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Cross-country skiing

Index Cross-country skiing

Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. [1]

113 relations: Aftenposten, Alaska, Alpine skiing, Aluminium, American Birkebeiner, Amundsen's South Pole expedition, Anchorage, Alaska, Avalanche, Bamboo, Biathlon, Bill Koch (skier), Birkebeinerrennet, Boreal Loppet, Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway, Cable binding, Canada, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Cavalry, China, Consul (representative), Cross-country skiing, Cross-country skiing (sport), Daxing'anling Prefecture, Degree of difficulty, Denmark, Egill Skallagrímsson, Elljusspår, Engadin Skimarathon, Fiberglass, FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1931, FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1982, Forestville, Quebec, Fridtjof Nansen, Gatineau Park, Gulating, Haakon IV of Norway, Haakon the Good, Hiking, Holmenkollbakken, Homologation, Ice skating, International Orienteering Federation, International Paralympic Committee, International Ski Federation, Japanese people, Johan Grøttumsbråten, Knud Bergslien, Marksman, Meteorology, ..., Navigation, Nordic skiing, Nordmarka, Northern Europe, Norwegian language, Norwegian Trekking Association, Olaus Magnus, Olav V of Norway, Old Norse, Orienteering, Orienteering map, Ove Aunli, Paraffin wax, Parallel turn, Paralympic cross-country skiing, Pauli Siitonen, Piste, Procopius, Quebec, Roald Amundsen, Royal Gorge Cross Country Ski Resort, Russia, Sami people, Saxo Grammaticus, Scandinavia, Shooting sports, Ski, Ski binding, Ski boot, Ski for Light, Ski geometry, Ski jumping, Ski lift, Ski mountaineering, Ski pole, Ski resort, Ski skins, Ski touring, Ski warfare, Ski-orienteering, Skiing, Snow, Snow grooming, Snowplough turn, Snowshoe Thompson, Sports governing body, Stem christie, Sweden, Switzerland, Telemark skiing, Terrestrial locomotion, Tour of Anchorage, Traction (engineering), Tromsø, Trondheim, Tyrol (state), United States, United States Ski and Snowboard Association, Vasaloppet, Verb, War, Winter Olympic Games, Worldloppet Ski Federation. Expand index (63 more) »

Aftenposten

Aftenposten (Norwegian for "The Evening Post") is Norway's largest printed newspaper by circulation.

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Alaska

Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Alpine skiing

Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing (cross-country, Telemark, or ski jumping) which use skis with free-heel bindings.

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Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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American Birkebeiner

The American Birkebeiner (or Birkie) is the largest, and one of the longest cross-country ski races in North America.

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Amundsen's South Pole expedition

The first expedition to reach the geographic South Pole was led by the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen.

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Anchorage, Alaska

Anchorage (officially called the Municipality of Anchorage) (Dena'ina Athabascan: Dgheyaytnu) is a unified home rule municipality in the U.S. state of Alaska.

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Avalanche

An avalanche (also called a snowslide) is a cohesive slab of snow lying upon a weaker layer of snow in the snowpack that fractures and slides down a steep slope when triggered.

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Bamboo

The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.

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Biathlon

The biathlon is a winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting.

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Bill Koch (skier)

William Conrad "Bill" Koch (born June 7, 1955) is an American skier who competed at international level.

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Birkebeinerrennet

Birkebeinerrennet (lit. The Birkebeiner race) is a long-distance cross-country ski marathon held annually in Norway.

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Boreal Loppet

The Boréal Loppet, to be held February 21, 2015, in Forestville, Quebec, Canada, is a cross-country skiing competition for all the elite skiers, and amateurs wishing challenges without relying on performance.

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Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway

The Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway (BA&P) (in Spanish: Ferrocarril Buenos Aires al Pacífico) was one of the Big Four broad gauge,, British-owned companies that built and operated railway networks in Argentina.

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Cable binding

Cable bindings, also known as Kandahar bindings or bear-trap bindings, are a type of ski bindings widely used through the middle of the 20th century.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Carbon fiber reinforced polymer

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.

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Cavalry

Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Consul (representative)

A consul is an official representative of the government of one state in the territory of another, normally acting to assist and protect the citizens of the consul's own country, and to facilitate trade and friendship between the people of the two countries.

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Cross-country skiing

Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance.

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Cross-country skiing (sport)

The sport of cross-country skiing encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths according to rules sanctioned by the International Ski Federation and by various national organizations, such as the U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association (USSA) and Cross Country Ski Canada.

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Daxing'anling Prefecture

Daxing'anling Prefecture, also known as Da Hinggan Ling Prefecture, is the northernmost Chinese prefecture-level division, located in Heilongjiang Province.

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Degree of difficulty

Degree of difficulty (DD, sometimes called tariff or grade) is a concept used in several sports and other competitions to indicate the technical difficulty of a skill, performance, or course, often as a factor in scoring.

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Denmark

Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Egill Skallagrímsson

Egill Skallagrímsson (c. 904c. 995) was a Viking-Age poet, warrior and farmer.

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Elljusspår

An electric light trail (Swedish: Elljusspår) (Norwegian: Lysløype) is an electrically illuminated trail, often completely or partly in a forest.

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Engadin Skimarathon

The Engadin Skimarathon is an annual cross-country ski race (ski marathon) held on the second Sunday of March in the upper Engadine valley (Switzerland), between Maloja and S-chanf.

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Fiberglass

Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.

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FIS Nordic World Ski Championships

The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships have been held in various numbers and types of events since 1925 for men and since 1954 for women.

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FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1931

The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1931 took place on February 13–15, 1931 in Oberhof.

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FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1982

The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 1982 took place 19–28 February 1982 in Oslo, Norway at the Holmenkollen ski arena.

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Forestville, Quebec

Forestville is a town in the Côte-Nord region of Quebec, Canada.

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Fridtjof Nansen

Fridtjof Nansen (10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

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Gatineau Park

Gatineau Park (Parc de la Gatineau) is located in the Outaouais region of Quebec, Canada.

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Gulating

Gulating (Gulaþing) is the name of both one of the first Norwegian legislative assemblies or things and one of the present-day law courts of western Norway.

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Haakon IV of Norway

Haakon Haakonsson (c. March/April 1204 – 16 December 1263) (Old Norse: Hákon Hákonarson; Norwegian: Håkon Håkonsson), sometimes called Haakon the Old in contrast to his son with the same name, and known in modern regnal lists as Haakon IV, was the King of Norway from 1217 to 1263.

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Haakon the Good

Haakon Haraldsson (c. 920–961), also Haakon the Good (Old Norse: Hákon góði, Norwegian: Håkon den gode) and Haakon Adalsteinfostre (Old Norse: Hákon Aðalsteinsfóstri, Norwegian: Håkon Adalsteinsfostre), was the king of Norway from 934 to 961.

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Hiking

Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.

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Holmenkollbakken

Holmenkollbakken is a large ski jumping hill located at Holmenkollen in Oslo, Norway.

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Homologation

Homologation (Greek homologeo, ὁμολογέω, "to agree") is the granting of approval by an official authority.

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Ice skating

Ice skating is the act of motion by wearer of the ice skates to propel the participant across a sheet of ice.

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International Orienteering Federation

The International Orienteering Federation (IOF) is the international governing body of the sport of orienteering.

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International Paralympic Committee

The International Paralympic Committee (IPC; Internationales Paralympisches Komitee) is an international non-profit organisation and the global governing body for the Paralympic Movement.

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International Ski Federation

The Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS; English: International Ski Federation) is the world's highest governing body for international winter sports.

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Japanese people

are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.

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Johan Grøttumsbråten

Johan Hagbart Pedersen Grøttumsbraaten (12 February 1899 – 24 January 1983) was a Norwegian skier who competed in Nordic combined and cross-country.

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Knud Bergslien

Knud Larsen Bergslien (May 15, 1827 – November 27, 1908) was a Norwegian painter, art teacher and master artist.

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Marksman

A marksman is a person who is skilled in precision shooting, using accurate precision scoped projectile weapons (in modern days most commonly a designated marksman rifle or a sniper rifle) to shoot at high-value targets at longer-than-usual ranges.

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Meteorology

Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Navigation

Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.

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Nordic skiing

Nordic skiing encompasses the various types of skiing in which the toe of the ski boot is fixed to the binding in a manner that allows the heel to rise off the ski, unlike Alpine skiing, where the boot is attached to the ski from toe to heel.

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Nordmarka

Nordmarka is the mostly forested region which makes up the northern part of Oslo, Norway.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Norwegian Trekking Association

The Norwegian Trekking Association (Den norske turistforening, DNT) is a Norwegian association which maintains mountain trails and cabins in Norway.

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Olaus Magnus

Olaus Magnus (October 1490 – 1 August 1557) was a Swedish writer and Catholic ecclesiastic.

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Olav V of Norway

Olav V (born Prince Alexander of Denmark; 2 July 1903 – 17 January 1991) was King of Norway from 1957 until his death.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Orienteering

Orienteering is a group of sports that requires navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and usually unfamiliar terrain whilst moving at speed.

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Orienteering map

An orienteering map is a map specially prepared for use in orienteering competitions.

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Ove Aunli

Ove Robert Aunli (born 12 March 1956 in Hemne) is a Norwegian former cross-country skier.

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Paraffin wax

Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.

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Parallel turn

The parallel turn in alpine skiing is a method for turning which rolls the ski onto one edge, allowing it to bend into an arc.

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Paralympic cross-country skiing

Paralympic cross-county skiing is an adaptation of cross-country skiing for athletes with disabilities.

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Pauli Siitonen

Pauli Ensio Siitonen (born 3 February 1938) is a retired Finnish cross-country skier.

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Piste

A piste is a marked ski run or path down a mountain for snow skiing, snowboarding, or other mountain sports.

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Procopius

Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.

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Quebec

Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Roald Amundsen

Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (16 July 1872 – c. 18 June 1928) was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions.

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Royal Gorge Cross Country Ski Resort

Royal Gorge Cross Country Ski Resort is claimed to be the largest cross-country ski resort in North America.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sami people

The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.

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Saxo Grammaticus

Saxo Grammaticus (1160 – 1220), also known as Saxo cognomine Longus, was a Danish historian, theologian and author.

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Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Shooting sports

Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.

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Ski

A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow.

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Ski binding

A ski binding is a device that connects a ski boot to the ski.

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Ski boot

Ski boots are footwear used in skiing to provide a way to attach the skier to skis using ski bindings.

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Ski for Light

Ski for Light, Inc. is a non-profit organization founded in 1975 that provides opportunities for visually impaired and mobility-impaired people to experience cross-country skiing.

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Ski geometry

Ski geometry is the shape of the ski.

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Ski jumping

Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the longest jump after descending from a specially designed ramp on their skis.

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Ski lift

A ski lift is a mechanism for transporting skiers up a hill.

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Ski mountaineering

Ski mountaineering is a skiing discipline that involves climbing mountains either on skis or carrying them, depending on the steepness of the ascent, and then descending on skis.

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Ski pole

Ski poles, also referred to as poles (in North America) or sticks (UK), are used by skiers for balance and propulsion.

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Ski resort

A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports.

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Ski skins

Climbing skins are strips that attach to the bottom of nordic, alpine touring or randonnée skis to help while ascending backcountry slopes.

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Ski touring

Ski touring is skiing in the backcountry on unmarked or unpatrolled areas.

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Ski warfare

Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century.

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Ski-orienteering

Ski orienteering (SkiO) is a cross-country skiing endurance winter racing sport and one of the four orienteering disciplines recognized by the IOF.

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Skiing

Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.

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Snow

Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.

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Snow grooming

Snow grooming is the process of manipulating snow for recreational uses with a tractor, snowmobile, piste caterpillar, truck or snowcat towing specialized equipment.

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Snowplough turn

The snowplough turn, also known as a wedge turn or the pizza slice, is a downhill skiing braking and turning technique taught to beginners.

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Snowshoe Thompson

John Albert Thompson (born Jon Torsteinsson Rue; April 30, 1827 – May 15, 1876), nicknamed Snowshoe Thompson, an early resident of the Sierra Nevada of Nevada and California, was a Norwegian-American considered to be the father of California skiing.

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Sports governing body

A sports governing body is a sports organization that has a regulatory or sanctioning function.

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Stem christie

The stem christie or "wedge christie" is a technique used in skiing for turning.

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Sweden

Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Telemark skiing

Telemark skiing is a skiing technique that combines elements of Alpine and Nordic skiing.

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Terrestrial locomotion

Terrestrial locomotion has evolved as animals adapted from aquatic to terrestrial environments.

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Tour of Anchorage

The Tour of Anchorage is a point-to-point cross-country ski race held annually on the first Sunday in March in Anchorage, Alaska.

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Traction (engineering)

Traction, or tractive force, is the force used to generate motion between a body and a tangential surface, through the use of dry friction, though the use of shear force of the surface is also commonly used.

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Tromsø

Tromsø (Romsa; Tromssa; Tromssa) is a city and municipality in Troms county, Norway.

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Trondheim

Trondheim (historically Kaupangen, Nidaros and Trondhjem) is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.

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Tyrol (state)

Tyrol (Tirol; Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Ski and Snowboard Association

U.S. Ski & Snowboard is the national governing body for Olympic skiing and snowboarding.

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Vasaloppet

Vasaloppet (Swedish for 'the Vasa-race') is an annual long distance cross-country ski race held on the first Sunday of March.

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Verb

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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War

War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.

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Winter Olympic Games

The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.

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Worldloppet Ski Federation

The Worldloppet Ski Federation is a federation of long distance cross-country skiing events whose aim is to promote cross-country skiing through various ski races.

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Cross Country Skiing, Cross Country skiing, Cross country ski, Cross country skier, Cross country skiers, Cross country skiing, Cross country skis, Cross-Country Skiing, Cross-country ski, Cross-country skier, Cross-country skiers, Cross-country skis, Crosscountry skiing, Crosscountryskiing, Langlauf, Skate skiing, Skiing trail, XC skiing.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-country_skiing

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