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The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna; 24 September 158325 February 1634),Schiller, Friedrich.
Alogobotur (Aлогоботур) (died 926) was a Bulgarian noble and military commander during the reign of Tsar Simeon the Great (893–926).
Aloysius Viktor Stepinac (Alojzije Viktor Stepinac, 8 May 1898 – 10 February 1960) was a Croatian prelate of the Catholic Church and war criminal.
Antemurale Christianitatis (English: Bulwark of Christendom) was a label used for a country defending the frontiers of Christian Europe from the Ottoman Empire.
Antun Branko Šimić (18 November 1898 – 2 May 1925) was an expressionist poet from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Antun Gustav Matoš (13 June 1873 – 17 March 1914) was a Croatian poet, short story writer, journalist, essayist and travelogue writer.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Arnulf of Carinthia (850 – December 8, 899) was the duke of Carinthia who overthrew his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat, became the Carolingian king of East Francia from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor from February 22, 896 until his death at Regensburg, Bavaria.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
August Šenoa (originally Schönoa; 14 November 1838 – 13 December 1881) was a Croatian novelist.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Avar Khaganate was a khanate established in Central Europe, specifically in the Pannonian Basin region, in 567 by the Avars, a nomadic people of uncertain origins and ethno-linguistic affiliation.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Árpáds or Arpads (Árpádok, Arpadovići, translit, Arpádovci, Arpatlar) was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301.
The House of Ilok (Iločki), in old sources de Illoch, de Wylak, de Voilack etc., Hungarian: Újlaki) was a Croatian noble family, descended in the male line from Gug (in some sources Göge), a member of the lower nobility in the region of Lower Slavonia during the 13th century. The Iločki, meaning "those of Ilok", rose to be a powerful and influential family in the Croato-Hungarian Kingdom during the period in the Late Middle Ages history marked by dynastic struggles for the possession of the throne and the Ottoman wars in Europe that affected the country. Notable members of the family were Bans (viceroys) of Croatia, Voivodes (dukes)Transylvania, Palatines of Hungary, župans (counts), king's chamberlains and king's chief retainers. One of them, Nikola Iločki (English: Nicholas of Ilok, Hungarian: Újlaki Miklós), the most powerful and most famous member of the family, was nominal King of Bosnia from 1471 until 1477.
Čunovo (Čunovo, Dunacsún, Duna-Csún) is a small part of Bratislava, Slovakia, in the southern area near the Hungarian border.
Šibenik (Sebenico) is a historic city in Croatia, located in central Dalmatia where the river Krka flows into the Adriatic Sea.
The Cathedral of St.
Šokci (Šokci, Sokácok, Шокци Šokci) are an ethnographic group of South Slavs mainly identified as Croats.
The Šubić were one of the twelve tribes which constituted Croatian statehood in the Middle Ages; they held the county of Bribir (Varvaria) in inland Dalmatia.
Bačka (Бачка / Bačka,; Bácska) is a geographical and historical area within the Pannonian Plain bordered by the river Danube to the west and south, and by the river Tisza to the east.
Baška tablet (Bašćanska ploča) is one of the first monuments containing an inscription in the Croatian recension of the Church Slavonic language, dating from c. 1100.
The Babonić (Babonics or Vodicsai) was a noble family from medieval Slavonia whose most notable members were Bans (viceroys) of Slavonia and Croatia.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Ban was a noble title used in several states in Central and Southeastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century.
Ban of Croatia (Croatian: Hrvatski ban; horvát bán) was the title of local rulers or office holders and after 1102 viceroys of Croatia.
Ban of Slavonia or the Ban of the Whole of Slavonia (Slavonski ban, Ban cijele Slavonije, szlavón bán, regni Sclavoniæ banus) was the title of the governor - ban - of a territory part of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and Kingdom of Croatia.
The Banovina of Croatia or Banate of Croatia (Banovina Hrvatska, Бановина Хрватска) was an autonomous province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1939 and 1941.
Bari (Barese: Bare; Barium; translit) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
Basil I, called the Macedonian (Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών, Basíleios ō Makedṓn; 811 – August 29, 886) was a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886.
The Battle of Bliska (present day Blizna in the hinterland of Trogir called Zagora, southern Croatia) was fought in 1322 between the army of a coalition of several Croatian noblemen and Dalmatian coastal towns (with the support of the king Charles I Robert of Anjou) and the forces of Mladen II Šubić of Bribir, Ban of Croatia, and his allies.
The Battle of Gvozd Mountain took place in the year 1097 and was fought between the army of Petar Svačić and King Coloman I of Hungary.
The Second Battle of Kosovo (Hungarian: második rigómezei csata, Turkish: İkinci Kosova Savaşı) (17–20 October 1448) was a land battle between a Hungarian-led Crusader army and the Ottoman Empire at Kosovo Polje.
The Battle of Krbava Field (Bitka na Krbavskom polju, Korbávmezei csata, Krbava Muharebesi) was fought between the Ottoman Empire of Bayezid II and an army of the Kingdom of Croatia, at the time in personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary, on 9 September 1493, in the Krbava field, a part of the Lika region in Croatia.
The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.
The Battle of Nicopolis (Битка при Никопол, Bitka pri Nikopol; Niğbolu Savaşı, Nikápolyi csata, Bătălia de la Nicopole) took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian, German and assorted troops (assisted by the Venetian navy) at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It is often referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444.
The Battle of Pákozd (or Battle of Sukoró) was a battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on the 29 September 1848 in the Pákozd – Sukoró – Pátka triangle.
The Battle of Sisak (Bitka kod Siska; Bitka pri Sisku; Schlacht bei Sissek; Kulpa Bozgunu) was fought on 22 June 1593 between Ottoman regional forces of Telli Hasan Pasha, a notable commander (Beglerbeg) of the Eyalet of Bosnia, and a combined Christian army from the Habsburg lands, mainly Kingdom of Croatia and Inner Austria.
The Battle of Varna took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria.
The Bay of Kotor (Montenegrin: Бока Которска, Boka Kotorska); Bocche di Cattaro), known simply as Boka ("the Bay"), is the name of the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay. The bay has been inhabited since antiquity. Its well-preserved medieval towns of Kotor, Risan, Tivat, Perast, Prčanj and Herceg Novi, along with their natural surroundings, are major tourist attractions. Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor has been a World Heritage Site since 1979. Its numerous Orthodox and Catholic churches and monasteries make it a major pilgrimage site.
Béla I the Champion or the Wisent (I., Belo I.; before 1020 – 11 September 1063) was King of Hungary from 1060 until his death.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Bihać is a city and the administrative center of Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Biograd na Moru is a city and municipality in northern Dalmatia, Croatia and is significant for being the former capital of the medieval Croatian Kingdom.
Bitola (Битола known also by several alternative names) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia.
Bloody Sabor of Križevci or Bloody Parliament Session or Križevci Bloody Assembly (Krvavi Sabor u Križevcima, Krvavi sabor križevački; kőrösi országgyűlés) was an organised killing of the former Croatian ban Stephen II Lackfi and his followers by King Sigismund, in Križevci, Croatia on 27 February 1397.
Boris I, also known as Boris-Mikhail (Michael) and Bogoris (Борис I / Борис-Михаил; died 2 May 907), was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in 852–889.
Traditionally, born in the purple was a category of members of royal families born during the reign of their parent.
Borna was the Duke (dux, Slavic knez) of Dalmatia, a vassal of the Frankish Empire, mentioned in the Royal Frankish Annals in entries regarding 818–821.
The river Bosna (Cyrillic: Босна) is the third longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered one of the country's three major internal rivers, along with the Neretva and the Vrbas; the other three major rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the Una, to the northwest, the Sava, to the north, and the Drina, to the east.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Bosnian Cyrillic, widely known as Bosančica is an extinct variant of the Cyrillic alphabet that originated in medieval Bosnia.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
Branimir (Branimiro) was a ruler of the Duchy of Croatia who reigned as duke (knez) from 879 to 892.
Braslav (882–896) was an East Frankish Slavic nobleman with the title of dux (duke), the governor of Lower Pannonia between 884 and 896, serving Arnulf of Carinthia.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
The Breviary (Latin: breviarium) is a book in many Western Christian denominations that "contains all the liturgical texts for the Office, whether said in choir or in private." Historically, different breviaries were used in the various parts of Christendom, such as Aberdeen Breviary, Belleville Breviary, Stowe Breviary and Isabella Breviary, although eventually the Roman Breviary became the standard within the Roman Catholic Church.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
Bunjevci are a South Slavic ethnic group living mostly in the Bačka region of Serbia (province of Vojvodina) and southern Hungary (Bács-Kiskun county, particularly in the Baja region).
Burgenland (Őrvidék; Gradišće; Gradiščanska; Hradsko; is the easternmost and least populous state of Austria. It consists of two statutory cities and seven rural districts, with in total 171 municipalities. It is long from north to south but much narrower from west to east (wide at Sieggraben). The region is part of the Centrope Project.
Burgenland Croats is the name for ethnic Croats in the Austrian state of Burgenland, along with Croats in neighboring Hungary and Slovakia.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Rite, also known as the Greek Rite or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church as well as by certain Eastern Catholic Churches; also, parts of it are employed by, as detailed below, other denominations.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.
Caraș-Severin is a county (județ) of Romania on the border with Serbia.
Carașova (Karaševo; Krassóvár) is a commune in Caraș-Severin County, Romania.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cetina is a river in southern Croatia.
Chakavian or Čakavian,, (čakavski, proper name: čakavica or čakavština, own name: čokovski, čakavski, čekavski) is a dialect of the Serbo-Croatian language spoken by a minority of Croats.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles I, also known as Charles Robert (Károly Róbert; Karlo Robert; Karol Róbert; 128816 July 1342) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308 to his death.
Charles the Short or Charles of Durazzo (1345 – 24 February 1386) was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem from 1382 to 1386 as Charles III, and King of Hungary from 1385 to 1386 as Charles II.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chorvátsky Grob (Hrvatski Grob, Horvátgurab, Horvát-Gurab, Kroatisch-Eisgrub) is a village and municipality in western Slovakia in Senec District in the Bratislava region.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
Chronica Hungarorum (Chronicle of the Hungarians) is the title of several works treating the early Hungarian history.
The Chronicle of the Priest of Dioclea or Duklja (Ljetopis popa Dukljanina) is the usual name given to an alleged medieval chronicle written by an anonymous priest from Duklja.
The Church of St.
The Church of St.
Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.
Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Předlitavsko, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.
The coat of arms of the Republic of Croatia (Grb Republike Hrvatske) consists of one main shield and five smaller shields which form a crown over the main shield.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
Coloman the Learned, also the Book-Lover or the Bookish (Könyves Kálmán; Koloman; Koloman Učený; 10703February 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 and King of Croatia from 1097 until his death.
A commune (comună in Romanian) is the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania.
Standard Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian are different national variants and official registers of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Croatia Airlines Ltd. is the state-owned flag carrier of Croatia.
The Croatia national football team (Hrvatska nogometna reprezentacija) represents Croatia in international football.
Croatian Americans or Croat Americans (Američki Hrvati or Hrvati u Americi) are Americans who have full or partial Croatian ancestry.
Croatian Argentines are Argentine citizens of Croatian descent or Croatian-born people who reside in Argentina.
Croatian Australians (Australski Hrvati) are Australian citizens of Croatian descent.
Croatian Brazilians (Croato-brasileiro, Croata brasileiro) are Brazilians of full, partial, or predominantly Croat descent, or Croat-born people residing in Brazil.
Croatian Canadians are Canadian citizens who are of Croatian descent.
Croatian Chileans (Chileno-croatas,; Croatian: čileanski Hrvati) are an important ethnic group in Chile; they are citizens of Chile who were either born in Europe or are Chileans of Croatian descent deriving their Croatian ethnicity from one or both parents.
Croatian diaspora refers to the Croatian communities that have formed outside Croatia.
Croatian Ecuadorians are Ecuadorians who are descended from migrants from Croatia.
The Croatian Fraternal Union (Hrvatska bratska zajednica) (CFU), the oldest and largest Croatian organization in North America, is a fraternal benefit society of the Croatian diaspora based out of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US.
The Croatian Heritage Foundation (Hrvatska matica isljenika) is an organization which works with Croatian emigrants.
The Croatian interlace or Croatian wattle, known as the pleter or troplet in Croatian, is a type of interlace, most characteristic for its three-ribbon pattern.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
The Croatian military ranks are the military insignia used by the Republic of Croatia Armed Forces.
Croatian New Zealanders refers to New Zealand citizens of Croatian descent.
The Croatian Parliament (Hrvatski sabor) or the Sabor is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia; it is Croatia's legislature.
Croatian Peruvians are Peruvians of Croatian descent.
Croatian Uruguayans comprise Croat migrants to Uruguay and their descendants.
Croatian Venezuelans (Croata-venezolano, Croata venezolano) are Venezuelans of full, partial, or predominantly Croat descent, or Croat-born people residing in Venezuela.
The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between Croat forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY)—and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat operations in Croatia by 1992.
In 926 a battle was fought in the Bosnian highlands between the armies the Bulgarian Empire, under the rule of Bulgarian Tsar Simeon I, who at the time also fought a war with the Byzantine Empire, and the Kingdom of Croatia under Tomislav, the first king of the Croatian state.
The Croatian–Slovene Peasant Revolt (hrvaško-slovenski kmečki upor), Gubec's Rebellion (Gupčeva buna) or Gubec's peasant uprising of 1573 was a large peasant revolt on territory forming modern-day Croatia and Slovenia.
Croats in Germany (Kroaten in Deutschland; Hrvati u Njemačkoj) refers to persons living in Germany who have total or partial Croatian ancestry.
The Croats (Hrvati in Croatian, Chorváti in Slovak) are an ethnic minority in Slovakia, numbering 850 people according to the 2001 census, although the relatively compact Croatian community may number as many as 3500 people.
Croats in Sweden (Sverigekroater) are citizens and residents of Sweden who are of Croatian descent.
Croats are one of the 12 recognized minorities in the Czech Republic.
Croats of Belgium are an ethnic group in Belgium.
The Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, often referred to as the Bosnian Croats, are the third most populous ethnic group in that country after Bosniaks and Serbs, and are one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Hungarian Croats (Croatian: Hrvati u Mađarskoj, Magyarországi horvátok) are an ethnic minority in Hungary.
Croats form a part of the permanent population of Italy (Hrvati u Italiji).
The Croats have a minority in Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor), a coastal region in Montenegro, the largest of their kind in Tivat.
Croats (Hrvati, Croați) are an ethnic minority in Romania, numbering 6,786 people according to the 2002 census.
The Croats of Serbia (Hrvati u Srbiji, Хрвати у Србији / Hrvati u Srbiji) or Serbian Croats (Srpski Hrvati, Српски Хрвати / Srpski Hrvati) are the recognized Croat national minority in Serbia, a status they received in 2002.
The Croats are an ethnic group in Slovenia.
The Croats of Switzerland number between 31,000 and 44,035.
The Crown of Zvonimir was bestowed on King Dmitar Zvonimir of Croatia in 1076 by the papal legate.
The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
The Czech Statistical Office (Český statistický úřad) is the main organization which collects, analyzes and disseminates statistical information for the benefit of the various parts of the local and national governments of the Czech Republic.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Theme of Dalmatia (θέμα Δαλματίας/Δελματίας, thema Dalmatias/Delmatias) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea in Southeastern Europe, headquartered at Jadera (later called Zara and now Zadar).
Dalmatian Hinterland (Croatian: Dalmatinska Zagora) is the southern inland region of Croatia.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
Dardania (Δαρδανία; Dardania) was a Roman province in the Central Balkans, initially an unofficial region in Moesia (87–284), then a province administratively part of the Diocese of Moesia (293–337).
De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.
Demetrius Zvonimir (Dmitar Zvonimir,, Demetrius Suinnimir/Zuonimir/Sunimirio, died 20 April 1089) was King of Croatia and Dalmatia from 1075 until his death in 1089.
Devínska Nová Ves (Dévényújfalu, Devinsko Novo Selo, Theben-Neudorf) is a borough of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
The Dinaric Alps, also commonly Dinarides, are a mountain range in Southern and Southeastern Europe, separating the continental Balkan Peninsula from the Adriatic Sea.
Dobré Pole (Guttenfeld; Dobro Polje) is a village in Břeclav District, South Moravian Region, Czech Republic.
The Doge of Venice (Doxe de Venexia; Doge di Venezia; all derived from Latin dūx, "military leader"), sometimes translated as Duke (compare the Italian Duca), was the chief magistrate and leader of the Most Serene Republic of Venice for 1,100 years (697–1797).
Domagoj (Domagoi) (died 876) was a duke (knez) of the Duchy of Croatia in 864–876 and the founder of the House of Domagojević.
Dominik Mandić (2 December 1889 – 23 August 1973) was a Bosnian Croat Franciscan priest and writer.
The Drava or Drave by Jürgen Utrata (2014).
Kozarska Dubica (Козарска Дубица; until 1992: Bosanska Dubica / Босанска Дубица) is a town and municipality located in northern Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
"Duchy of Croatia" (also "Duchy of the Croats", Kneževina Hrvata; "Dalmatian Croatia", Dalmatinska Hrvatska; "Littoral Croatia", Primorska Hrvatska; Greek: Χρωβατία, Chrovatía), was a medieval Croatian duchy that was established in the former Roman province of Dalmatia.
Duchy of Pannonian Croatia (Kneževina Panonska Hrvatska) was a medieval duchy from the 7th to the 10th century located in the Pannonian Plain approximately between the rivers Drava and Sava in today's Croatia, but at times also considerably to the south of the Sava.
Duklja (Διοκλεία, Diokleia; Dioclea; Serbian Cyrillic: Дукља) was a medieval Serb state which roughly encompassed the territories of present-day southeastern Montenegro, from the Bay of Kotor in the west to the Bojana river in the east, and to the sources of the Zeta and Morača rivers in the north.
Durrës (Durazzo,, historically known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is northwest of Sarandë, west of Tirana, south of Shkodër and east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's most ancient and economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos (Επίδαμνος) around the 7th century BC, the city essentially developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. The Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian, Venetian and Ottoman dominions. Following the declaration of independence of Albania, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time. Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries. Its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës that is included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula.
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.
The election in Cetin (Cetinski sabor, meaning Parliament on Cetin or Parliament of Cetin) was an assembly of the Croatian Parliament in the Cetin Castle in 1527.
Elizabeth of Bosnia (– January 1387) was queen consort and later regent of Hungary and Croatia, as well as queen consort of Poland.
Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
More than 96% of population of Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to one of its three autochthonous constituent nations: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (abbreviated FB&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH) / Федерација Боснa и Херцеговина (ФБиХ), Croatian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH)) is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
Count Ferenc Wesselényi de Hadad et Murány (1605 – Zólyomlipcse (Slovenská Ľupča), 23 March 1667) was a Hungarian military commander and the palatine of the Royal Hungary.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.
The national flag of Croatia (Zastava Hrvatske) or The Tricolor (Trobojnica) is one of the state symbols of Croatia.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
The Klis Fortress (Tvrđava Klis) is a medieval fortress situated above a village bearing the same name, near the city of Split, in central Dalmatia, Croatia. From its origin as a small stronghold built by the ancient Illyrian tribe Dalmatae, becoming a royal castle that was the seat of many Croatian kings, to its final development as a large fortress during the Ottoman wars in Europe, Klis Fortress has guarded the frontier, being lost and re-conquered several times throughout its more-than-two-thousand-year-long history. Due to its location on a pass that separates the mountains Mosor and Kozjak, the fortress served as a major source of defense in Dalmatia, especially against the Ottoman advance, and has been a key crossroad between the Mediterranean belt and the Balkan rear.
Fran Krsto Frankopan (Frangepán Ferenc Kristóf; 4 March 1643 – 30 April 1671) was a Croatian baroque poet, nobleman and politician in the 17th century.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi.
The Frankopan family (Frankopani, Frankapani; Frangipani, Frangepán. Frangepanus/Francopanus), was a Croatian noble family, whose members were among the great landowner magnates and high officers of the Kingdom of Hungary–Croatia.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (gâj); abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin). It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is currently used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia.
Generalissimo is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries where they are used.
Population genetics is a scientific discipline which contributes to the examination of the human evolutionary and historical migrations.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giorgio da Sebenico (Juraj Dalmatinac; c. 1410 – 10 October 1473) was a Venetian sculptor and architect from Venetian Dalmatia, who worked mainly in Sebenico (now Šibenik, Croatia), and in the city of Ancona, then a maritime republic.
The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
Gojslav was a monarch who co-ruled the Kingdom of Croatia with his brother Krešimir III from 1000 to his death in 1020.
The Gospel of Cividale (Evangelario di Cividale, čedadski evangelij, čedajski evangelij or štivanski evangelij, čedadski evanđelistar), at first named the Codex of Aquileia (Latin: codex aquileiensis, codex foroiulensis, Slovene: Oglejski kodeks), is a medieval Latin transcript of the Gospel of Mark, written on parchment.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
Great Moravia (Regnum Marahensium; Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megálī Moravía; Velká Morava; Veľká Morava; Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland (including Silesia), and Hungary.
The Guduscani or Guduscans (Gačani, Guduščani) were an indetermined tribe around present day Gacka (Lika), between upper Kupa river and the Dalmatian coast, or the inhabitants around the river Guduča near Zadar, a Croatian tribe, i.e. the people of the Bribir region.
The gusle (гусле, гусла, lahuta, lăuta) is a single-stringed musical instrument (and musical style) traditionally used in the Dinarides region of Southeastern Europe.
A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup (haploid from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, simple" and group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.
Haplogroup E-M96 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup G (M201) is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup I (M170) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup I-M438, also known as I2 (and until 2007 as I1b), is a human DNA Y-chromosome haplogroup, a subclade of Haplogroup I-M170.
Haplogroup J-M304, also known as J, (2 February 2016).
Haplogroup N (M231) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup defined by the presence of the SNP marker M231.
Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Helen of Hungary, also known as Helen the Fair (Jelena Lijepa; Ilona) (d. 1091), was a queen consort of Croatia.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
Herzegovina (or; Serbian: Hercegovina, Херцеговина) is the southern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Czechoslovak First Republic emerged from the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in October 1918.
Hollow Church (Croatian: Šuplja crkva) is a name given to a part of the archeological excavations of what used to be a Croatian romanesque Roman Catholic church in the 11th century.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The Hrvoje's Missal (Hrvojev misal) is a 15th-century missal written in Glagolitic alphabet.
The Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War (Stogodišnji hrvatsko-turski rat, Kratka politicka i kulturna povijest Hrvatske Stogodišnji rat protiv Turaka, Stogodišnji rat s Osmanlijama) is the name for a sequence of conflicts, mostly of relatively low-intensity, ("Small War", Croatian: Mali rat) between the Ottoman Empire and the medieval Kingdom of Croatia (ruled by the Jagiellon and Zápolya dynasties), and the later Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 ("1848–49 Revolution and War") was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Illyrian movement (Ilirski pokret, Ilirsko gibanje) was a pan-South-Slavist cultural and political campaign with roots in the early modern period, and revived by a group of young Croatian intellectuals during the first half of the 19th century, around the years of 1835–1849 (there is some disagreement regarding the official dates).
The Illyrian Provinces was an autonomous province of France during the First French Empire that existed under Napoleonic Rule from 1809 to 1814.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria; Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivan Franov Gundulić (also Gianfrancesco Gondola; 8 January 1589 – 8 December 1638; Nickname: Mačica), better known today as Ivan Gundulić, was the most prominent Croatian Baroque poet from the Republic of Ragusa.
Ivan Mažuranić (11 August 1814 – 4 August 1890) was a Croatian poet, linguist, lawyer and politician who is considered to be one of the most important figures in Croatia's political and cultural life in the mid-19th century.
Ivan Meštrović (Vrpolje, 15 August 1883 - South Bend, 16 January 1962) was a renowned Croatian sculptor, architect and writer of the 20th century.
Ivo Andrić (Иво Андрић,; born Ivan Andrić; 9 October 1892 – 13 March 1975) was a Yugoslav novelist, poet and short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1961.
Kosovo Croats (Kroatët e Kosovës, Kosovski Hrvati), locally known as Janjevci (Janjevët, Janjevci) are the Croat community in Kosovo, inhabiting the town of Janjevo and surrounding villages near Pristina, as well as villages centered on Letnica near Vitina (Shashare, Vrnez and Vrnavokolo).
Janjevo (in Serbian and Croatian) or Janjevë (in Albanian) is a village or small town in the Lipljan municipality in southeastern Kosovo.
Jarovce (Horvátjárfalu, Horvát-Járfalu, Hrvatski Jandrof, Kroatisch Jahrndorf) is a small borough of Bratislava, Slovakia.
Jevišovka, formerly Frélichov (Fröllersdorf, Frjelištorf, Frielištof) is a village and municipality (obec) in Břeclav District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.
John Horvat (Ivan Horvat; János Horváti; died on 15 August 1394) was a Croatian nobleman in the Kingdom of Hungary-Croatia who served as Ban of Macsó from 1376 to 1381, and again between 1385 and 1386.
John Hunyadi (Hunyadi János, Ioan de Hunedoara; 1406 – 11 August 1456) was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century.
Saint John of Capestrano (Italian: San Giovanni da Capestrano, Hungarian: Kapisztrán János, Polish: Jan Kapistran, Croatian: Ivan Kapistran, Serbian: Јован Капистран, Jovan Kapistran) (24 June 1386 – 23 October 1456) was a Franciscan friar and Catholic priest from the Italian town of Capestrano, Abruzzo.
John of Palisna (Ivan od Paližne, Joannes de Palisna) (? – 23 March 1391) was a Croatian knight and warrior, prior of Vrana, and Ban of Croatia.
John Zápolya, or John Szapolyai (Ivan Zapolja, Szapolyai János or Zápolya János, Ioan Zápolya, Ján Zápoľský, Jovan Zapolja/Јован Запоља; 1490 or 1491 – 22 July 1540), was King of Hungary (as John I) from 1526 to 1540.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Count Josip Jelačić von Bužim (16 October 180120 May 1859; also spelled Jellachich, Jellačić or Jellasics; in Croatian: Josip grof Jelačić Bužimski) was the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 May 1859.
Josip Juraj Strossmayer (alt. Josip Juraj Štrosmajer) (Joseph Georg Strossmayer; 4 February 1815 – 8 May 1905) was a Croatian politician, Roman Catholic bishop and benefactor.
Juraj V Zrinski (V.) (31 January 1599 – 28 December 1626) was a Croatian Ban (viceroy), warrior and member of the Zrinski noble family.
Kȁčić is a Croatian surname.
Kajkavian (Kajkavian noun: kajkavščina; Shtokavian adjective: kajkavski, noun: kajkavica or kajkavština) is a South Slavic regiolect or language spoken primarily by Croats in much of Central Croatia, Gorski Kotar and northern Istria.
Karlovac (is a city and municipality in central Croatia. According to the National census held in 2011 population of the settlement of Karlovac was 55,705. Karlovac is the administrative centre of Karlovac County. The city is located on the Zagreb-Rijeka highway and railway line, south-west of Zagreb and from Rijeka.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Klapa music is a form of traditional a cappella singing in Dalmatia, Croatia.
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who was one of the most important of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
Klis (Klis, Clissa, Kilis) is a Croatian town located around a mountain fortress bearing the same name.
The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
Knin is a city in the Šibenik-Knin County of Croatia, located in the Dalmatian hinterland near the source of the river Krka, an important traffic junction on the rail and road routes between Zagreb and Split.
Kocel (861–874) was a Slavic ruler of Lower Pannonia, a polity known in historiography as the Balaton principality.
In Southeastern Europe, the South Slavic peoples traditionally dance the circle dance, known as Kolo (Коло/Kolo; Kolo; Kolo), named after the circle formed by the dancers.
Kondura or Condura (Condoira) was a type of ship used on the eastern shores of the Adriatic.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Krashovani (Carașoveni, Krašovani) are a South Slavic community inhabiting Carașova and Lupac in the Caraș-Severin County within Romanian Banat.
Krbava is a historical region located in Mountainous Croatia and a former Catholic bishopric (1185-1460), precursor of the diocese of Modruš an present Latin titular see.
Krešimir I was King of Croatia from 935 until his death in 945.
Krešimir III (Cresimir) (died 1030) was a King of Croatia in 1000–1030 from the House of Trpimirović and founder of its cadet line House of Krešimirović.
Krk (Vegl; Curicta; Veglia; Vegliot Dalmatian: Vikla; Ancient Greek Kyrikon, Κύρικον) is a Croatian island in the northern Adriatic Sea, located near Rijeka in the Bay of Kvarner and part of Primorje-Gorski Kotar county.
Krka is a river in Croatia's Dalmatia region, known for its numerous waterfalls.
The Kupa (Croatian and Serbian pronunciation) or Kolpa (or; from Colapis in Roman times) river, a right tributary of the Sava, forms a natural border between north-west Croatia and southeast Slovenia.
The Lackfi, Laczkfi or Laczkfy (Lacković/Laczkovich) was a noble family from Kingdom of Hungary and Croatia, which governed parts of Transylvania (as Count of the Székelys) and held the title of Voivode of Transylvania in the 14th century.
Ladislaus I or Ladislas I, also Saint Ladislaus or Saint Ladislas (I or Szent László; Ladislav I.; Svätý Ladislav I; Władysław I Święty; 1040 – 29 July 1095) was King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091.
Ladislaus the Magnanimous (Ladislao il Magnanimo di Napoli; Nápolyi László; 15 February 1377 – 6 August 1414) was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily, titular Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1386–1414), and titular King of Hungary and Croatia (1390–1414).
Lake Ohrid (Liqeni i Ohrit, Liqeni i Pogradecit; Охридско Езеро) straddles the mountainous border between southwestern Macedonia and eastern Albania.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Law Codex of Vinodol or Vinodol statute (Vinodolski zakonik) is one of the oldest law texts written in the Chakavian dialect of Croatian language and is among the oldest Slavic codes.
Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.
Baron Levin Rauch de Nyék (6 October 1819 – 25 August 1890) was an Austrian-Hungarian politician and appointed Ban of Croatia-Slavonia between 1867 and 1871.
Lexicology is the part of linguistics that studies words.
The Liber Pontificalis (Latin for 'pontifical book' or Book of the Popes) is a book of biographies of popes from Saint Peter until the 15th century.
Liburnia in ancient geography was the land of the Liburnians, a region along the northeastern Adriatic coast in Europe, in modern Croatia, whose borders shifted according to the extent of the Liburnian dominance at a given time between 11th and 1st century BC.
Lika is a traditional region of Croatia proper, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the Plješevica mountain from the northeast.
This is a list of Slavic tribes reported in the Middle Ages, that is, before the year AD 1500.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
The following is a list of prominent individuals who were Croatian citizens or of Croatian ancestry.
The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented: c.626, Croats migrate from White Croatia (around what is now Galicia) at the invitation of Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius.
Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.
Ljudevit or Liudewit (Liudewitus, often also Ljudevit Posavski), was the Duke of Lower Pannonia from 810 to 823.
Ljudevit Gaj (born Ludwig Gay;According to Djuro Šurmin: Hrvatski preporod, vol I-II, Zagreb, 1903), 8 August 1809 – 20 April 1872) was a Croatian linguist, politician, journalist and writer. He was one of the central figures of the pan-Slavist Illyrian Movement.
The Long Turkish War or Thirteen Years' War was an indecisive land war between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, primarily over the Principalities of Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia.
Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch and Medieval Latin: Lotharius, German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).
Louis I, also Louis the Great (Nagy Lajos; Ludovik Veliki; Ľudovít Veľký) or Louis the Hungarian (Ludwik Węgierski; 5 March 132610 September 1382), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370.
Louis II (Ludvík, Ludovik, Lajos, 1 July 1506 – 29 August 1526) was King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia from 1516 to 1526.
Louis II, sometimes called the Younger (825 – 12 August 875), was the King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 844, co-ruling with his father Lothair I until 855, after which he ruled alone.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Lower Carniola (Dolenjska; Unterkrain) is a traditional region in Slovenia, the southeastern part of the historical Carniola region.
Lupac (Romanian: Lupac; Croatian: Lupak; Kiskrassó) is a commune in Caraș-Severin County, Banat, Romania.
tags--> The Magnate conspiracy, also known as the Zrinski-Frankopan Conspiracy (Zrinsko-frankopanska urota) in Croatia, and Wesselényi conspiracy (Wesselényi-összeesküvés) in Hungary, was a 17th-century attempt to throw off Habsburg and other foreign influences over Hungary and Croatia.
Magyarization (also Magyarisation, Hungarization, Hungarisation, Hungarianization, Hungarianisation), after "Magyar", the autonym of Hungarians, was an assimilation or acculturation process by which non-Hungarian nationals came to adopt the Hungarian culture and language, either voluntarily or due to social pressure, often in the form of a coercive policy.
Margrave was originally the medieval title for the military commander assigned to maintain the defense of one of the border provinces of the Holy Roman Empire or of a kingdom.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
Marin Držić (also Marino Darza or Marino Darsa; 1508 – 2 May 1567) is considered the finest Dubrovnikan Renaissance playwright and prose writer.
Marko Marulić (Marco Marulo; 18 August 1450 – 5 January 1524) was a Croatian national poet and Renaissance humanist, known as the Crown of the Croatian Medieval Age and the father of the Croatian Renaissance.
Mary, also known as Maria (137117 May 1395), reigned as Queen of Hungary and Croatia between 1382 and 1385, and from 1386 until her death.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hunyadi Mátyás, Matija Korvin, Matia Corvin, Matej Korvín, Matyáš Korvín), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Metlika (MöttlingLeksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 10.) is a town and municipality in the southeastern Slovenia.
Michael Krešimir II (died 969) was King of Croatia from 949 to his death in 969.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Miklós Zrínyi or Nikola Zrinski (Hungarian: Zrínyi Miklós, Croatian: Nikola Zrinski; 5 January 1620 – 18 November 1664) was a Croatian and Hungarian military leader, statesman and poet.
The Military Frontier was a province straddling the southern borderland of the Habsburg Monarchy and later the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations.
Miroslav Krleža (7 July 1893 – 29 December 1981) was a leading Croatian writer and a prominent figure in cultural life of both Yugoslav states, the Kingdom (1918–1941) and the Socialist Republic (1945 until his death in 1981).
The Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography (Leksikografski zavod Miroslav Krleža or LZMK) is Croatia's national lexicographical institution.
Miroslav (Miroslaus) was the King of Croatia from 945 until his death in 949 and a member of the House of Trpimirović.
Mislav (Muisclavo) was the Duke of Croatia in.
A missal is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the year.
Missale Romanum Glagolitice (Misal po zakonu rimskoga dvora) is a Croatian missal and incunabulum printed in 1483.
Mladen I Šubić of Bribir (Mladen I Šubić Bribirski) (died 1304) was a member of the Croatian noble family Šubić, at the end of 13th and beginning of the 14th century.
Mladen II Šubić of Bribir (Mladen II Šubić Bribirski) (c.1270 – c.1341), a Croatian leader and member of the Šubić noble family, was a Ban of Croatia and Lord of all of Bosnia.
Molise is a region of Southern Italy.
Molise Croats (Moliški Hrvati) or Molise Slavs (Slavo-molisani, Slavi del Molise) are a Croat community in the Molise province of Campobasso of Italy, which constitutes the majority in the three villages of Acquaviva Collecroce (Kruč), San Felice del Molise (Štifilić) and Montemitro (Mundimitar).
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Muncimir (Muncimiro), sometimes called Mutimir, was a duke (knez) of the Duchy of Croatia and reigned from 892 to around 910.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
The Narentines were a South Slavic tribe that occupied an area of southern Dalmatia centered at the river Neretva (Narenta), active in the 9th and 10th centuries, noted as pirates on the Adriatic.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Nelipić, also called Nelipac or Nelipčić, were a medieval Croatian noble family from Dalmatian Zagora in Croatia.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neretva (Неретва), also known as the Narenta, is the largest river of the eastern part of the Adriatic basin.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino (Croatian: Nikola Firentinac) called Nicolas of Florence (Bagno a Ripoli, 1418 - Šibenik, 1506), was an Italian Renaissance sculptor and architect, active in Venice and Dalmatia.
Nikola Šubić Zrinski or Zrínyi Miklós (1508 – 7 September 1566) was a Croatian nobleman and general in the service of the Habsburg, ban of Croatia from 1542-56, and member of the Zrinski noble family.
Baron Nikola Jurišić (Miklós Jurisics; c. 1490 – 1545) was a Croatian nobleman, soldier, and diplomat.
Nin (Nona, Aenona or Nona) is a town in the Zadar County of Croatia, population 1,132, total municipality population 2,744 (2011).
Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes, that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Nový Přerov (Neuprerau, Neu-Prerau, Nova Prerava) is a village and municipality (obec) in Břeclav District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
The Old Church Slavonic Institute (Staroslavenski institut) is Croatian public institute founded in 1952 by the state for the purpose of scientific research on the language, literature and paleography of the mediaeval literary heritage of the Croatian vernacular and the Croatian recension of Church Slavonic.
The origin of the Croats before the great migration of the Slavs is uncertain.
Ostrovica is a village in Croatia in the Zadar County, in the Lišane Ostrovičke municipality, population 86 (census 2011).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
Paleolithic Europe, the Lower or Old Stone Age in Europe encompasses the era from the arrival of the first archaic humans, about 1.4 million years ago until the beginning of the Mesolithic (also Epipaleolithic) around 10,000 years ago.
The Pan-Slavic colors — red, blue and white — were defined by the Prague Slavic Congress, 1848, based on the flag of Russia, which was introduced in the late 17th century.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
Pannonia Inferior, lit.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
Paul I Šubić of Bribir (Pavao I. Šubić Bribirski; bribiri I. Subics Pál) (c. 1245 – 1 May 1312) was a Croatian leader and most outstanding member of the Šubić noble family from Bribir.
The Peace of Vasvár was a treaty between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire which followed the Battle of Saint Gotthard of 1 August 1664 (near Mogersdorf, Burgenland), and concluded the Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664).
The Peace of Zsitvatorok (or Treaty of Sitvatorok) was a peace treaty which ended the Fifteen Years' War between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Monarchy on 11 November 1606.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia.
Pest is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, Hungary, comprising about two thirds of the city's territory.
Petar Berislavić (or Péter Beriszló in Hungarian) (Trogir, 1475 – May 20, 1520), a member of the Berislavići Trogirski noble family, was the ban (viceroy) of Croatia from 1513 to 1520 and also bishop of Veszprém.
Petar Kružić (died 1537) was a Croatian knez, captain, soldier and defender of Klis, and the captain of Senj.
Petar Snačić (Svačić) was a feudal lord, notable for being one of the claimants of the Croatian throne during the wars of succession (c. 1093–1097).
Petar Zrinski (Zrínyi Péter) (6 June 1621 – 30 April 1671) was a Croatian-Hungarian Ban (Viceroy) and writer.
Peter Krešimir IV, called the Great (Petar Krešimir IV., Petrus Cresimir) (died 1075), was King of Croatia and Dalmatia from 1059 to his death in 1074/5.
Petrova Gora ("Peter's Mountain") is a mountain range in central Kordun.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Pietro Tradonico (Petrus Tradonicus; c. 800 - 13 September 864) was Doge of Venice from 836 to 864.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Gregory VII (Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.
Pope Innocent IV (Innocentius IV; c. 1195 – 7 December 1254), born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.
Pope John IV (Ioannes IV; died 12 October 642) reigned from 24 December 640 to his death in 642.
Pope John VIII (Ioannes VIII; died 16 December 882) was Pope from 14 December 872 to his death in 882.
Pope John X (Ioannes X; d. 28 May 928) was Pope from March 914 to his death in 928.
Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
Pope Nicholas II (Nicholaus II; c. 990/995 – 27 July 1061), born Gérard de Bourgogne, was Pope from 24 January 1059 until his death.
Posavina (Posavina/Посавина) is the Slavic name for the region of the Sava river basin in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia that is adjacent or near the Sava river itself.
A pragmatic sanction is a sovereign's solemn decree on a matter of primary importance and has the force of fundamental law.
Prekmurje (dialectically: Prèkmürsko or Prèkmüre; Muravidék) is a geographically, linguistically, culturally and ethnically defined region settled by Slovenes and a Hungarian minority, lying between the Mur River in Slovenia and the Rába Valley (the watershed of the Rába) (Porabje) in the most western part of Hungary.
Pribina (c. 800861) was a Slavic prince whose adventurous career, recorded in the Conversion of the Bavarians and the Carantanians (a historical work written in 870), illustrates the political volatility of the Franco–Slavic frontiers of his time.
The Principality of Montenegro (Књажевина Црнa Горa/Knjaževina Crna Gora) was a former realm in Southeastern Europe that existed from 13 March 1852 to 28 August 1910.
Radovan (Raduan) was Croatian sculptor and architect who lived in Trogir in the 13th century.
Red Croatia (Croatia Rubea, Crvena Hrvatska), is a historical term used for the southeastern parts of Roman Dalmatia and some other territories, including parts of present-day Montenegro, Albania, the Herzegovina region of Bosnia and Herzegovina and southeastern Croatia, stretching across the Adriatic Sea.
The Renaissance in Croatia is a period of cultural enrichment in Croatia that began at the end of the 15th century and lasted until the second quarter of the 16th century.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
A set of revolutions took place in the Austrian Empire from March 1848 to November 1849.
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29, 1453.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Rite (Ritus Romanus) is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church, as well as the most popular and widespread Rite in all of Christendom, and is one of the Western/Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church.
Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 12th century, or later, depending on region.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Royal Frankish Annals (Latin: Annales regni Francorum; also Annales Laurissenses maiores and German: Reichsannalen) are Latin annals composed in Carolingian Francia, recording year-by-year the state of the monarchy from 741 (the death of Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel) to 829 (the beginning of the crisis of Louis the Pious).
Rusovce (Rosvar, Oroszvár (both means "Russian (Ruthenian, Ukrainian) castle"), Karlburg, Rossenburg, Kerchenburg) is a borough in southern Bratislava on the right bank of the Danube river, close to the Hungarian border.
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Sava (Сава) is a river in Central and Southeastern Europe, a right tributary of the Danube.
Senj (Segna, Senia, Zengg) is an old town on the upper Adriatic coast in Croatia, in the foothills of the Mala Kapela and Velebit mountains.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Shtokavian or Štokavian (štokavski / штокавски) is the prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language, and the basis of its Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin standards.
The Siege of Belgrade, Battle of Belgrade or Siege of Nándorfehérvár was a military blockade of Belgrade that occurred from July 4–22, 1456.
The Siege of Jajce was a siege in 1463 and was part of the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars.
The Siege of Szigetvár or Battle of Szigeth (pronunciation: Szigetvár ostroma, Bitka kod Sigeta; Sigetska bitka, Zigetvar Kuşatması) was a siege of the fortress of Szigetvár, Kingdom of Hungary, that blocked Suleiman's line of advance towards Vienna in 1566 AD.
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Simeon (also Symeon) I the Great (Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp.
Sinj (Signo, Zein) is a town in the continental part of Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia.
The Sinjska alka is an equestrian competition held in the Croatian town of Sinj every first Sunday in August since 1717.
Sisak (Sziszek; also known by other alternative names) is a city and episcopal see in central Croatia, located at the confluence of the Kupa, Sava and Odra rivers, southeast of the Croatian capital Zagreb, and is usually considered to be where the Posavina (Sava basin) begins, with an elevation of 99 m. The city's total population in 2011 was 47,768 of which 33,322 live in the urban settlement (naselje).
Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
Slavonia (Slavonija) is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Slovene Littoral (Primorska,; Litorale; Küstenland) is one of the five traditional regions of Slovenia.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Slovo is a biannual academic journal edited and managed entirely by postgraduates of the UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Solin (Latin and Italian: Salona, Ancient Greek: Σαλώνα) is a town in Dalmatia, Croatia.
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province of Ontario, Canada, the other primary region being Northern Ontario.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Papal Basilica of St.
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba/Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба; Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a short-lived entity formed at the end of World War I by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs residing in what were the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
Stephen Držislav (Stjepan Držislav, Dirzislaus) (died 997) was King of Croatia from 969 AD until his death in 997.
Stephen I Krešimirović (Stjepan I Krešimirović) (c. 988 – 1058) was a King of Croatia from c. 1030 until 1058 and a member of House of Trpimirović, first of the Krešimirović branch.
Stephen II (Stjepan II) (died 1091) was the last member of the Trpimirović dynasty and last native Croatian king to rule the entire medieval Croatian Kingdom.
Svetoslav Suronja, was King of Croatia from 997 to 1000.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Syrmia (Srem/Срем, Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain in Europe, which lies between the Danube and Sava rivers.
Tamburica or Tamboura (Tamburica, Tamburica, Тамбурица, meaning "little Tamboura"; Tambura; Ταμπουράς, sometimes written tamburrizza or tamburitza) refers to a family of long-necked lutes popular in Southern Europe and Central Europe, especially Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia (especially Vojvodina), Slovenia, and Hungary.
Tanais (Τάναϊς Tánaïs; Танаис) was an ancient Greek city in the Don river delta, called the Maeotian marshes in classical antiquity.
The Tanais Tablets are two tablets dated late 2nd-3rd century AD, and written in Greek from the city of Tanais, in the proximity of modern Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
This is a timeline of Croatian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Croatia and its predecessor states.
Augustin Josip "Tin" Ujević (5 July 1891 – 12 November 1955) was a Croatian poet, considered by many to be the greatest poet in 20th century Croatian literature.
Tomislav (Tamisclaus) was the first King of Croatia.
Tomislavgrad, also known by its former name Duvno, is a town and municipality located in Canton 10 of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Treaty of Zadar, also known as the Treaty of Zara, was a peace treaty signed in Zadar, Dalmatia on February 18, 1358 by which the Venetian Republic lost influence over its Dalmatian holdings.
The triband is one of the most common designs of flag, and is the design of some 30% of all current national flags.
The Cathedral of St.
Trpimir I (Trepimerus) was a duke (knez) of Croatia in, and the founder of the Croatian House of Trpimirović that ruled in Croatia, with interruptions, from around 845 until 1091.
Trpimir II (died c. 935) was a King of Croatia from 928 to 935.
Trpimirović dynasty (Trpimirovići) was a native Croat dynasty that ruled, with interruptions, from 845 until 1091 in Croatia and was named after Trpimir I, the first member and the founder.
The Una is a river in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek (Sveučilište J.J. Strossmayera u Osijeku) is a university located in Osijek, Croatia.
The Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustashe (Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945.
Varaždīn (or; also known by other alternative names) is a city in Northern Croatia, north of Zagreb.
The Vatican Croatian Prayer Book (Vatikanski hrvatski molitvenik) is the oldest Croatian vernacular prayer book and the finest example of early Shtokavian vernacular literary idiom.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
Vlaho Bukovac (Blaise Bukovac; Biagio Faggioni; 4 July 1855 – 23 April 1922) was a Croatian painter.
Vojnomir or Vonomir I was a Slavic military commander in Frankish service.
Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.
The Vrbas is a major river with a length of, in western Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.
White Croatia (also Great Croatia or Chrobatia) was the ill-defined homeland of the White Croats in Central and Eastern Europe.
Wiener Neustadt is a city located south of Vienna, in the state of Lower Austria, in north-east Austria.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
The Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska narodna armija / Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslavenska narodna armija; also Yugoslav National Army), often referred-to simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Yugoslavs or Yugoslavians (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslaveni/Југославени, Jugosloveni/Југословени; Macedonian: Југословени; Slovene: Jugoslovani) is a designation that was originally designed to refer to a united South Slavic people.
Zachlumia or Zachumlia (Zahumlje / Захумље), also Hum, was a medieval principality located in the modern-day regions of Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia (today parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, respectively).
Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.
The Zagreb Cathedral on Kaptol is a Roman Catholic institution and not only the tallest building in Croatia but also the most monumental sacral building in Gothic style southeast of the Alps.
Zdeslav (Sedesclavus) was a duke (knez) of the Duchy of Croatia in 878–879.
Zeta (Зета) was a medieval region and province of the Serbian Grand Principality, Kingdom, and Empire.
Zrin Castle (Gradina Zrin) is a ruined castle located in the village of Zrin, south of the town of Sisak in Dvor municipality, central Croatia.
Zrinski was a Croatian-Hungarian noble family, influential during the period in history marked by the Ottoman wars in Europe in the Kingdom of Hungary and Croatia and in the later Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Zrmanja is a river in southern Lika and northern Dalmatia, Croatia.
Zvonimir is a Croatian male given name, used since the Middle Ages.