85 relations: Aluminium, Ammonia, Anneke Levelt Sengers, Argon, Atmosphere (unit), Benjamin Widom, Bromine, Caesium, Carbon dioxide, Celsius, Charles Cagniard de la Tour, Chlorine, Conformal field theory, Critical exponent, Critical phenomena, Critical points of the elements (data page), Curie temperature, Dmitri Mendeleev, Enthalpy of vaporization, Ethane, Ethanol, Fahrenheit, Fluid, Fluorine, Fog, Gibbs free energy, Gold, Helium, Hydrogen, Inflection point, Iron, Joback method, Kelvin, Klincewicz method, Krypton, Liquid, Liquid-liquid critical point, Lithium, Lower critical solution temperature, Lydersen method, McGraw-Hill Education, Mean field theory, Mercury (element), Methane, Michael Fisher, Néel temperature, Neon, Nitrogen, Nitrous oxide, Oxford University Press, ..., Oxygen, Pascal (unit), PDF, Percolation threshold, Phase (matter), Phase diagram, Phase transition, Pounds per square inch, Power law, Pressure–volume diagram, PSRK, Rushbrooke inequality, Scale invariance, Self-organized criticality, Spinodal, Stationary point, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Supercritical drying, Supercritical fluid, Supercritical fluid extraction, Supercritical liquid–gas boundaries, Supercritical water oxidation, Theorem of corresponding states, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermodynamics, Thomas Andrews (scientist), Tricritical point, Triple point, Upper critical solution temperature, Van der Waals equation, Vapor, Water, Widom scaling, Xenon. Expand index (35 more) »

## Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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## Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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## Anneke Levelt Sengers

Johanna Maria Henrica (Anneke) Levelt Sengers (born 4 March 1929) is a Dutch physicist known for her work on critical states of fluids.

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## Argon

Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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## Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

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## Benjamin Widom

Benjamin Widom is the Goldwin Smith Professor of Chemistry at Cornell University.

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## Bromine

Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.

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## Caesium

Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

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## Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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## Celsius

The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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## Charles Cagniard de la Tour

Baron Charles Cagniard de la Tour (31 March 1777 – 5 July 1859) was a French engineer and physicist.

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## Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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## Conformal field theory

A conformal field theory (CFT) is a quantum field theory that is invariant under conformal transformations.

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## Critical exponent

Critical exponents describe the behavior of physical quantities near continuous phase transitions.

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## Critical phenomena

In physics, critical phenomena is the collective name associated with the physics of critical points.

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## Critical points of the elements (data page)

David R. Lide (ed), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition, online version.

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## Curie temperature

In physics and materials science, the Curie temperature (TC), or Curie point, is the temperature above which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, to be replaced by induced magnetism.

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## Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.

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## Enthalpy of vaporization

The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.

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## Ethane

Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.

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## Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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## Fahrenheit

The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).

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## Fluid

In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.

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## Fluorine

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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## Fog

Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.

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## Gibbs free energy

In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).

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## Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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## Helium

Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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## Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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## Inflection point

In differential calculus, an inflection point, point of inflection, flex, or inflection (British English: inflexion) is a point on a continuously differentiable plane curve at which the curve crosses its tangent, that is, the curve changes from being concave (concave downward) to convex (concave upward), or vice versa.

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## Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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## Joback method

The Joback method (often named Joback/Reid method) predicts eleven important and commonly used pure component thermodynamic properties from molecular structure only.

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## Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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## Klincewicz method

In thermodynamic theory, the Klincewicz method is a predictive method based both on group contributions and on a correlation with some basic molecular properties.

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## Krypton

Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.

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## Liquid

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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## Liquid-liquid critical point

A liquid-liquid critical point (or LLCP) is the endpoint of a liquid-liquid phase transition line (LLPT); it is a critical point where two types of local structures coexist at the exact ratio of unity.

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## Lithium

Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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## Lower critical solution temperature

The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) or lower consolute temperature is the critical temperature below which the components of a mixture are miscible for all compositions.

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## Lydersen method

The Lydersen method is a group contribution method for the estimation of critical properties temperature (Tc), pressure (Pc) and volume (Vc).

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## McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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## Mean field theory

In physics and probability theory, mean field theory (MFT also known as self-consistent field theory) studies the behavior of large and complex stochastic models by studying a simpler model.

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## Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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## Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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## Michael Fisher

Michael Ellis Fisher (born 3 September 1931) is an English physicist, as well as chemist and mathematician, known for his many seminal contributions to statistical physics, including but not restricted to the theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena.

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## Néel temperature

The Néel temperature or magnetic ordering temperature, TN, is the temperature above which an antiferromagnetic material becomes paramagnetic—that is, the thermal energy becomes large enough to destroy the microscopic magnetic ordering within the material.

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## Neon

Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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## Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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## Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.

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## Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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## Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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## Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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## Percolation threshold

Percolation threshold is a mathematical concept related to percolation theory, which is the formation of long-range connectivity in random systems.

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## Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.

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## Phase diagram

A phase diagram in physical chemistry, engineering, mineralogy, and materials science is a type of chart used to show conditions (pressure, temperature, volume, etc.) at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexist at equilibrium.

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## Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

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## Pounds per square inch

The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2; abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units.

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## Power law

In statistics, a power law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another.

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## Pressure–volume diagram

A pressure–volume diagram (or PV diagram, or volume–pressure loop) is used to describe corresponding changes in volume and pressure in a system.

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## PSRK

PSRK (short for Predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong) is an estimation method for the calculation of phase equilibria of mixtures of chemical components.

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## Rushbrooke inequality

In statistical mechanics, the Rushbrooke inequality relates the critical exponents of a magnetic system which exhibits a first-order phase transition in the thermodynamic limit for non-zero temperature T. Since the Helmholtz free energy is extensive, the normalization to free energy per site is given as The magnetization M per site in the thermodynamic limit, depending on the external magnetic field H and temperature T is given by where \sigma_i is the spin at the i-th site, and the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat at constant temperature and field are given by, respectively and.

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## Scale invariance

In physics, mathematics, statistics, and economics, scale invariance is a feature of objects or laws that do not change if scales of length, energy, or other variables, are multiplied by a common factor, thus represent a universality.

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## Self-organized criticality

In physics, self-organized criticality (SOC) is a property of dynamical systems that have a critical point as an attractor.

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## Spinodal

In thermodynamics, the limit of local stability with respect to small fluctuations is clearly defined by the condition that the second derivative of Gibbs free energy is zero.

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## Stationary point

In mathematics, particularly in calculus, a stationary point or critical point of a differentiable function of one variable is a point on the graph of the function where the function's derivative is zero.

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## Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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## Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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## Supercritical drying

Supercritical drying is a process to remove liquid in a precise and controlled way.

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## Supercritical fluid

A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.

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## Supercritical fluid extraction

Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is the process of separating one component (the extractant) from another (the matrix) using supercritical fluids as the extracting solvent.

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## Supercritical liquid–gas boundaries

Supercritical liquid–gas boundaries are lines in the p–T diagram that delimit more liquid-like and more gas-like states of a supercritical fluid.

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## Supercritical water oxidation

Supercritical water oxidation or SCWO is a process that occurs in water at temperatures and pressures above a mixture's thermodynamic critical point.

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## Theorem of corresponding states

According to van der Waals, the theorem of corresponding states (or principle of corresponding states) indicates that all fluids, when compared at the same reduced temperature and reduced pressure, have approximately the same compressibility factor and all deviate from ideal gas behavior to about the same degree.

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## Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.

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## Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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## Thomas Andrews (scientist)

Thomas Andrews FRS FRSE (19 December 1813 – 26 November 1885) was an Irish chemist and physicist who did important work on phase transitions between gases and liquids.

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## Tricritical point

In condensed matter physics, dealing with the macroscopic physical properties of matter, a tricritical point is a point in the phase diagram of a system at which three-phase coexistence terminates.

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## Triple point

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Upper critical solution temperature

The upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or upper consolute temperature is the critical temperature above which the components of a mixture are miscible in all proportions.

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## Van der Waals equation

The van der Waals equation (or van der Waals equation of state; named after Johannes Diderik van der Waals) is based on plausible reasons that real gases do not follow the ideal gas law.

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## Vapor

In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.

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## Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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## Widom scaling

Widom scaling (after Benjamin Widom) is a hypothesis in statistical mechanics regarding the free energy of a magnetic system near its critical point which leads to the critical exponents becoming no longer independent so that they can be parameterized in terms of two values.

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## Xenon

Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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## Redirects here:

Critical density (thermodynamics), Critical point (chemistry), Critical point (physics, Critical point (physics), Critical pressure, Critical properties, Critical property, Critical solution temperature., Critical state, Critical temperature, Critical temperature and pressure, Supercritical pressure.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_point_(thermodynamics)