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Index Crocodile

Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. [1]

290 relations: Africa, Aggression, Alligator, Alligator meat, Alligatoridae, Ambush predator, American alligator, American crocodile, Amphibian, Anatomy, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Animal communication, Aortic arch, Apex predator, Aquatic animal, Archosaur, Australia, Australia (continent), Australia Zoo, Axon, Aztecs, Basal (phylogenetics), BBC Television, Behavior, Belize, Bibliotheca (Photius), Big cat, Biological specificity, Bird, Bird of prey, Biting, Bob Irwin, Botswana, Bovinae, Brackish water, Brochuchus, Brunei, Caiman, Cannibalism, Capillary, Carbon dioxide, Caribbean, Carnivore, Carrion, Central Africa, Cerebral cortex, Chemoreceptor, Child, China, ..., Cipactli, Cladogram, Classical Latin, Coast, Cold, Colombia, Cone cell, Cooperative hunting, Courtship, Crèche (zoology), Critically endangered, Crocodile oil, Crocodile tears, Crocodilia, Crocodilian armor, Crocodylidae, Crocodylomorpha, Crocodylus, Crocodylus anthropophagus, Crocodylus checchiai, Crocodylus gariepensis, Crocodylus palaeindicus, Crocodylus raninus, Crocodylus thorbjarnarsoni, Crustacean, Crying, Cuba, Cuban crocodile, Daily Mail, Deer, Deinosuchus, Dental lamina, Diapsid, Diet (nutrition), DNA, Dominican Republic, Drag (physics), Duct tape, Dwarf crocodile, Eardrum, East Malaysia, Eating, Ecology, Ectotherm, Egg, Egg tooth, Egyptian plover, El Nuevo Día, Elephant, Embryo, Endemism, Eocene, Euthecodon, Evolution, Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, Extinction, Faiyum, False gharial, Family (biology), Fish, Foot, Fresh water, Freshwater crocodile, Game (hunting), Ganges, Gastric acid, Gavialidae, Genetics, Genus, Georges Cuvier, Gharial, Glottis, Goa, Great white shark, Gregory M. Erickson, Grief, Guatemala, Handbag, Hatchling, Heart, Helicopter, Herodotus, Hierarchy, Hinduism, Hippopotamus, Historical Vedic religion, Holocene, Homing (biology), Human tooth development, Hyena, Hypersaline lake, Hypocrisy, Incubation period, Indian subcontinent, Indochina, Indonesia, Infrasound, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Interspecific competition, Invertebrate, Isla de la Juventud, IUCN Red List, Jayabaya, John Mandeville, Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti, Journal of Zoology, Kediri Kingdom, Koine Greek, Kublai Khan, Lake, Lake Enriquillo, Land speed, Lateral line, Least-concern species, Leech, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, Live Science, Lolong, London Evening Standard, Los Angeles Times, Majapahit, Makara (Hindu mythology), Mammal, Marine biology, Maternal sensitivity, Measurement, Medieval Latin, Metabolism, Mexico, Middle English, Modern English, Mollusca, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasion of Java, Monotypic taxon, Morelet's crocodile, Morphology (biology), Mugger crocodile, Muscle, Mythology, Nahuas, Neontology, Nest, New Guinea, New Guinea crocodile, Nictitating membrane, Nile, Nile crocodile, Nocturnality, Northern Australia, Nostril, Okavango River, Old French, Olfaction, Order (biology), Organization of American States, Orinoco, Orinoco crocodile, Osteoderm, Palate, Paraphyly, Philippine crocodile, Philippines, Photios I of Constantinople, Polyphyodont, Popular Science, Predation, Raden Wijaya, Reproduction, Reptile, Rimasuchus, River, Rod cell, Roman Empire, Rottweiler, Rubber band, Saline water, Salt gland, Saltwater crocodile, Samutprakarn Crocodile Farm and Zoo, Scavenger, Scientific American, Scottburgh, Sea turtle, Seasonal breeder, Seawater, Sewer alligator, Sexual dimorphism, Shark, Siamese crocodile, Skull, Slender-snouted crocodile, Snout, Sobek, South China Morning Post, South Florida, Southeast Asia, Species, Stem cell, Steve Irwin, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subfamily, Surabaya, Surabaya Zoo, Swamp, Symbiosis, Tapetum lucidum, Taweret, Temperature-dependent sex determination, Territory (animal), Thailand, The Crocodile Hunter, The Washington Post, Thermoregulation, Tire, Tongue, Tonicity, Tooth, Tropics, Tyrannosaurus, University of Tennessee, Varuna, Varuni, Venezuela, Vertebrate, Vladimir Dinets, Voay, Vomeronasal organ, Vulnerable species, Webbed toes, Webbing, West Africa, West African crocodile, West Indies, Wetland, Wild boar, William Shakespeare, Yamuna, Yekaterinburg, Zapata Swamp. Expand index (240 more) »


Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.

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An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae.

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Alligator meat

Alligator meat is the meat from alligators that is for consumption.

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The family Alligatoridae of crocodylians includes alligators and caimans.

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Ambush predator

Ambush predators or sit-and-wait predators are carnivorous animals or other organisms, such as some nematophagous fungi and carnivorous plants, that capture or trap prey by stealth or by strategy (typically not conscious strategy), rather than by speed or by strength.

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American alligator

The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), sometimes referred to colloquially as a gator or common alligator, is a large crocodilian reptile endemic to the southeastern United States.

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American crocodile

The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a species of crocodilian found in the Neotropics.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animal communication

Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behavior of the receivers.

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Aortic arch

The aortic arch, arch of the aorta, or transverse aortic arch is the part of the aorta between the ascending and descending aorta.

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Apex predator

An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.

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Aquatic animal

A aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in the water for most or all of its lifetime.

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Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australia (continent)

The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.

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Australia Zoo

Australia Zoo is a zoo located in the Australian state of Queensland on the Sunshine Coast near Beerwah/Glass House Mountains.

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An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

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Basal (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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BBC Television

BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation.

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Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.

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Bibliotheca (Photius)

The Bibliotheca (Βιβλιοθήκη) or Myriobiblos (Μυριόβιβλος, "Ten Thousand Books") was a ninth-century work of Byzantine Patriarch of Constantinople Photius, dedicated to his brother and composed of 279 reviews of books which he had read.

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Big cat

The informal term "big cat" is typically used to refer to any of the five living members of the genus Panthera, namely tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard and snow leopard.

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Biological specificity

In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Bird of prey

A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.

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Biting is a common behaviour which involves the opening and closing of the jaw found in many animals.

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Bob Irwin

Robert "Bob" Irwin (born 8 June 1939) is an Australian naturalist, animal conservationist, former zookeeper, and a pioneering herpetologist who is also famous for his conservation and husbandry work with apex predators and reptiles.

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Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.

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The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, the yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes.

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Brackish water

Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.

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Brochuchus is an extinct genus of crocodile known from the Miocene Hiwegi Formation of Rusinga Island in Lake Victoria, Kenya.

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Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

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A caiman is an alligatorid crocodilian belonging to the subfamily Caimaninae, one of two primary lineages within Alligatoridae, the other being alligators.

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Cannibalism is the act of one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food.

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A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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Carrion (from Latin caro, meaning "meat") is the decaying flesh of a dead animal.

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Central Africa

Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.

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Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Cipactli (Cipactli) 'Crocodile' or 'Caiman', was the first day of the Aztec divinatory count of 13 X 20 days (the tonalpohualli), and Cipactonal 'Sign of Cipactli' was considered to have been the first diviner.

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A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.

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Classical Latin

Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.

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Cold is the presence of low temperature, especially in the atmosphere.

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Cone cell

Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).

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Cooperative hunting

Cooperative hunting is when meat-eating animals hunt together in groups that contain both division of labor and role specialization.

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Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein people (usually a couple) get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement or other romantic arrangement.

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Crèche (zoology)

The crèche (from French) in zoology refers to care of another's offspring, for instance in a colony.

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Critically endangered

A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.

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Crocodile oil

Crocodile oil is extracted from the fatty tissues of crocodiles and has been used both as preventive and a treatment for a number of human ailments and conditions for many years and across numerous cultures, including Ancient Egypt.

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Crocodile tears

Crocodile tears (or superficial sympathy) is a false, insincere display of emotion such as a hypocrite crying fake tears of grief.

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Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.

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Crocodilian armor

The crocodile exoskeleton consists of the protective dermal and epidermal components of the integumentary system in animals of the order Crocodilia.

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The crocodylian family Crocodylidae includes the true crocodiles, which are the members of the subfamily Crocodylinae, as well as the false gharial, the only extant member of the subfamily Tomistominae.

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Crocodylomorpha is a group of archosaurs that includes the crocodilians and their extinct relatives.

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Crocodylus is one of three genera from the subfamily Crocodylinae of the family Crocodylidae.

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Crocodylus anthropophagus

Crocodylus anthropophagus is an extinct species of crocodile from Plio-Pleistocene from Tanzania.

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Crocodylus checchiai

Crocodylus checchiai is an extinct species of crocodile from the Pliocene of Libya and the Miocene of Kenya.

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Crocodylus gariepensis

"Crocodylus" gariepensis is an extinct species of crocodile that lived in southern Africa during the Early Miocene about 17.5 million years ago (Ma).

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Crocodylus palaeindicus

Crocodylus palaeindicus is an extinct species of crocodile from southern Asia.

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Crocodylus raninus

Crocodylus raninus is an enigmatic species of freshwater crocodile endemic to the Southeast Asian island of Borneo.

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Crocodylus thorbjarnarsoni

Crocodylus thorbjarnarsoni is an extinct species of crocodile from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of the Turkana Basin in Kenya.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Crying is the shedding of tears (or welling of tears in the eyes) in response to an emotional state, pain or a physical irritation of the eye.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cuban crocodile

The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a small species of crocodile found only in Cuba.

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Daily Mail

The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.

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Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.

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Deinosuchus is an extinct genus related to the alligator that lived 80 to 73 million years ago (Ma), during the late Cretaceous period.

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Dental lamina

The dental lamina is a band of epithelial tissue seen in histologic sections of a developing tooth.

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Diapsids ("two arches") are a group of amniote tetrapods that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

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Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

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Duct tape

Duct tape, also referred to as duck tape, is cloth- or scrim-backed pressure-sensitive tape, often coated with polyethylene.

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Dwarf crocodile

The dwarf crocodile (Osteolaemus tetraspis), also known commonly as the African dwarf crocodile, broad-snouted crocodile, or bony crocodile, is an African crocodile that is also the smallest extant crocodile species.

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In the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear.

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East Malaysia

East Malaysia (Malaysia Timur), also known as Sabah, Sarawak and Labuan (Sabah, Sarawak dan Labuan) or Malaysian Borneo, is the part of Malaysia on the island of Borneo, the world's third largest island.

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Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.

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An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.

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Egg tooth

In some egg-laying animals, the egg tooth is a small, sharp, cranial protuberance used by offspring to break or tear through the egg's surface during hatching.

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Egyptian plover

The Egyptian plover (Pluvianus aegyptius), also known as the crocodile bird, is a wader, the only member of the genus Pluvianus.

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El Nuevo Día

El Nuevo Día (English: The New Day) is the newspaper with the highest circulation in Puerto Rico, reaching a readership of 1.2 million people with over 200,000 daily copies.

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Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

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Euthecodon is an extinct genus of long-snouted crocodyline crocodilians.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption

Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC, informally called afterburn) is a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Faiyum (الفيوم; ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ) is a city in Middle Egypt.

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False gharial

The false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii), also known as Malayan gharial, Sunda gharial and tomistoma, is a freshwater crocodilian native to Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra and Java.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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The foot (plural feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates.

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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Freshwater crocodile

The freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus johnsoni or Crocodylus johnstoni; see below), also known as the Australian freshwater crocodile, Johnstone's crocodile or colloquially as freshie, is a species of crocodile endemic to the northern regions of Australia.

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Game (hunting)

Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.

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The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.

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Gastric acid

Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).

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Gavialidae is a family of reptiles within the order Crocodilia.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Georges Cuvier

Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".

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The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), also known as the gavial or fish-eating crocodile, is a crocodilian in the family Gavialidae, and is native to the northern part of the Indian Subcontinent.

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The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds (the rima glottidis).

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Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.

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Great white shark

The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), commonly known as the great white or the white shark, is a species of large mackerel shark which can be found in the coastal surface waters of all the major oceans.

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Gregory M. Erickson

Gregory M. Erickson, Ph.D. in paleobiology at Florida State University.

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Grief is a multifaceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something that has died, to which a bond or affection was formed.

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Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.

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A handbag, also called purse in North American English, is a handled medium-to-large bag used to carry personal items.

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In oviparious biology, a hatchling is a newly hatched fish, amphibian, reptile, or bird.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

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Historical Vedic religion

The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Homing (biology)

Homing is the inherent ability of an animal to navigate towards an original location through unfamiliar areas.

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Human tooth development

Tooth development or odontogenesis is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth.

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Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.

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Hypersaline lake

A hypersaline lake is a landlocked body of water that contains significant concentrations of sodium chloride or other salts, with saline levels surpassing that of ocean water (3.5%, i.e.). Specific microbial and crustacean species thrive in these high salinity environments that are inhospitable to most lifeforms.

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Hypocrisy is the contrivance of a false appearance of virtue or goodness, while concealing real character or inclinations, especially with respect to religious and moral beliefs; hence in a general sense, hypocrisy may involve dissimulation, pretense, or a sham.

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Incubation period

Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Infrasound, sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound, is sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz or cycles per second, the "normal" limit of human hearing.

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International Union for Conservation of Nature

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

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Interspecific competition

Interspecific competition, in ecology, is a form of competition in which individuals of different species compete for the same resources in an ecosystem (e.g. food or living space).

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Isla de la Juventud

Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban island and the seventh-largest island in the West Indies (after Cuba itself, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and Andros Island).

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IUCN Red List

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.

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Sri Mapanji Jayabaya, Varmesvara, or Jayabhaya, (Javanese spelled: Ratu Joyoboyo) was Javanese King of the Kediri in East Java from 1135 to 1179 CE.

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John Mandeville

Sir John Mandeville is the supposed author of The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, a travel memoir which first circulated between 1357 and 1371.

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Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti

Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti (4 December 1735, Vienna – 17 February 1805, Vienna) was an Austrian naturalist and zoologist of Italian origin.

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Journal of Zoology

The Journal of Zoology is a scientific journal concerning zoology, the study of animals.

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Kediri Kingdom

Kediri or Kadiri (also known as Panjalu) was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222.

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Koine Greek

Koine Greek,.

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Kublai Khan

Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).

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A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

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Lake Enriquillo

Lake Enriquillo (Lago Enriquillo) is a hypersaline lake in the Dominican Republic located in the southwestern region of the country.

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Land speed

An object's speed across land is measured by difference in movement between the object and the land beneath it.

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Lateral line

The lateral line is a system of sense organs found in aquatic vertebrates, used to detect movement, vibration, and pressure gradients in the surrounding water.

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Least-concern species

A least concern (LC) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as evaluated but not qualified for any other category.

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Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.

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List of semiaquatic tetrapods

This is a list of tetrapods that are semiaquatic; that is, while being at least partly terrestrial, they spend part of their life cycle or a significant fraction of their time in water as part of their normal behavior, and/or obtain a significant fraction of their food from an aquatic habitat.

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Live Science

Live Science is a science news website run by Purch, which it purchased from Imaginova in 2009.

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Lolong (died 10 February 2013) was the largest crocodile in captivity.

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London Evening Standard

The London Evening Standard (or simply Evening Standard) is a local, free daily newspaper, published Monday to Friday in tabloid format in London.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500.

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Makara (Hindu mythology)

Makara (मकर) is a sea-creature in Hindu culture.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Marine biology

Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.

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Maternal sensitivity

Maternal sensitivity is a mother's ability to perceive and infer the meaning behind her infant's behavioural signals, and to respond to them promptly and appropriately.

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Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.

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Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Modern English

Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.

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Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongol invasion of Java

The Mongol invasion of Java was a military effort made by Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty (one of the fragments of the Mongol Empire), to invade Java, an island in modern Indonesia.

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Monotypic taxon

In biology, a monotypic taxon is a taxonomic group (taxon) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon.

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Morelet's crocodile

Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii), also known as the Mexican crocodile, is a modest-sized crocodilian found only in fresh waters of the Atlantic regions of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mugger crocodile

The mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador.

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Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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A nest is a structure built by certain animals to hold eggs, offspring, and, occasionally, the animal itself.

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New Guinea

New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.

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New Guinea crocodile

The New Guinea crocodile (Crocodylus novaeguineae) is a small species of crocodile found on the island of New Guinea where there are two geographically isolated populations to the north and south of the mountain ridge that runs along the centre of the island.

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Nictitating membrane

The nictitating membrane (from Latin nictare, to blink) is a transparent or translucent third eyelid present in some animals that can be drawn across the eye from the medial canthus for protection and to moisten it while maintaining vision.

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The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.

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Nile crocodile

The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an African crocodile, the largest freshwater predator in Africa, and may be considered the second-largest extant reptile and crocodilian in the world, after the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).

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Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.

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Northern Australia

The term Northern Australia includes Queensland and the Northern Territory (NT).

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A nostril (or naris, plural nares) is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening.

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Okavango River

The Okavango River (formerly spelled Okovango or Okovanggo) is a river in southwest Africa.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Organization of American States

The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.

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The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at.

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Orinoco crocodile

The Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) is a critically endangered crocodile.

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Osteoderms are bony deposits forming scales, plates or other structures based in the dermis.

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The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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Philippine crocodile

The Philippine crocodile (Crocodylus mindorensis), also known as the Mindoro crocodile, the Philippine freshwater crocodile, the bukarot in Ilocano, and more generally as a buwaya in most Filipino lowland cultures, is one of two species of crocodiles found in the Philippines; the other is the larger saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Photios I of Constantinople

Photios I (Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), also spelled PhotiusFr.

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A polyphyodont is any animal whose teeth are continually replaced.

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Popular Science

Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Raden Wijaya

Raden Wijaya (also known as Nararya Sangramawijaya, regnal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana), Raden Vijaya, (reigned 1293–1309) was a Javanese King, the founder and the first monarch of Majapahit empire.

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Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Rimasuchus is an extinct genus of crocodile from the Neogene period of Africa and the Middle East.

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A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.

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Rod cell

Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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The Rottweiler is a breed of domestic dog, regarded as medium-to-large or large.

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Rubber band

A rubber band (also known as an elastic band or gum band) is a loop of rubber, usually ring shaped, and commonly used to hold multiple objects together.

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Saline water

Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).

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Salt gland

The salt gland is an organ for excreting excess salts.

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Saltwater crocodile

The saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), also known as the estuarine crocodile, Indo-Pacific crocodile, marine crocodile, sea crocodile or informally as saltie, is the largest of all living reptiles, as well as the largest riparian predator in the world.

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Samutprakarn Crocodile Farm and Zoo

The Samutprakarn Crocodile Farm and Zoo is a crocodile zoo in Bangkok, Thailand.

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Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Scottburgh (pronounced scott-burra) is a coastal resort town situated on the mouth of the Mpambanyoni River (confuser of birds), 58 km south of Durban on the KwaZulu-Natal South Coast in South Africa.

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Sea turtle

Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.

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Seasonal breeder

Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year.

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Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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Sewer alligator

Sewer alligator stories date back to the late 1920s and early 1930s; in most instances they are part of contemporary legend.

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

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Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.

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Siamese crocodile

The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) is a small to medium-sized freshwater crocodile native to Indonesia (Borneo and possibly Java), Brunei, East Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.

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The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.

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Slender-snouted crocodile

The slender-snouted crocodile (Mecistops cataphractus) is a critically endangered species of crocodile from Africa.

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A snout is the protruding portion of an animal's face, consisting of its nose, mouth, and jaw.

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Sobek (also called Sebek, Sochet, Sobk, and Sobki), in Greek, Suchos (Σοῦχος) and from Latin Suchus, was an ancient Egyptian deity with a complex and fluid nature.

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South China Morning Post

The South China Morning Post (also known as SCMP or The Post), with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper and Hong Kong's newspaper of record.

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South Florida

South Florida is a region of the U.S. state of Florida, comprising the southernmost part of the state.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Steve Irwin

Stephen Robert Irwin (22 February 1962 – 4 September 2006), nicknamed "The Crocodile Hunter", was an Australian zookeeper, conservationist and television personality.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family but more inclusive than genus.

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Surabaya (formerly Dutch: Soerabaia and later Surabaja) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia.

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Surabaya Zoo

Surabaya Zoo (Indonesian Kebon Binatang Surabaya or KBS), also known as Bonbin (abbreviation of Kebon Binatang, Indonesian for "zoo"), is a zoo located in the city of Surabaya in East Java, Indonesia.

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A swamp is a wetland that is forested.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Tapetum lucidum

The tapetum lucidum (Latin: "bright tapestry; coverlet", plural tapeta lucida) is a layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates.

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In Ancient Egyptian religion, Taweret (also spelled Taurt, Tuat, Taouris, Tuart, Ta-weret, Tawaret, Twert, Thoeris and Taueret, and in Greek, Θουέρις – Thouéris and Toeris) is the protective ancient Egyptian goddess of childbirth and fertility.

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Temperature-dependent sex determination

Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is a type of environmental sex determination in which the temperatures experienced during embryonic/larval development determine the sex of the offspring.

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Territory (animal)

In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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The Crocodile Hunter

The Crocodile Hunter is a wildlife documentary television series that was hosted by Steve Irwin and his wife, Terri.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.

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A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.

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The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.

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Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient, as defined by the water potential of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.

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A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.

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The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Tyrannosaurus is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur.

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University of Tennessee

The University of Tennessee (also referred to as The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, UT Knoxville, UTK, or UT) is a public sun- and land-grant university in Knoxville, Tennessee, United States.

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Varuna (IAST: वरुण, Malay: Baruna) is a Vedic deity associated first with sky, later with waters as well as with Ṛta (justice) and Satya (truth).

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Varuni, also known as Varunani,Jaldevi,Jalpari, is the consort of Varuna, often depicted with her husband.

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Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vladimir Dinets

Vladimir Dinets is a zoologist and author, known for his studies of Crocodilian behavior and of numerous rare animals in remote parts of the world, as well as for popular writings in Russian and English.

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Voay is an extinct genus of crocodile from Madagascar and includes only one species—V.

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Vomeronasal organ

The vomeronasal organ (VNO), or the Jacobson's organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ that is found in many animals.

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Vulnerable species

A vulnerable species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as likely to become endangered unless the circumstances that are threatening its survival and reproduction improve.

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Webbed toes

Webbed toes is the common name for syndactyly affecting the feet.

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2 inch (50 mm) Nylon webbing as used in auto racing harnesses Webbing is a strong fabric woven as a flat strip or tube of varying width and fibres, often used in place of rope.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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West African crocodile

The West African crocodile or desert crocodile (Crocodylus suchus) is a species of crocodile related to – and often confused with – the larger and more aggressive Nile crocodile (C. niloticus).

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West Indies

The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.

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A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.

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Wild boar

The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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The Yamuna (Hindustani: /jəmʊnaː/), also known as the Jumna, (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh) is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.

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Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.

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Zapata Swamp

Zapata Swamp (Ciénaga de Zapata) is located on the Zapata Peninsula in the southern Matanzas province of Cuba.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocodile

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