the British Army who commanded the Light Brigade during the Crimean War.

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James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.

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James Simpson (British Army officer)

General Sir James Simpson (1792 – 18 April 1868) was a British Army officer of the 19th century.

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Janissaries

The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.

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Jasper Fforde

Jasper Fforde (born 11 January 1961) is a British novelist.

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Jasper Kent

Jasper Kent (born 1968) is an English author and composer.

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John Bright

John Bright (16 November 1811 – 27 March 1889) was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, one of the greatest orators of his generation and a promoter of free trade policies.

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John Fox Burgoyne

Field Marshal Sir John Fox Burgoyne, 1st Baronet (24 July 1782 – 7 October 1871) was a British Army officer.

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John Gielgud

Sir Arthur John Gielgud (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000) was an English actor and theatre director whose career spanned eight decades.

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Kamchatka Peninsula

The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).

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Kamiesch

Kamiesch is a sea inlet and adjoining port, sited on the Chersonese or Khersones peninsula, three miles SW of the city centre of Sevastopol and ten miles WNW of Balaklava in the Crimean peninsula.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Karl Nesselrode

Count Karl Robert Nesselrode, also known as Charles de Nesselrode, (Lisbon, Portugal, 14 December 1780 – Saint Petersburg, 23 March 1862; Russian: Карл Васильевич Нессельроде, Karl Vasilyevich Nesselrode) was a Russian Empire diplomat of Baltic-German descent.

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Kars

Kars (Armenian: Կարս, less commonly known as Ղարս Ghars) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province.

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Kasabian

Kasabian are an English rock band formed in Leicester in 1997.

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Kerch

Kerch (Керчь, Керч, Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ, Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikapaion, Keriç, Kerç) is a city of regional significance on the Kerch Peninsula in the east of the Crimea.

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Kerch Strait

The Kerch Strait (Керченский пролив, Керченська протока, Keriç boğazı) is a strait connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, separating the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea in the west from the Taman Peninsula of Russia's Krasnodar Krai in the east.

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Kiev Governorate

Kiev Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire and Ukraine in 1796 until the Soviet administrative reform of the 1920s.

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Kingdom of Greece

The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).

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Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia

The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Regno Lombardo-Veneto, Königreich Lombardo–Venetien; Regnum Langobardiae et Venetiae), commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, was a constituent land (crown land) of the Austrian Empire.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Kingdom of Sardinia

The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.

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Kola, Russia

Kola (Ко́ла; Guoládat; Kuâlõk) is a town and the administrative center of Kolsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Kola and Tuloma Rivers, south of Murmansk and southwest of Severomorsk.

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Kronstadt

Kronstadt (Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (Krone for "crown" and Stadt for "city"; Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland.

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Kuril Islands

The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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List of ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Russia

The Ambassador of the United Kingdom to Russia (Russian: Британский Посол в России) is the United Kingdom's foremost diplomatic representative in the Russian Federation, and head of the UK's diplomatic mission in Russia.

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List of British recipients of the Légion d'Honneur for the Crimean War

The Légion d'Honneur was awarded to 746 members of the British Armed Forces during the Crimean War (also known as the Russian War) which lasted from 1854 to 1856.

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List of Crimean War Victoria Cross recipients

The Victoria Cross (VC) was awarded to 111 members of the British Armed Forces during the Crimean War (also known as the Russian War) that lasted from 1854 to 1856.

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List of Latin phrases (U)

Additional references'.

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Lombardy

Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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London Straits Convention

In the London Straits Convention concluded on 13 July 1841 between the Great Powers of Europe at the time—Russia, the United Kingdom, France, Austria and Prussia—the "ancient rule" of the Ottoman Empire was re-established by closing the Turkish Straits (the Bosporus and Dardanelles), which link the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, from all warships whatsoever, barring those of the Sultan's allies during wartime.

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Luigi Palma di Cesnola

Luigi Palma di Cesnola (July 29, 1832 – November 20, 1904), an Italian-American soldier, diplomat and amateur archaeologist, was born in Rivarolo Canavese, near Turin.

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Mahmud II

Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى Mahmud-u sānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî) (İkinci Mahmut) (20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.

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Mamelon (fort)

A mamelon is a French name for a breast shaped hillock.

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Materiel

Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.

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Médaille militaire

The Médaille militaire (Military Medal) is a military decoration of the French Republic for other ranks for meritorious service and acts of bravery in action against an enemy force.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Michael Crichton

John Michael Crichton (October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, thriller, and medical fiction genres.

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Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov

Prince Mikhail Dmitrievich Gorchakov (Михаи́л Дми́триевич Горчако́в; –, Warsaw) was a Russian General of the Artillery from the Gorchakov family, who commanded the Russian forces in the latter stages of the Crimean War and later served as a Namestnik of Kingdom of Poland from 1856 until his death.

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Mikhail, Prince of Abkhazia

Mikhail, or Hamud Bey, from the house of Shervashidze, or Chachba (died 1866) was the head of state of the Principality of Abkhazia and reigned from 1823 to 1864.

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Military of the Ottoman Empire

The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.

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Minié ball

The Minié ball, or Minni ball, is a type of muzzle-loading spin-stabilized rifle bullet named after its co-developer, Claude-Étienne Minié, inventor of the Minié rifle.

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Minié rifle

The Minié rifle was an important infantry rifle of the mid-19th century.

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Mius River

Mius is a river in Eastern Europe that flows through Ukraine and Russia.

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Moldavia

Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.

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Montenegro

Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.

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Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.

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Napoleon III

Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Naval mine

A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.

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New Zealand Wars

The New Zealand Wars were a series of armed conflicts that took place in New Zealand from 1845 to 1872 between the New Zealand government and the Māori.

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Nicholas I of Russia

Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.

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Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky

Nikolay Nikolayevich Muravyov-Amursky (also spelled as Nikolai Nikolaevich Muraviev-Amurskiy; Никола́й Никола́евич Муравьёв-Аму́рский; —) was a Russian general, statesman and diplomat, who played a major role in the expansion of the Russian Empire into the Amur River basin and to the shores of the Sea of Japan.

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Nikolay Pirogov

Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov (–) was a prominent Russian scientist, medical doctor, pedagogue, public figure, and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1847).

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Nile Delta

The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.

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Nitroglycerin

Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.

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Odessa

Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.

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Oltenița

Oltenița is a city in Romania in the Călărași County on the left bank of the Argeş River where its waters flows into the Danube.

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Omar Pasha

Omar Pasha, also known as Omar Pasha Latas (Ömer Paşa, Омер-паша Латас/Omer-paša Latas; 1806–1871) was an Ottoman field marshal and governor.

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Opalchentsi

Opalchentsi (опълченци) were Bulgarian voluntary army units, who took part in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.

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Otto of Greece

Otto (Óthon; 1 June 1815 – 26 July 1867) was a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman wars in Europe

The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.

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Our Gang

Our Gang (later known as The Little Rascals or Hal Roach's Rascals) are a series of American comedy short films about a group of poor neighborhood children and their adventures.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Palestine (region)

Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.

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Panoramic painting

Panoramic paintings are massive artworks that reveal a wide, all-encompassing view of a particular subject, often a landscape, military battle, or historical event.

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Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta

Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, 6th Marquess of MacMahon, 1st Duke of Magenta (born Marie Edme Patrice Maurice; 13 June 1808 – 17 October 1893), was a French general and politician, with the distinction of Marshal of France.

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Pavel Nakhimov

Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov (Па́вел Степа́нович Нахи́мов) (&ndash) was one of the most famous admirals in Russian naval history, best remembered as the commander of naval and land forces during the Siege of Sevastopol during the Crimean War.

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Peace Concluded

Peace Concluded, 1856 (1856) is a painting by John Everett Millais which depicts a wounded British officer reading The Times newspaper's report of the end of the Crimean War.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский) is a city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai, Russia.

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Piece of Mind

Piece of Mind is the fourth studio album by the English heavy metal band Iron Maiden, originally released in 1983 by EMI and then by Capitol in Canada and the US, where it was later reissued by Sanctuary/Columbia Records.

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Pierre François Bosquet

Pierre François Joseph Bosquet (8 November 18105 February 1861) was a French Army general.

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Pipe-and-cable-laying plough

A pipe-and-cable-laying plough or moleplough is a trenchless method to bury cables or pipes.

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Piraeus

Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.

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Plateway

A plateway is an early kind of railway or tramway or wagonway, with a cast-iron rail.

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Port of Sevastopol

200px Sevastopol Marine Trade Port (SMTP) is a port in Sevastopol.

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Principality of Mingrelia

The Principality of Mingrelia (tr), also known as Odishi, was a historical state in Georgia ruled by the Dadiani dynasty.

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Purchase of commissions in the British Army

The purchase of officer commissions in the British Army was the practice of paying money to be made an officer in the cavalry and infantry regiments of the English and later British Army.

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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Richard Cobden

Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.

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Rifling

In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.

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Roger Fenton

Roger Fenton (28 March 1819 – 8 August 1869) was a British photographer, noted as one of the first war photographers.

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Romania

Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Rostov

Rostov (p) is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring.

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Rostov-on-Don

Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal Engineers

The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Russian America

Russian America (Русская Америка, Russkaya Amerika) was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Ground Forces

The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.

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Russian Navy

The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces.

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Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

The Russo–Turkish War of 1686–1700 was part of the joint European effort to confront the Ottoman Empire.

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Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greek War of Independence.

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Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.

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S. M. Stirling

Stephen Michael Stirling (born September 30, 1953) is a French-born Canadian-American science-fiction and fantasy author.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Sakhalin

Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.

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Sapper

A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties such as breaching fortifications, demolitions, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, preparing field defenses as well as building, and working on road and airfield construction and repair.

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Sardinian Crimea Medal

The Sardinian Crimean War Medal (Medaglia d’Argento al Valor Militare per la spedizione d’Oriente 1855-1856) is a campaign medal issued by King Victor Emmanuel II for those who participated in the Crimean War (1854-1856) against the Russian Empire.

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Satellite state

The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.

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Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Sea of Azov

The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.

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Sea of Azov naval campaign (1855)

During the Crimean War (1853–1856), a naval campaign was fought in the Sea of Azov between the Royal Navy and the French Navy against the Russian Navy between 25 May–22 November 1855.

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Sean Connery

Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born 25 August 1930) is a retired Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards (one of them being a BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award) and three Golden Globes (including the Cecil B. DeMille Award and a Henrietta Award).

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Second French Empire

The French Second Empire (Second Empire) was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

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Second Italian War of Independence

The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.

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Sefer Bey Zanuko

Sefer Bey Zanuko (? – 1 January 1860) was a Circassian nobleman and independence activist.

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Serbia

Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Serbian Revolution

The Serbian Revolution was a national uprising and constitutional change in Serbia that took place between 1804 and 1835, during which this territory evolved from an Ottoman province into a rebel territory, a constitutional monarchy and modern Serbia.

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Serbs

The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.

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Sevastopol

Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.

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Shamil, 3rd Imam of Dagestan

Imam Shamil (also spelled Shamyl, Schamil, Schamyl or Shameel; Шейх Шамил; Şeyh Şamil; Имам Шамиль; الشيخ شامل) (pronounced "Shaamil") (26 June 1797 – 4 February 1871) was the political, military, and spiritual leader of Caucasian resistance to Imperial Russia in the 1800s, as well as the third Imam of the Caucasian Imamate (1840–1859).

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Shell (projectile)

A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.

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Ship of the line

A ship of the line was a type of naval warship constructed from the 17th through to the mid-19th century to take part in the naval tactic known as the line of battle, in which two columns of opposing warships would manoeuvre to bring the greatest weight of broadside firepower to bear.

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Sick man of Europe

"Sick man of Europe" is a label given to a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty or impoverishment.

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Siege of Calafat

The Siege of Calafat took place in 1854 during the Crimean War.

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Siege of Kars

The Siege of Kars was the last major operation of the Crimean War.

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Siege of Petropavlovsk

The Siege of Petropavlovsk was a military operation in the Pacific Theatre of the Crimean War.

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Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55)

The Siege of Sevastopol (at the time called in English the Siege of Sebastopol) lasted from September 1854 until September 1855, during the Crimean War.

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Siege of Silistra

The Siege of Silistra took place during the Crimean War.

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Siege of Taganrog

The Siege of Taganrog is a name given in some Russian histories to Anglo-French naval operations in the northeastern part of the Sea of Azov between June and October 1855 during the Crimean War.

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Silistra

Silistra (Силистра Dârstor) is a port city in northeastern Bulgaria.

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Sinop, Turkey

Sinop (Σινώπη, Sinōpē, historically known as Sinope) is a city with a population of 36,734 on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey.

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Smith, Elder & Co.

Smith, Elder & Co. or Smith, Elder, and Co. or Smith, Elder and Co. was a British publishing company who were most noted for the works they published in the 19th century.

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Solovetsky Islands

The Solovetsky Islands (Солове́цкие острова́), or Solovki (Соловки́), are an archipelago located in the Onega Bay of the White Sea, Russia.

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St Martin-in-the-Fields

St Martin-in-the-Fields is an English Anglican church at the north-east corner of Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, London.

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Status quo of Holy Land sites

The status quo of the Holy Land sites is an understanding among religious communities with respect to nine shared religious sites in Jerusalem and Bethlehem.

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Stratford Canning, 1st Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe

Stratford Canning, 1st Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe, (4 November 1786 – 14 August 1880) was a British diplomat and politician, best known as the longtime British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire.

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Sublime Porte

The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.

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Suing for peace

Suing for peace is an act by a warring nation to initiate a peace process.

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Sukhumi

Sokhumi or Sukhumi (Аҟәа, Aqwa; სოხუმი,; Сухум(и), Sukhum(i)) is a city on the Black Sea coast.

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Suomenlinna

Suomenlinna (Finnish), or Sveaborg (Swedish), literal translation Finland Castle, until 1918 Viapori (Finnish), is an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands (Kustaanmiekka (sv:Vargskär / Gustavssvärd), Susisaari (sv:Vargö), Iso-Mustasaari (sv:Stora Östersvartö), Pikku-Mustasaari (sv:Lilla Östersvartö), Länsi-Mustasaari (sv:Västersvartö), and Långören) and which now forms part of the city of Helsinki, the capital of Finland.

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Suzerainty

Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Taganrog

Taganrog (p) is a port city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the north shore of the Taganrog Bay in the Sea of Azov, several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River.

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Taganrog Bay

Taganrog Bay or Tahanrih Bay (Таганрозька затока) is the northeastern arm of the Sea of Azov.

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Telegraphy

Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.

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The Charge of the Light Brigade (1936 film)

The Charge of the Light Brigade is a 1936 American historical adventure film made by Warner Bros. It was directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by Samuel Bischoff, with Hal B. Wallis as executive producer, from a screenplay by Michael Jacoby and Rowland Leigh, from a story by Michael Jacoby based on the poem The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson.

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The Charge of the Light Brigade (1968 film)

The Charge of the Light Brigade is a 1968 British DeLuxe Color war film made by Woodfall Film Productions in Panavision and distributed by United Artists, depicting parts of the Crimean War and the eponymous charge.

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The Charge of the Light Brigade (poem)

"The Charge of the Light Brigade" is an 1854 narrative poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson about the Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War.

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The Eyre Affair

The Eyre Affair is the debut novel by English author Jasper Fforde, published by Hodder and Stoughton in 2001.

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The First Great Train Robbery

The First Great Train Robbery is a 1978 British crime film directed by Michael Crichton, who also wrote the screenplay based on his novel The Great Train Robbery.

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The Great Train Robbery (novel)

The Great Train Robbery is a bestselling 1975 historical novel written by Michael Crichton.

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The Thin Red Line (Battle of Balaclava)

The Thin Red Line was a military action by the British Sutherland Highlanders 93rd (Highland) Regiment at the Battle of Balaklava on 25 October 1854, during the Crimean War.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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The Trooper

"The Trooper" is a song by the English heavy metal band Iron Maiden.

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Thomas Milner Gibson

Thomas Milner Gibson PC (3 September 1806 – 25 February 1884) was a British politician.

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Timothy (tortoise)

Timothy (c. 1844 – 3 April 2004) was a 5kg (11 pound) Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise who was thought to be approximately 160 years old at the time of her death.

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Torpedo

A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.

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Trafalgar Square

Trafalgar Square is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross.

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Trajan's Wall

Trajan's Wall (Valul lui Traian in Romanian) is the name used for several linear earthen fortifications (valla) found across Eastern Europe, in Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine.

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Transylvania

Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.

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Treaty of Adrianople (1829)

The Treaty of Adrianople (also called the Treaty of Edirne) concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29, between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

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Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi

The Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi (once commonly spelled Unkiar Skelessi, and translating to The Treaty of "the Royal Pier" or "the Sultan's Pier") was a treaty signed between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire on July 8, 1833, following the military aid of Russia against Mehmed Ali that same year.

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Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca

The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca (today Kaynardzha, Bulgaria) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.

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Treaty of Paris (1856)

The Treaty of Paris of 1856 settled the Crimean War between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia.

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Trevor Howard

Trevor Wallace Howard-Smith (29 September 1913 – 7 January 1988), known as Trevor Howard, was an English actor.

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Triage

Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition.

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Tsardom of Russia

The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.

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Tsinandali

Tsinandali (წინანდალი) is a village in Kakheti, Georgia, noted for the estate and its historic winery which once belonged to the 19th-century aristocratic poet Alexander Chavchavadze (1786–1846).

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Turkish Crimea Medal

The Turkish Crimean War Medal (Kırım Harbi Madalyası) is a campaign medal issued by Sultan Abdülmecid I of the Ottoman Empire to allied military personnel involved in the Crimean War of 1854–56.

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Two Too Young

Two Too Young is a 1936 Our Gang short comedy film directed by Gordon Douglas.

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Unification of Germany

The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.

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Union Army

During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Urup

Urup (Уру́п, Uruppu-to, translit) is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Kuril Islands chain in the south of the Sea of Okhotsk, northwest Pacific Ocean.

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Varna

Varna (Варна, Varna) is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.

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Vasily Zavoyko

Vasily Stepanovich Zavoyko (Василий Степанович Завойко; 5 July 1809 – 16 February 1898) was an admiral in the Russian navy.

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Vassal

A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.

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Vassal state

A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another.

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Victor Emmanuel II of Italy

Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861.

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Victoria Cross

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the British honours system.

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Vidin

Vidin (Видин) is a port town on the southern bank of the Danube in north-western Bulgaria.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vladimir Istomin

Vladimir Ivanovich Istomin (Владимир Иванович Истомин in Russian) (9 (21) February 1810 – 7 (19) March 1855) was a Russian rear admiral (1853) and hero of the Siege of Sevastopol.

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Vladimir Kornilov

Vice Admiral Vladimir Alexeyevich Kornilov (Влади́мир Алексе́евич Корни́лов; 13 February 1806 – 17 October 1854) was a Russian naval officer who took part in the Crimean War.

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Wallachia

Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.

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War correspondent

A war correspondent is a journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone.

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War photography

War photography involves photographing armed conflict and its effects on people and places.

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Władysław Stanisław Zamoyski

Count Władysław Stanisław Zamoyski (1803–1868) was a Polish nobleman, politician, and general.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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White Sea

The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.

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Wild Fields

The Wild Fields (Дике Поле Dyke Pole, Дикое Поле, Dikoye Polye, Dzikie pola, Dykra, Loca deserta, sive campi deserti inhabitati, also translated as "the Wilderness") is a historical term used in the Polish–Lithuanian documents of the 16th to 18th centuries to refer to the Pontic steppe of Ukraine, located north of the Black Sea and Azov Sea.

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William Codrington (MP and Gibraltar Governor)

General Sir William John Codrington, (26 November 1804 – 6 August 1884) was a British Army officer and politician who served in the Crimean War.

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William Edward David Allen

William Edward David Allen (6 January 1901 – 18 September 1973) was a British scholar, Foreign Service officer, politician and businessman, best known as a historian of the South Caucasus—notably Georgia.

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William Howard Russell

Sir William Howard Russell, CVO (28 March 1820, Tallaght, County Dublin, Ireland – 11 February 1907, London, England) was an Irish reporter with The Times, and is considered to have been one of the first modern war correspondents.

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Winfried Baumgart

Winfried Baumgart (born 29 September 1938) is a German historian.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Yegor Tolstoy

Count Yegor Petrovich Tolstoy (19 July 1802 – 12 March 1874) (Егор Петрович Толстой) was a Russian lieutenant-general, senator, and governor of Taganrog, Kaluga and Penza.

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Yevfimiy Putyatin

Count (since 1855) Yevfimiy Vasilyevich Putyatin (Евфи́мий Васи́льевич Путя́тин; November 8, 1803 – October 16, 1883) was an admiral in the Imperial Russian Navy noted for his diplomatic mission to Japan which resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Shimoda in 1855.

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Yevpatoria

Yevpatoriya is a city of regional significance in Crimea, Ukraine (as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea).

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Redirects here:

Baltic Campaign of 1854, Baltic theatre of the Crimean War, Cremean War, Crim war, Crimea War, Crimean War (1853), Crimean expedition, Crimean struggle, Crimean war, Eastern War, Oriental War, Paris Peace Conference, 1856, Russian War, Russo-Turkish War, 1853-1856, Russo-Turkish War, 1853-56, The Crimean War, War of Crimea.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimean_War

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