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Cryptocurrency

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A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets. [1]

145 relations: Academic journal, Advanced Micro Devices, Anonymity, Application-specific integrated circuit, Autorité des marchés financiers (France), Bankruptcy, Bitcoin, Bitcoin ATM, Bitcoin Gold, BitGold, BLAKE (hash function), Blockchain, Bloomberg News, Byzantine fault tolerance, Capital gains tax, Cash, Central bank, Chargeback, China, Coinye, Complementary currency, Computer hardware, Computer performance, Cryptocurrency bubble, Cryptocurrency exchange, Cryptocurrency wallet, Cryptographic hash function, Cryptographic protocol, Cryptography, Darknet market, David Chaum, Decentralization, DigiCash, Digital asset, Digital currency, Digital signature, Directed acyclic graph, Distributed ledger, Dogecoin, Domain Name System, Dot-com bubble, Double-spending, Drug Enforcement Administration, Ecash, Economic bubble, Ethereum, Federal Reserve System, Fiat money, Field-programmable gate array, Forbes, ..., GeForce 10 series, Harvard Business Review, Harvard University, Hash function, HM Treasury, Howard Marks (investor), Hydro-Québec, Initial coin offering, Internal Revenue Service, Internet censorship, Iran, Jamaica national bobsleigh team, Johns Hopkins University, Kanye West, Ledger, Ledger (journal), List of cryptocurrencies, Litecoin, Mail and wire fraud, Malware, MarketWatch, Medium of exchange, Merriam-Webster, Miner, Mining pool, Monero (cryptocurrency), Money laundering, Mt. Gox, Namecoin, National Security Agency, Nick Szabo, Nicolás Maduro, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nvidia, Oaktree Capital Management, Obstruction of justice, Paul Krugman, Peer review, Peer-to-peer, Peercoin, People's Bank of China, Petro (cryptocurrency), Plea bargain, Ponzi scheme, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Proof-of-stake, Proof-of-work system, Pseudonym, Public-key cryptography, Pyramid scheme, Quora, Real estate bubble, Record (computer science), Ring signature, Ross Ulbricht, RT (TV network), Russia, Russian ruble, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scrypt, Search and seizure, Secure by design, Server (computing), SHA-2, SHA-3, Siberia, Silk Road (marketplace), Simultaneity, Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, Software, Software developer, South Sea Company, Strong cryptography, Supply and demand, Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority, Switzerland, Tether (cryptocurrency), The Economist, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Trusted timestamping, Tulip mania, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, United States Secret Service, University of Pittsburgh, Venezuela, Video card, Virtual currency, Virtual currency law in the United States, Warren Buffett, Zcash, Zero-knowledge proof, Zerocoin, 2014 Winter Olympics, 2018 crypto crash. Expand index (95 more) »

Academic journal

An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.

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Advanced Micro Devices

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.

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Anonymity

Anonymity, adjective "anonymous", is derived from the Greek word ἀνωνυμία, anonymia, meaning "without a name" or "namelessness".

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Application-specific integrated circuit

An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.

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Autorité des marchés financiers (France)

The Autorité des marchés financiers (AMF) (English: "Financial Markets Regulator") is the stock market regulator in France.

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Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.

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Bitcoin

Bitcoin (₿) is the world's first cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash.

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Bitcoin ATM

A bitcoin ATM is an internet machine that allows a person to exchange bitcoins and cash.

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Bitcoin Gold

Bitcoin Gold is a distributed digital currency.

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BitGold

BitGold is a Canadian company offering international savings and payments services which allow people and businesses to send payments and hold savings with physical gold.

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BLAKE (hash function)

BLAKE and BLAKE2 are cryptographic hash functions based on Dan Bernstein's ChaCha stream cipher, but a permuted copy of the input block, XORed with some round constants, is added before each ChaCha round.

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Blockchain

A blockchain, originally block chain, is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.

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Bloomberg News

Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.

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Byzantine fault tolerance

Byzantine fault tolerance (BFT) is the dependability of a fault-tolerant computer system, particularly distributed computing systems, where components may fail and there is imperfect information on whether a component is failed.

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Capital gains tax

A capital gains tax (CGT) is a tax on capital gains, the profit realized on the sale of a non-inventory asset that was greater than the amount realized on the sale.

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Cash

In economics, cash is money in the physical form of currency, such as banknotes and coins.

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Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

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Chargeback

Chargeback is the return of funds to a consumer, initiated by the issuing bank of the instrument used by a consumer to settle a debt.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Coinye

Coinye, formerly Coinye West, is an abandoned scrypt-based cryptocurrency that became embroiled in a trademark infringement lawsuit for using the likeness of American hip hop artist Kanye West as its mascot, despite West having no affiliation with the project.

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Complementary currency

A complementary currency is a currency or medium of exchange which is not a national currency, but which is thought of as supplementing or complementing national currencies.

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Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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Computer performance

Computer performance is the amount of work accomplished by a computer system.

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Cryptocurrency bubble

Predictions of a collapse of a speculative bubble in cryptocurrencies have been made by numerous experts in economics and financial markets.

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Cryptocurrency exchange

Cryptocurrency exchange, Crypto exchange or digital currency exchange (DCE) is a businesses that allow customers to trade cryptocurrencies or digital currencies for other assets, such as conventional fiat money, or different digital currencies.

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Cryptocurrency wallet

A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private keys which can be used to receive or spend the cryptocurrency.

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Cryptographic hash function

A cryptographic hash function is a special class of hash function that has certain properties which make it suitable for use in cryptography.

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Cryptographic protocol

A security protocol (cryptographic protocol or encryption protocol) is an abstract or concrete protocol that performs a security-related function and applies cryptographic methods, often as sequences of cryptographic primitives.

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Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

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Darknet market

A darknet market or cryptomarket is a commercial website on the web that operates via darknets such as Tor or I2P.

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David Chaum

David Lee Chaum (born 1955) is an American computer scientist and cryptographer.

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Decentralization

Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.

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DigiCash

DigiCash Inc. was an electronic money corporation founded by David Chaum in 1989.

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Digital asset

A digital asset, in essence, is anything that exists in a binary format and comes with the right to use.

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Digital currency

Digital currency (digital money or electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available only in digital form, not in physical (such as banknotes and coins).

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Digital signature

A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for presenting the authenticity of digital messages or documents.

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Directed acyclic graph

In mathematics and computer science, a directed acyclic graph (DAG), is a finite directed graph with no directed cycles.

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Distributed ledger

A distributed ledger (also called a shared ledger, or distributed ledger technology, DLT) is a consensus of replicated, shared, and synchronized digital data geographically spread across multiple sites, countries, or institutions.

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Dogecoin

Dogecoin (code: DOGE, symbol: Ð and D) is a cryptocurrency featuring a likeness of the Shiba Inu dog from the "Doge" Internet meme as its logo.

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Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.

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Dot-com bubble

The dot-com bubble (also known as the dot-com boom, the dot-com crash, the Y2K crash, the Y2K bubble, the tech bubble, the Internet bubble, the dot-com collapse, and the information technology bubble) was a historic economic bubble and period of excessive speculation that occurred roughly from 1997 to 2001, a period of extreme growth in the usage and adaptation of the Internet.

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Double-spending

Double-spending is a potential flaw in a digital cash scheme in which the same single digital token can be spent more than once.

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Drug Enforcement Administration

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.

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Ecash

Ecash was conceived by David Chaum as an anonymous cryptographic electronic money or electronic cash system in 1983.

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Economic bubble

An economic bubble or asset bubble (sometimes also referred to as a speculative bubble, a market bubble, a price bubble, a financial bubble, a speculative mania, or a balloon) is trade in an asset at a price or price range that strongly exceeds the asset's intrinsic value.

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Ethereum

Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality.

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Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.

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Fiat money

Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.

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Field-programmable gate array

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine.

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GeForce 10 series

The GeForce 10 series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia, initially based on the Pascal microarchitecture announced in March 2014.

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Harvard Business Review

Harvard Business Review (HBR) is a general management magazine published by Harvard Business Publishing, a wholly owned subsidiary of Harvard University.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Hash function

A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size.

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HM Treasury

Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.

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Howard Marks (investor)

Howard Stanley Marks (born April 23, 1946) is an American investor and writer.

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Hydro-Québec

Hydro-Québec is a public utility that manages the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in Quebec.

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Initial coin offering

An initial coin offering (ICO) or initial currency offering, a type of crowdfunding using cryptocurrencies, is a means of raising capital that has been prone to scams and securities law violations.

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Internal Revenue Service

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service of the United States federal government.

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Internet censorship

Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Jamaica national bobsleigh team

The Jamaican national bobsleigh team represents Jamaica in international bobsledding competitions.

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Johns Hopkins University

Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Kanye West

Kanye Omari West (born June 8, 1977) is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, record producer, entrepreneur and fashion designer.

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Ledger

A ledger is the principal book or computer file for recording and totaling economic transactions measured in terms of a monetary unit of account by account type, with debits and credits in separate columns and a beginning monetary balance and ending monetary balance for each account.

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Ledger (journal)

Ledger is the first peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated to cryptocurrency and blockchain technology research.

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List of cryptocurrencies

This is a list of cryptocurrencies.

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Litecoin

Litecoin (LTC or Ł) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open source software project released under the MIT/X11 license.

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Mail and wire fraud

In the United States, mail and wire fraud is any fraudulent scheme to intentionally deprive another of property or honest services via mail or wire communication.

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Malware

Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server or computer network.

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MarketWatch

MarketWatch operates a financial information website that provides business news, analysis, and stock market data.

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Medium of exchange

A medium of exchange is a tradeable entity used to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system.

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Merriam-Webster

Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Miner

A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other mineral from the earth through mining.

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Mining pool

In the context of cryptocurrency mining, a mining pool is the pooling of resources by miners, who share their processing power over a network, to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block.

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Monero (cryptocurrency)

Monero (XMR) is an open-source cryptocurrency created in April 2014 that focuses on privacy and decentralization that runs on Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS, and FreeBSD.

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Money laundering

Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.

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Mt. Gox

Mt.

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Namecoin

Namecoin (Symbol: ℕ or NMC) is a cryptocurrency that is mined with bitcoin software as bonus.

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National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.

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Nick Szabo

Nick Szabo is a computer scientist, legal scholar and cryptographer known for his research in digital contracts and digital currency.

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Nicolás Maduro

Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.

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Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.

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Nvidia

Nvidia Corporation (most commonly referred to as Nvidia, stylized as NVIDIA, or (due to their logo) nVIDIA) is an American technology company incorporated in Delaware and based in Santa Clara, California.

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Oaktree Capital Management

Oaktree Capital Management is an American global asset management firm specializing in alternative investment strategies.

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Obstruction of justice

Obstruction of justice, in United States jurisdictions, is the crime of obstructing prosecutors or other (usually government) officials.

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Paul Krugman

Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.

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Peer review

Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).

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Peer-to-peer

Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.

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Peercoin

Peercoin, also known as PPCoin or PPC, is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency utilizing both proof-of-stake and proof-of-work systems.

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People's Bank of China

The People's Bank of China (PBC or PBOC) is the central bank of the People's Republic of China responsible for carrying out monetary policy and regulation of financial institutions in mainland China, as determined by Bank Law.

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Petro (cryptocurrency)

The petro, or petromoneda, launched in February 2018, is a cryptocurrency developed by the government of Venezuela.

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Plea bargain

The plea bargain (also plea agreement, plea deal, copping a plea, or plea in mitigation) is any agreement in a criminal case between the prosecutor and defendant whereby the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a particular charge in return for some concession from the prosecutor.

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Ponzi scheme

A Ponzi scheme (also a Ponzi game) is a form of fraud in which a purported businessman lures investors and pays profits to earlier investors using funds obtained from newer investors.

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PricewaterhouseCoopers

PricewaterhouseCoopers (doing business as PwC) is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Proof-of-stake

Proof of stake (PoS) is a type of algorithm by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus.

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Proof-of-work system

A proof-of-work (PoW) system (or protocol, or function) is an economic measure to deter denial of service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, usually meaning processing time by a computer.

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Pseudonym

A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name (orthonym).

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Public-key cryptography

Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.

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Pyramid scheme

A pyramid scheme (commonly known as pyramid scams) is a business model that recruits members via a promise of payments or services for enrolling others into the scheme, rather than supplying investments or sale of products or services.

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Quora

Quora is a question-and-answer site where questions are asked, answered, edited, and organized by its community of users.

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Real estate bubble

A real estate bubble or property bubble (or housing bubble for residential markets) is a type of economic bubble that occurs periodically in local or global real estate markets, and typically follow a land boom.

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Record (computer science)

In computer science, a record (also called a structure, struct, or compound data) is a basic data structure.

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Ring signature

In cryptography, a ring signature is a type of digital signature that can be performed by any member of a group of users that each have keys.

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Ross Ulbricht

Ross William Ulbricht (born March 27, 1984) is an American former drug trafficker and darknet market operator, best known for creating and running the Silk Road website from 2011 until his arrest in 2013.

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RT (TV network)

RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian ruble

The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.

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Satoshi Nakamoto

Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the unknown person or people who developed bitcoin, authored the bitcoin white paper, created and deployed bitcoin's original reference implementation.

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Scrypt

In cryptography, scrypt (pronounced "ess crypt") is a password-based key derivation function created by Colin Percival, originally for the Tarsnap online backup service.

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Search and seizure

Search and Seizure is a procedure used in many civil law and common law legal systems by which police or other authorities and their agents, who, suspecting that a crime has been committed, commence a search of a person's property and confiscate any relevant evidence found in connection to the crime.

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Secure by design

Secure by design, in software engineering, means that the software has been designed from the ground up to be secure.

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Server (computing)

In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".

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SHA-2

SHA-2 (Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).

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SHA-3

SHA-3 (Secure Hash Algorithm 3) is the latest member of the Secure Hash Algorithm family of standards, released by NIST on August 5, 2015.

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Silk Road (marketplace)

Silk Road was an online black market and the first modern darknet market, best known as a platform for selling illegal drugs.

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Simultaneity

Simultaneity is the relation between two events assumed to be happening at the same time in a frame of reference.

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Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) provides a network that enables financial institutions worldwide to send and receive information about financial transactions in a secure, standardized and reliable environment.

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Software

Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Software developer

A software developer is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming, and testing of computer software.

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South Sea Company

The South Sea Company (officially The Governor and Company of the merchants of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas and other parts of America, and for the encouragement of fishing) was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt.

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Strong cryptography

Strong cryptography or cryptographic-ally strong are general terms applied to cryptographic systems or components that are considered highly resistant to cryptanalysis.

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Supply and demand

In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.

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Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority

The Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (FINMA) is the Swiss government body responsible for financial regulation.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Tether (cryptocurrency)

Tether is a controversial cryptocurrency token claimed by its creators to be backed by one dollar for each token issued, though Tether Limited has not issued a promised audit of their currency reserves.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Trusted timestamping

Trusted timestamping is the process of securely keeping track of the creation and modification time of a document.

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Tulip mania

Tulip mania (Dutch: tulpenmanie) was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for some bulbs of the recently introduced and fashionable tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then dramatically collapsed in February 1637.

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U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.

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United States Secret Service

The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.

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University of Pittsburgh

The University of Pittsburgh (commonly referred to as Pitt) is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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Venezuela

Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Video card

A video card (also called a display card, graphics card, display adapter or graphics adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor).

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Virtual currency

Virtual currency, or virtual money, is a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community.

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Virtual currency law in the United States

United States virtual currency law is financial regulation as applied to transactions in virtual currency in the U.S. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission has regulated and may continue to regulate virtual currencies as commodities.

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Warren Buffett

Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway.

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Zcash

Zcash is a cryptocurrency aimed at using cryptography to provide enhanced privacy for its users compared to other cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin.

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Zero-knowledge proof

In cryptography, a zero-knowledge proof or zero-knowledge protocol is a method by which one party (the prover Peggy) can prove to another party (the verifier Victor) that she knows a value x, without conveying any information apart from the fact that she knows the value x. Another way of understanding this would be: Interactive zero-knowledge proofs require interaction between the individual (or computer system) proving their knowledge and the individual validating the proof.

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Zerocoin

Zerocoin is a cryptocurrency proposed by Johns Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman as an extension to the bitcoin protocol that would add true cryptographic anonymity to bitcoin transactions.

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2014 Winter Olympics

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.

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2018 crypto crash

The 2018 crypto crash (also known as the Crypto carnage) is the biggest sell-off of most cryptocurrencies from January 2018.

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Redirects here:

AltCoin, Altcoin, Criticism of cryptocurrency, Crypto Currency, Crypto asset, Crypto-currency, Cryptocoin, Cryptocurrencies, Cryptocurrency mining, Kryptocurrency, Legal status of cryptocurrencies, Math Based Currency, Mining (cryptocurrency).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptocurrency

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