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Index Cryogenics

In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures. [1]

83 relations: Absolute zero, Atmosphere of Earth, Benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, Biology, Blood bank, Boiling point, Brittleness, Celsius, Chemical reactor, Cryobiology, Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources, Cryocooler, Cryoelectronics, Cryogenic fuel, Cryogenic grinding, Cryogenic hardening, Cryogenic particle detectors, Cryogenic processor, Cryonics, Cryopreservation, Cryosurgery, Cryotronics, Detroit, Electric power transmission, Fahrenheit, Forward-looking infrared, Freon, Frozen food, Gas, Greek language, Heat treating, Helium, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, International Energy Agency, James Dewar, Kelvin, Liquefied gas, Liquefied natural gas, Liquid helium, Liquid hydrogen, Liquid nitrogen, Liquid oxygen, LNG carrier, LNG pier, Lowest temperature recorded on Earth, Magnetic refrigeration, Magnetic resonance imaging, Manufacturing, McGraw-Hill Education, ..., Mill (grinding), NASA, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Neon, Nightclub, Nitrogen, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Orbit, Organism, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Physics, Popular culture, Pulse tube refrigerator, Rankine scale, Refrigeration, Resistance thermometer, Rocket, RP-1, Sergei Korolev, Soviet space program, Space Shuttle, Special effect, Statin, Storage tank, Superconductivity, Temperature, Tupolev, Tupolev Tu-154, Tupolev Tu-155, Vaccine, Vacuum flask, Variable-range hopping. Expand index (33 more) »

Absolute zero

Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

A Benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (Benchtop NMR spectrometer) refers to a Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (FT-NMR) spectrometer that is significantly more compact and portable than the conventional equivalents, such that it is portable and can reside on a laboratory benchtop.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Blood bank

A blood bank is a center where blood gathered as a result of blood donation is stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusion.

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Boiling point

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.

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# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.

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The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).

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Chemical reactor

A chemical reactor is an enclosed volume in which a chemical reaction takes place.

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Cryobiology is the branch of biology that studies the effects of low temperatures on living things within Earth's cryosphere or in science.

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Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources

Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources is a strategy wherein samples of animal genetic materials are preserved cryogenically.

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A Cryocooler is a substration cooler, usually of table-top size.

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In electronics, cryoelectronics or cryolectronics is the study of superconductivity under cryogenic conditions and its applications.

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Cryogenic fuel

Cryogenic fuels are fuels that require storage at extremely low temperatures in order to maintain them in a liquid state.

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Cryogenic grinding

Cyrogenic grinding, also known as freezer milling, freezer grinding, and cryomilling, is the act of cooling or chilling a material and then reducing it into a small particle size.

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Cryogenic hardening

Cryogenic hardening is a cryogenic treatment process where the material is cooled to approximately, usually using liquid nitrogen.

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Cryogenic particle detectors

Cryogenic particle detectors operate at very low temperature, typically only a few degrees above absolute zero.

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Cryogenic processor

A Cryogenic processor is a unit designed to reach ultra-low temperatures (usually around -300 °F / -150 °C) at a slow rate in order to prevent thermal shock to the components being treated.

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Cryonics (from Greek κρύος kryos meaning 'cold') is the low-temperature preservation (usually at −196°C) of human cadavers, with the hope that resuscitation and restoration to life and full health may be possible in the far future.

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Cryo-preservation or cryo-conservation is a process where organelles, cells, tissues, extracellular matrix, organs or any other biological constructs susceptible to damage caused by unregulated chemical kinetics are preserved by cooling to very low temperatures (typically −80 °C using solid carbon dioxide or −196 °C using liquid nitrogen).

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Cryosurgery (cryotherapy) is the use of extreme cold in surgery to destroy abnormal or diseased tissue; thus, it is the surgical application of cryoablation.

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Cryotronics is the production of electronics that utilize superconductivity.

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Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.

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Electric power transmission

Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.

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The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale based on one proposed in 1724 by Dutch-German-Polish physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736).

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Forward-looking infrared

Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) cameras, typically used on military and civilian aircraft, use a thermographic camera that senses infrared radiation.

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Freon is a registered trademark of The Chemours Company, which uses it for a number of halocarbon products.

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Frozen food

Freezing food preserves it from the time it is prepared to the time it is eaten.

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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Heat treating

Heat treating (or heat treatment) is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.

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Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.

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James Dewar

Sir James Dewar FRS FRSE (20 September 1842 – 27 March 1923) was a Scottish chemist and physicist.

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The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Liquefied gas

Liquified gas (sometimes referred to as liquid gas) is a gas that has been turned into a liquid by cooling or compressing it.

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Liquefied natural gas

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.

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Liquid helium

At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).

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Liquid hydrogen

Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.

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Liquid nitrogen

Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.

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Liquid oxygen

Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.

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LNG carrier

An LNG carrier is a tank ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG).

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LNG pier

A LNG (liquefied natural gas) pier is a specialized kind of working pier designed for the loading and offloading of liquefied natural gas from ships to shore based tanks.

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Lowest temperature recorded on Earth

The lowest natural temperature ever directly recorded at ground level on Earth is in East Antartica in March 2018.

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Magnetic refrigeration

Magnetic refrigeration is a cooling technology based on the magnetocaloric effect.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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Mill (grinding)

A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that usually operates late into the night.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.

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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Popular culture

Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.

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Pulse tube refrigerator

The pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) or pulse tube cryocooler is a developing technology that emerged largely in the early 1980s with a series of other innovations in the broader field of thermoacoustics.

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Rankine scale

The Rankine scale is an absolute scale of thermodynamic temperature named after the Glasgow University engineer and physicist William John Macquorn Rankine, who proposed it in 1859.

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Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.

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Resistance thermometer

Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature.

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A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.

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RP-1 (alternately, Rocket Propellant-1 or Refined Petroleum-1) is a highly refined form of kerosene outwardly similar to jet fuel, used as rocket fuel.

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Sergei Korolev

Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.

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Soviet space program

The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Special effect

Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world.

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Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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Storage tank

Storage tanks are containers that hold liquids, compressed gases (gas tank; or in U.S.A "pressure vessel", which is not typically labeled or regulated as a storage tank) or mediums used for the short- or long-term storage of heat or cold.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Tupolev (Ту́полев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.

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Tupolev Tu-154

The Tupolev Tu-154 (Tyполев Ту-154; NATO reporting name: "Careless") is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid-1960s and manufactured by Tupolev.

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Tupolev Tu-155

The Tupolev Tu-155 is a modified Tu-154 (СССР-85035) which was used as an alternative fuel testbed.

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A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.

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Vacuum flask

A vacuum flask (also known as a Dewar flask, Dewar bottle or thermos) is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings.

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Variable-range hopping

Variable-range hopping, or Mott variable-range hopping, is a model describing low-temperature conduction in strongly disordered systems with localized charge-carrier states.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryogenics

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