121 relations: Absolute liability, Actus reus, Administrative law, Alfonso de Castro, Ancient Greece, Arson, Assault, Babylonian law, Battery (crime), Caning, Capital punishment, Causation (law), Cigarette, Civil law (common law), Code of Hammurabi, Code of Ur-Nammu, Code pénal (France), Common law, Conspiracy (criminal), Contract, Corporal punishment, Crime, Crimes against humanity, Criminal Code of Russia, Criminal conversion, Criminal justice, Criminal law of Australia, Criminal law of Canada, Criminal law of Singapore, Criminal law of the United States, Damages, Death, Deterrence (legal), Digest (Roman law), Diminished responsibility, Draco (lawgiver), Drowning, Eggshell skull, Element (criminal law), Embezzlement, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, English criminal law, Europe, European Union law, Exile, Fine (penalty), Flagellation, Fraud, Furtum, Gaius (jurist), ..., Genocide, Grievous bodily harm, Gross negligence, Hong Kong criminal law, House arrest, Incapacitation (penology), Indian criminal law, Intention (criminal law), Intention in English law, International Criminal Court, International criminal law, International law, Irish criminal law, Jurisdiction, Justice, Lagash, Latin, Law, Legal socialization, Malice (law), Manslaughter, Martial law, Mattress, Medicine, Mens rea, Motive (law), Nazism, Negligence, Nuremberg trials, Omission (law), Parole, Penal Code of Romania, Persistent vegetative state, Philippine criminal law, Prison, Probation, Provocation (legal), Proximate cause, Punishment, R v Blaue, Rape, Recklessness (law), Rehabilitation (penology), Restorative justice, Retributive justice, Robbery, Roman Empire, Roman law, Roy Beldam, Sanctions (law), Scottish criminal law, Settled insanity, Sexual intercourse, Solon, Sovereign state, Strict liability, Sumer, Swiss Criminal Code, Theft, Third Dynasty of Ur, Tort, Transferred intent, Trespass, Twelve Tables, United States and the International Criminal Court, Universal jurisdiction, Ur, Ur-Nammu, Urukagina, William the Conqueror, World War II. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute liability is a standard of legal liability found in tort and criminal law of various legal jurisdictions.
Actus reus, sometimes called the external element or the objective element of a crime, is the Latin term for the "guilty act" which, when proved beyond a reasonable doubt in combination with the mens rea, "guilty mind", produces criminal liability in the common law-based criminal law jurisdictions of England and Wales, Canada, Australia, India, Kenya, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand, Scotland, Nigeria, Ghana, Ireland, Israel and the United States of America.
Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government.
Alfonso de Castro (1495 in Zamora, Spain – 11 February 1558 in Brussels, Belgium), known also as Alphonsus a Castro, was a Franciscan theologian and jurist.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Arson is a crime of intentionally, deliberately and maliciously setting fire to buildings, wildland areas, abandoned homes, vehicles or other property with the intent to cause damage or enjoy the act.
An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action.
Babylonian law is a subset of cuneiform law that has received particular study, owing to the singular extent of the associated archaeological material that has been found for it.
Battery is a criminal offense involving the unlawful physical acting upon a threat, distinct from assault which is the act of creating apprehension of such contact.
Caning is a form of corporal punishment consisting of a number of hits (known as "strokes" or "cuts") with a single cane usually made of rattan, generally applied to the offender's bare or clothed buttocks (see spanking) or hand(s) (on the palm).
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Causation is the "causal relationship between conduct and result".
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
Civil law is a branch of the law.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
The Code of Ur-Nammu is the oldest known law code surviving today.
The Code pénal is the codification of French criminal law (droit pénal).
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
In criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime at some time in the future.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
The Russian Criminal Code (Уголовный кодекс Российской Федерации, frequently abbreviated УК РФ) is the prime source of the Law of the Russian Federation concerning criminal offences.
Criminal conversion is a crime, limited to parts of common law systems outside England and Wales, of exerting unauthorized use or control of someone else's property, at a minimum personal property, but in some jurisdictions also applying to types of real property, such as land (to squatting or holding over) or to patents, design rights and trademarks.
Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes.
The criminal law of Australia is the body of law made, recognised and applied in Australia that relates to crime.
The criminal law of Canada is under the exclusive legislative jurisdiction of the Parliament of Canada.
Although the legal system of Singapore is a common law system, the criminal law of Singapore is largely statutory in nature.
Responsibility for criminal law and criminal justice in the United States is shared between the states and the federal government.
In law, damages are an award, typically of money, to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Deterrence is the use of punishment as a threat which is considered as a means to prevent people from offending or to reduce the probability and/or level of offending.
The Digest, also known as the Pandects (Digesta seu Pandectae, adapted from πανδέκτης pandéktēs, "all-containing"), is a name given to a compendium or digest of juristic writings on Roman law compiled by order of the Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I in the 6th century CE (530–533).
In criminal law, diminished responsibility (or diminished capacity) is a potential defense by excuse by which defendants argue that although they broke the law, they should not be held fully criminally liable for doing so, as their mental functions were "diminished" or impaired.
Draco (Δράκων, Drakōn; fl. c. 7th century BC) was the first recorded legislator of Athens in Ancient Greece.
Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or under a liquid.
The eggshell rule (or thin skull rule) is a well-established legal doctrine in common law, used in some tort law systems, with a similar doctrine applicable to criminal law.
Under United States law, an element of a crime (or element of an offense) is one of a set of facts that must all be proven to convict a defendant of a crime.
Embezzlement is the act of withholding assets for the purpose of conversion (theft) of such assets, by one or more persons to whom the assets were entrusted, either to be held or to be used for specific purposes.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
English criminal law refers to the body of law in the jurisdiction of England and Wales which deals with crimes and their consequences, and which is complementary to the civil law of England and Wales.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European Union law is the system of laws operating within the member states of the European Union.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence.
Flagellation (Latin flagellum, "whip"), flogging, whipping or lashing is the act of beating the human body with special implements such as whips, lashes, rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails, the sjambok, etc.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right.
Furtum was a delict of Roman law comparable to the modern offence of theft (as it is usually translated) despite being a civil and not criminal wrong.
Gaius (fl. AD 130–180) was a celebrated Roman jurist.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Grievous bodily harm (often abbreviated to GBH) is a term used in English criminal law to describe the severest forms of assault.
Gross negligence is the "lack of slight diligence or care" or "a conscious, voluntary act or omission in reckless disregard of a legal duty and of the consequences to another party." In some jurisdictions a person injured as a result of gross negligence may be able to recover punitive damages from the person who caused the injury or loss.
The general framework and the body of Hong Kong’s criminal laws were in fact imported from the United Kingdom when Hong Kong was first become a Crown colony in 1842 under the Treaty of Nanking.
In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times, electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence.
Incapacitation in the context of criminal sentencing philosophy is the effect of a sentence in positively preventing (rather than merely deterring) future offending.
Indian criminal law is the law relating to criminal conduct in India.
In criminal law, intent is one of three general classes of mens rea necessary to constitute a conventional, as opposed to strict liability, crime.
In English criminal law, intention is one of the types of mens rea (Latin for "guilty mind") that, when accompanied by an actus reus (Latin for "guilty act"), constitutes a crime.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
International criminal law is a body of public international law designed to prohibit certain categories of conduct commonly viewed as serious atrocities and to make perpetrators of such conduct criminally accountable for their perpetration.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The Republic of Ireland has no set criminal code.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
Lagash (cuneiform: LAGAŠKI; Sumerian: Lagaš) is an ancient city located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah, Iraq.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Legal socialization is the process through which, individuals acquire attitudes and beliefs about the law, legal authorities, and legal institutions.
Malice is a legal term referring to a party's intention to do injury to another party.
Manslaughter is a common law legal term for homicide considered by law as less culpable than murder.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
A mattress is a large, rectangular pad for supporting the reclining body, designed to be used as a bed or on a bed frame, as part of a bed.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Mens rea (Law Latin for "guilty mind") is the mental element of a person's intention to commit a crime; or knowledge that one's action or lack of action would cause a crime to be committed.
A motive, in law, especially criminal law, is the cause that moves people to induce a certain action.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Negligence (Lat. negligentia) is a failure to exercise appropriate and or ethical ruled care expected to be exercised amongst specified circumstances.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
An omission is a failure to act, which generally attracts different legal consequences from positive conduct.
Parole is a temporary release of a prisoner who agrees to certain conditions before the completion of the maximum sentence period, originating from the French parole ("voice, spoken words").
The Penal Code of Romania (Codul penal al României) is a document providing the legal basis regarding criminal law in Romania.
A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness.
Philippine Criminal Laws is the body of law and defining the penalties thereof in the Philippines.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
Probation in criminal law is a period of supervision over an offender, ordered by the court instead of serving time in prison.
Provocation is a set of events that might be adequate to cause a reasonable person to lose self control, whereby a criminal act is less morally culpable than a premeditated act done out of pure malice (malice aforethought).
In the law, a proximate cause is an event sufficiently related to an injury that the courts deem the event to be the cause of that injury.
A punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority—in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law—as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behaviour that is deemed undesirable or unacceptable.
R v Blaue (1975) 61 Cr App R 271 is an English causation-law case in which the Court of Appeal decided that the refusal of a Jehovah's Witness to accept a blood transfusion after being stabbed did not constitute a novus actus interveniens for the purposes of legal causation.
Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent.
In criminal law and in the law of tort, recklessness may be defined as the state of mind where a person deliberately and unjustifiably pursues a course of action while consciously disregarding any risks flowing from such action.
Rehabilitation is the re-integration into society of a convicted person and the main objective of modern penal policy, to counter habitual offending, also known as criminal recidivism.
Restorative justice is an approach to justice in which the response to a crime is to organize a mediation between the victim and the offender, and sometimes with representatives of a wider community as well.
Retributive justice is a theory of justice that holds that the best response to a crime is a punishment proportional to the offense, inflicted because the offender deserves the punishment.
Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Sir Roy Beldam (born 29 March 1925) is a former Lord Justice of Appeal in England and Wales.
Sanctions, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations.
Scots criminal law governs the rules of criminal law in Scotland.
Settled insanity is defined as a permanent or "settled" condition caused by long-term substance abuse and differs from the temporary state of intoxication.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Solon (Σόλων Sólōn; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
In criminal and civil law, strict liability is a standard of liability under which a person is legally responsible for the consequences flowing from an activity even in the absence of fault or criminal intent on the part of the defendant.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The Swiss Criminal Code (SR 311, Strafgesetzbuch (StGB), Code pénal suisse (CP), Codice penale svizzero (CP), Cudesch penal svizzer) is the criminal code in Swiss law.
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.
The terms "Third Dynasty of Ur" and "Neo-Sumerian Empire" refer to both a 22nd to 21st century BC (middle chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire.
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
Transferred intent (or transferred malice in English law) is a legal doctrine that holds that, when the intention to harm one individual inadvertently causes a second person to be hurt instead, the perpetrator is still held responsible.
Trespass is an area of criminal law or tort law broadly divided into three groups: trespass to the person, trespass to chattels and trespass to land.
According to Greek tradition, the Law of the Twelve Tables (Leges Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law.
The United States is not a State Party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Rome Statute), which founded the International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2002 as a permanent international criminal court to "bring to justice the perpetrators of the worst crimes known to humankind – war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide", when national courts are unable or unwilling to do so.
Universal jurisdiction allows states or international organizations to claim criminal jurisdiction over an accused person regardless of where the alleged crime was committed, and regardless of the accused's nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting entity.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
Ur-Nammu (or Ur-Namma, Ur-Engur, Ur-Gur, Sumerian:, ca. 2047-2030 BC short chronology) founded the Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, following several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule.
Uru-ka-gina, Uru-inim-gina, or Iri-ka-gina (𒌷𒅗𒄀𒈾; 24th century BC, short chronology) was a ruler (''ensi'') of the city-state Lagash in Mesopotamia.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.