303 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal pain, Abscess, Acupuncture, Acute (medicine), Adalimumab, Adaptive immune system, Adhesion (medicine), Adverse effect, Africa, Alternative medicine, American Medical Association, Aminosalicylic acid, Anal fissure, Anemia, Anemia of chronic disease, Ankylosing spondylitis, Anorexia (symptom), Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, Antibiotic, Antidepressant, Antigen, Antoni Leśniowski, Anus, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Aphthous stomatitis, Arthritis, Ashkenazi Jews, Asia, ATG16L1, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Autophagy, Azathioprine, B symptoms, Barium sulfate, Behçet's disease, Bile acid malabsorption, Bile duct, Biofilm, Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, Biopharmaceutical, Biopsy, Blastocystis, Bleeding, Blood transfusion, Bone fracture, Bowel obstruction, Briakinumab, ..., Burrill Bernard Crohn, C-reactive protein, Cannabinoid, Cannabinoid receptor, Cannabinoid receptor type 1, Cannabinoid receptor type 2, 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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.
Adalimumab, sold under the trade name Humira among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, chronic psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Adhesions are fibrous bands that form between tissues and organs, often as a result of injury during surgery.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
Aminosalicylic acid can refer to any amino derivative of salicylic acid, such as.
An anal fissure, fissure in Ano or rectal fissure is a break or tear in the skin of the anal canal.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Anemia of chronic disease, or anemia of chronic inflammation, is a form of anemia seen in chronic infection, chronic immune activation, and malignancy.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) are a group of autoantibodies, mainly of the IgG type, against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antoni Leśniowski (January 28, 1867 – April 4, 1940) was a Polish surgeon, credited with publishing what may have been the earliest reports of the condition which later became known as Crohn's disease.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Aphthous stomatitis is a common condition characterized by the repeated formation of benign and non-contagious mouth ulcers (aphthae) in otherwise healthy individuals.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Autophagy-related protein 16-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATG16L1 gene.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (or autoimmune haemolytic anaemia; AIHA) occurs when antibodies directed against the person's own red blood cells (RBCs) cause them to burst (lyse), leading to an insufficient number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the circulation.
Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components.
Azathioprine (AZA), sold under the brand name Imuran among others, is an immunosuppressive medication.
B symptoms refer to systemic symptoms of fever, night sweats, and weight loss which can be associated with both Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4.
Behçet's disease (BD) is a type of inflammatory disorder which affects multiple parts of the body.
Bile acid malabsorption, known also as bile acid diarrhea, is a cause of several gut-related problems, the main one being chronic diarrhea.
A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile, and is present in most vertebrates.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Biological therapy refers to the use of medication that is tailored to specifically target an immune or genetic mediator of disease.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Blastocystis is a genus of single-celled heterokont parasites belonging to a group of organisms known as the Stramenopiles (also called Heterokonts) that includes algae, diatoms, and water molds.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
Bowel obstruction, also known as intestinal obstruction, is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.
Briakinumab (ABT-874) is a human monoclonal antibody being developed by Abbott Laboratories for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis.
Burrill Bernard Crohn (June 13, 1884 – July 29, 1983) was an American gastroenterologist and made the first major advance to identify the disease that now bears his name.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.
The cannabinoid type 1 receptor, often abbreviated as CB1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located in the central and peripheral nervous system.
The cannabinoid receptor type 2, abbreviated as CB2, is a G protein-coupled receptor from the cannabinoid receptor family that in humans is encoded by the CNR2 gene.
A cannula (from Latin "little reed"; plural cannulae or cannulas) is a tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid or for the gathering of data.
Capsule endoscopy is a procedure used to record internal images of the gastrointestinal tract for use in medical diagnosis.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Caspase recruitment domains, or Caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs), are interaction motifs found in a wide array of proteins, typically those involved in processes relating to inflammation and apoptosis.
Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
Certolizumab pegol (CDP870, tradename Cimzia) is a biologic medication for the treatment of Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal covering integrative and alternative medicine.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
Cobblestone is a natural building material based on cobble-sized stones, and is used for pavement roads, streets, and buildings.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Colectomy (col- + -ectomy) is bowel resection of the large bowel (colon).
Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
A colorectal polyp is a polyp (fleshy growth) occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
The Crohn's and Colitis Foundation (CCF) is a volunteer-driven non-profit organization dedicated to finding cures for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis and improving the quality of life of children and adults affected by these digestive diseases.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.
Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of 12.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Dieting is the practice of eating food in a regulated and supervised fashion to decrease, maintain, or increase body weight, or to prevent and treat diseases, such as diabetes.
A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Dysbiosis (also called dysbacteriosis) is a term for a microbial imbalance or maladaptation on or inside the body, such as an impaired microbiota.
Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing.
An elemental diet is a diet that proposes the ingestion, or in more severe cases use of a gastric feeding tube or intravenous feeding, of liquid nutrients in an easily assimilated form.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
In biology and medicine, the prefix entero- refers to the intestine (from Greek ἔντερον, enteron).
Enterohepatic circulation refers to the circulation of biliary acids, bilirubin, drugs or other substances from the liver to the bile, followed by entry into the small intestine, absorption by the enterocyte and transport back to the liver.
Enthesitis is inflammation of the entheses, the sites where tendons or ligaments insert into the bone.
Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Episcleritis is a benign, self-limiting inflammatory disease affecting part of the eye called the episclera.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Erythema nodosum (EN), also known as subacute migratory panniculitis of Vilanova and Piñol, is an inflammatory condition characterized by inflammation of the fat cells under the skin, resulting in tender red nodules or lumps that are usually seen on both shins.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of one hour.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, (EGD) also called by various other names, is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract down to the duodenum.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Failure to thrive (FTT), more recently known as faltering weight or weight faltering, is a term used in pediatric medicine, as well as veterinary medicine (where it is also referred to as ill-thrift), to indicate insufficient weight gain or inappropriate weight loss.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fecal incontinence (FI), also known as anal incontinence, or in some forms encopresis, is a lack of control over defecation, leading to involuntary loss of bowel contents—including flatus (gas), liquid stool elements and mucus, or solid feces.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
A fistula is an abnormal connection between two hollow spaces (technically, two epithelialized surfaces), such as blood vessels, intestines, or other hollow organs.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Folate deficiency is a low level of folic acid and derivatives in the body.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Friability, the condition of being friable, describes the tendency of a solid substance to break into smaller pieces under duress or contact, especially by rubbing.
A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
Gastrointestinal perforation, also known as ruptured bowel, is a hole in the wall of part of the gastrointestinal tract.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The gastrointestinal wall surrounding the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract is made up of four layers of specialised tissue – from the lumen outwards.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions.
Geographic tongue, also known by several other terms, is an inflammatory condition of the mucous membrane of the tongue, usually on the dorsal surface.
A giant cell (multinucleated giant cell, multinucleate giant cell) is a mass formed by the union of several distinct cells (usually macrophages), often forming a granuloma.
Giovanni Battister Morgagni (25 February 1682 – 6 December 1771) was an Italian anatomist, generally regarded as the father of modern anatomical pathology, who taught thousands of medical students from many countries during his 56 years as Professor of Anatomy at the University of Padua.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
Granuloma is an inflammation found in many diseases.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Heartburn, also known as acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.
Helminthiasis (plural helminthiases), also known as worm infection, is any macroparasitic disease of humans and other animals in which a part of the body is infected with parasitic worms, known as helminths.
Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hepcidin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAMP gene.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
Ileitis is an inflammation of the ileum, a portion of the small intestine.
The ileocolic artery is the lowest branch arising from the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery.
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Infliximab (trade names Remicade among others) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody biologic drug that works against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and is used to treat autoimmune diseases.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Interleukin-23 receptor is a type I cytokine receptor.
In histology, an intestinal gland (also crypt of Lieberkühn and intestinal crypt) is a gland found in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine (colon).
Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine.
Intestine transplantation, intestinal transplantation, or small bowel transplantation is the surgical replacement of the small intestine for chronic and acute cases of intestinal failure.
Intrinsic factor (IF), also known as gastric intrinsic factor (GIF), is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach.
Immunity-related GTPase family M protein (IRGM), also known as interferon-inducible protein 1 (IFI1), is an enzyme that in humans is IRGM gene.
Iron deficiency, or sideropaenia, is the state in which a body has not enough (or not qualitatively enough) iron to supply its eventual needs.
Iron supplements, also known as iron salts and iron pills, are a number of iron formulations used to treat and prevent iron deficiency including iron deficiency anemia.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Isotretinoin, also known as 13-cis-retinoic acid (and colloquially referred to by its former brand name Accutane or Roaccutane), is a medication primarily used to treat severe acne.
The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy is a peer-reviewed medical journal which covers antimicrobial chemotherapy, including laboratory aspects and clinical use of antimicrobial agents.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Lenalidomide (trade name Revlimid) is a derivative of thalidomide introduced in 2004.
A leucine-rich repeat (LRR) is a protein structural motif that forms an α/β horseshoe fold.
Lichen nitidus is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause characterized by 1–2 mm, discrete and uniform, shiny, flat-topped, pale flesh-colored or reddish-brown papules that may appear as hypopigmented against dark skin.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies.
A low-fiber/low-residue diet is a diet whose goal is fewer and smaller bowel movements each day.
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), also known as dardarin (from the Basque word "dardara" which means trembling), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PARK8 gene.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Management of Crohn's disease involves first treating the acute symptoms of the disease, then maintaining remission.
Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are recommended by doctors for their patients.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mercaptopurine (6-MP), sold under the brand name Purinethol among others, is a medication used for cancer and autoimmune diseases.
Mesalazine, also known as mesalamine or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is an aminosalicylate anti-inflammatory drug.
Metaplasia ("change in form") is the reversible transformation of one differentiated cell type to another differentiated cell type.
Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Mount Sinai Hospital, founded in 1852, is one of the oldest and largest teaching hospitals in the United States.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate pathogenic bacterium in the genus Mycobacterium.
Myopathy is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly.
Nail clubbing, also known as digital clubbing, is a deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs.
Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the cell adhesion molecule α4-integrin.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, in short NOD-like receptors (NLRs), are intracellular sensors of PAMPs that enter the cell via phagocytosis or pores and DAMPs that are associated with cell stress.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), also known as caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15) or inflammatory bowel disease protein 1 (IBD1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOD2 gene located on chromosome 16.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the ''n''-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end.
Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a condition characterized by persistent enlargement of the soft tissues of the mouth, lips and the area around the mouth on the face.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Panniculitis is a group of diseases whose hallmark is inflammation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (the fatty layer under the skin – panniculus adiposus).
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is a contagious, chronic and sometimes fatal infection that primarily affects the small intestine of ruminants.
Total parenteral nutrition (PN) is the feeding of a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Photophobia is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.
Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.
Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a long-term progressive disease of the liver and gallbladder characterized by inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts which normally allow bile to drain from the gallbladder.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Psychrophiles or cryophiles (adj. psychrophilic or cryophilic) are extremophilic organisms that are capable of growth and reproduction in low temperatures, ranging from −20 °C to +10 °C.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
The pylorus, or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum.
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a condition that causes tissue to become necrotic, causing deep ulcers that usually occur on the legs.
Pyostomatitis vegetans is an inflammatory stomatitis and most often seen in association with inflammatory bowel disease, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
In medicine, relapse or recidivism is a recurrence of a past (typically medical) condition.
In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group.
Resorption is the absorption into the circulatory system of cells or tissue.
Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
The sacroiliac joint or SI joint (SIJ) is the joint between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis, which are connected by strong ligaments.
Sacroiliitis (say-kroe-il-e-I-tus) is a medical condition caused by any inflammation within one, or both, of the sacroiliac joints.
The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.
A semen analysis (plural: semen analyses), also called "seminogram" evaluates certain characteristics of a male's semen and the sperm contained therein.
Serine proteases (or serine endopeptidases) are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins, in which serine serves as the nucleophilic amino acid at the (enzyme's) active site.
Short bowel syndrome (SBS, or simply short gut) is a malabsorption disorder caused by a lack of functional small intestine.
A skin tag, or acrochordon (pl. acrochorda), is a small benign tumor that forms primarily in areas where the skin forms creases, such as the neck, armpit and groin.
Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC11A1 gene.
Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), also termed bacterial overgrowths, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SBBOS), is a disorder of excessive bacterial growth in the small intestine.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
In oncology, small intestine cancer, also small bowel cancer and cancer of the small bowel, is a cancer of the small intestine.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
Spondyloarthropathy or spondyloarthrosis refers to any joint disease of the vertebral column.
In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
Strictureplasty (also spelled Stricturoplasty) is a surgical procedure performed to alleviate bowel narrowing due to scar tissue that has built up in the intestinal wall from inflammatory bowel conditions such as Crohn’s disease.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A surgical anastomosis is a surgical technique used to make a new connection between two body structures that carry fluid, such as blood vessels or bowel.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
T helper 17 cells (Th17) are a subset of pro-inflammatory T helper cells defined by their production of interleukin 17 (IL-17).
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
Thalidomide, sold under the brand name Immunoprin, among others, is an immunomodulatory drug and the prototype of the thalidomide class of drugs.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The thiopurine drugs are purine antimetabolites widely used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, autoimmune disorders (e.g., Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis), and organ transplant recipients.
A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Trichuris suis is a whipworm; the variations in thickness of the anterior and posterior segments give the parasite the characteristic “whip-like” appearance.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular stress response related to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
An upper gastrointestinal series, also called an upper gastrointestinal study or contrast radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, is a series of radiographs used to examine the gastrointestinal tract for abnormalities.
Ustekinumab, sold under the brand name Stelara, is a human monoclonal antibody used to treat psoriasis.
Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.
Vedolizumab (trade name Entyvio) is a monoclonal antibody developed by Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc (a subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceuticals) for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
X-box binding protein 1, also known as XBP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the XBP1 gene.
Yersinia is a genus of bacteria in the family Yersiniaceae.
Chrohn’s disease, Chron's, Chron's disease, Chrone's disease, Chrons disease, Crohn, Crohn disease, Crohn s Disease, Crohn's, Crohn's Disease, Crohn's colitis, Crohn's diease, Crohn's disease of skin, Crohn's disease of the esophagus, Crohn's enteritis, Crohn's ileitis, Crohnie, Crohns, Crohns / Colitis, Crohns Disease, Crohns disease, Crohns syndrome, Crohn’s Disease, Crohn’s disease, Cron's disease, Crone Syndrome, Crone's disease, Crones disease, Crown's disease, Enteritis regionalis, Granulomatous Colitis, Granulomatous Enteritis, Ileocolitis, Krohn's disease, Krone's disease, Lesniowski-Crohn disease, Leśniowski-Crohn disease, Mb crohn, Morbus Crohn, Oral Crohn's disease, Regional enteritis, Regional ileitis.