334 relations: -logy, A Greek–English Lexicon, A History of US, AACS encryption key controversy, Abstract algebra, Adi Shamir, Advanced Encryption Standard, Adversary (cryptography), Al-Kindi, Alan Cox, Alberti cipher disk, Algorithm, All Writs Act, American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Ancient Greece, Association for Computing Machinery, Atbash, Auguste Kerckhoffs, Authentication, Étienne Bazeries, Backup, Belarus, Bell Labs, Bernstein v. United States, Bill Clinton, Binary number, Bit, Blackmail, Bletchley Park, Block cipher, Block cipher mode of operation, Blu-ray, Boing Boing, Bribery, Bruce Schneier, Brute-force attack, Caesar cipher, Capstone (cryptography), Charles Babbage, Chicken or the egg, China, Chosen-ciphertext attack, Chosen-plaintext attack, Cipher, Cipher disk, Ciphertext, Ciphertext-only attack, Classical cipher, Claude Shannon, Clifford B. Hicks, ..., Clifford Cocks, Clipper chip, Code (cryptography), Code word, Colloquialism, Colossus computer, Combinatorics, Communication, Communication protocol, Communication studies, Comparison of cryptography libraries, Computational complexity theory, Computational hardness assumption, Computer, Computer network, Computer programming, Computer science, Confidentiality, Copyright, Copyright Directive, Copyright infringement, Cramer–Shoup cryptosystem, Cryptanalysis, Cryptanalysis of the Enigma, Crypto Wars, Cryptogram, Cryptographic engineering, Cryptographic hash function, Cryptographic primitive, Cryptographic protocol, Cryptography standards, Cryptologia, CrypTool, Cryptosystem, Daniel J. Bernstein, Data Encryption Standard, Data integrity, David Kahn (writer), Differential cryptanalysis, Diffie–Hellman key exchange, Digital currency, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Digital rights management, Digital signature, Digital Signature Algorithm, Digital watermarking, Diplomat, Discrete logarithm, Doubleday (publisher), E-commerce, Eavesdropping, Edgar Allan Poe, Edward Felten, Egypt, Electrical engineering, Electronic cash, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Electronic Privacy Information Center, ElGamal encryption, Elliptic curve, Elliptic-curve cryptography, Email client, Email privacy, EMV, Encryption, Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security, Engineering, Enigma machine, Espionage, Export of cryptography, Extortion, Fair use, FBI–Apple encryption dispute, FEAL, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Register, Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Firefox, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Foreign Affairs, Forgery, France, Freedom of speech, Frequency analysis, Friedrich Kasiski, Gardening (cryptanalysis), Global surveillance, Government Communications Headquarters, Grille (cryptography), Hash function, HD DVD, Herodotus, Hybrid cryptosystem, IBM, Ibn al-Nadim, IEEE Computer Society, Information, Information security, Information theory, Information-theoretic security, Integer factorization, Intel, Interactive proof system, International Cryptology Conference, Internet, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet Explorer, Invisible ink, Iran, James Gannon, James H. Ellis, Jefferson disk, Johannes Trithemius, John Wiley & Sons, Julius Caesar, Kama Sutra, Kasiski examination, Kazakhstan, Kerckhoffs's principle, Key (cryptography), Key disclosure law, Key escrow, Key management, Key size, Known-plaintext attack, Language, Latin alphabet, Law enforcement agency, Leon Battista Alberti, Leonard Adleman, Lexicographic code, Library of Congress, Linear cryptanalysis, Linux kernel, List of cryptographers, List of important publications in cryptography, List of unsolved problems in computer science, Lorenz cipher, Malcolm J. Williamson, Man-in-the-middle attack, Martin Gardner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematics, Mathematics in medieval Islam, MD4, MD5, Merriam-Webster, Message authentication code, Michael O. Rabin, Microdot, Microsoft Outlook, Mihir Bellare, Military communications, Modular arithmetic, Mongolia, Motion Picture Association of America, Mozilla Thunderbird, National Credit Union Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Security Agency, Netscape Navigator, Niels Ferguson, NIST hash function competition, Non-repudiation, Nonsense, Number theory, Oded Goldreich, One-time pad, One-way function, Outline of cryptography, Oxford University Press, Pakistan, Passphrase, Password, PC World, Penguin Books, Personal computer, Phil Zimmermann, Phillip Rogaway, Physics, Plaintext, Plausible deniability, Polymath, Post-quantum cryptography, President of the United States, Pretty Good Privacy, Privacy, Provable security, Pseudorandom function family, Public key infrastructure, Public-key cryptography, Puzzle, Quantum computing, Quantum cryptography, Quantum mechanics, Ralph Merkle, Random House, Random oracle, RC4, Recreational mathematics, Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000, Ron Rivest, Rotor machine, RSA (cryptosystem), RSA Security, S/MIME, Sarah Flannery, Sasanian Empire, Schnorr signature, Scientific American, Secrecy, Secret sharing, Secure channel, Secure communication, Secure multi-party computation, Secure Shell, Security engineering, Sedition, Selected Areas in Cryptography, SHA-1, SHA-2, SHA-3, SIAM Journal on Computing, Side-channel attack, Signature, Signcryption, Singapore, Skipjack (cipher), Social engineering (security), Source code, Sparta, Springer Science+Business Media, Square (algebra), Statistical randomness, Statistics, Steganography, Steven Levy, Stream cipher, Strong cryptography, Substitution cipher, Suetonius, Syllabical and Steganographical Table, Symmetric-key algorithm, Tabula recta, The Code Book, The Codebreakers, The Denver Post, The Gold-Bug, The New York Times, The Register, Thomas Jefferson, Time complexity, Timing attack, Torture, Traffic analysis, Transport Layer Security, Transposition cipher, Treason, Triple DES, Tunisia, United States, United States Copyright Office, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, United States Department of Justice, United States District Court for the District of Colorado, United States Munitions List, United States v. Elcom Ltd., United States v. Fricosu, University of California, Berkeley, University of Illinois Press, USENIX Annual Technical Conference, Vātsyāyana, Vendor lock-in, Vietnam, Vigenère cipher, Virtual private network, Wassenaar Arrangement, Web browser, Web cryptography API, Webster's Dictionary, World Intellectual Property Organization, World War II, World Wide Web Consortium, Zero-knowledge proof. Expand index (284 more) » « Shrink index
-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).
A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.
A History of US is a ten-volume (and one sourcebook) historical book series for children, written by Joy Hakim and first published in its entirety in 1995.
A controversy surrounding the AACS cryptographic key arose in April 2007 when the Motion Picture Association of America and the Advanced Access Content System Licensing Administrator, LLC (AACS LA) began issuing cease and desist letters to websites publishing a 128-bit (16-byte) number, represented in hexadecimal as 09 F9 11 02 9D 74 E3 5B D8 41 56 C5 63 56 88 C0 (commonly referred to as 09 F9), a cryptographic key for HD DVDs and Blu-ray Discs.
In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra (occasionally called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures.
Adi Shamir (עדי שמיר; born July 6, 1952) is an Israeli cryptographer.
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known by its original name Rijndael, is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001.
In cryptography, an adversary (rarely opponent, enemy) is a malicious entity whose aim is to prevent the users of the cryptosystem from achieving their goal (primarily privacy, integrity, and availability of data).
Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي; Alkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab Muslim philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
Alan Cox (born 22 July 1968) is a British computer programmer who has been a key figure in the development of Linux.
A Treatise on Ciphers. The Alberti Cipher Disk. The Alberti cipher disk, also called formula, is a cipher disc which was described by Leon Battista Alberti in his treatise De Cifris of 1467.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
The All Writs Act is a United States federal statute, codified at, which authorizes the United States federal courts to "issue all writs necessary or appropriate in aid of their respective jurisdictions and agreeable to the usages and principles of law." The act in its original form was part of the Judiciary Act of 1789.
The American Federation of Information Processing Societies (AFIPS) was an umbrella organization of professional societies established on May 10, 1961 and dissolved in 1990.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
Atbash (אתבש; also transliterated Atbaš) is a monoalphabetic substitution cipher originally used to encrypt the Hebrew alphabet.
Auguste Kerckhoffs (19 January 1835 – 9 August 1903) was a Dutch linguist and cryptographer who was professor of languages at the École des Hautes Études Commerciales in Paris in the late 19th century.
Authentication (from authentikos, "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης authentes, "author") is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity.
Étienne Bazeries (21 August 1846 Port Vendres – 7 November 1931 Noyon) was a French military cryptanalyst active between 1890 and the First World War.
In information technology, a backup, or the process of backing up, refers to the copying into an archive file of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Bernstein v. United States is a set of court cases brought by Daniel J. Bernstein challenging restrictions on the export of cryptography from the United States.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
Blackmail is an act, often criminal, involving unjustified threats to make a gain—most commonly money or property—or cause loss to another unless a demand is met.
Bletchley Park was the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II.
In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called a block, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key.
In cryptography, a block cipher mode of operation is an algorithm that uses a block cipher to provide an information service such as confidentiality or authenticity.
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.
Boing Boing is a website, first established as a zine in 1988, later becoming a group blog.
Bribery is the act of giving or receiving something of value in exchange for some kind of influence or action in return, that the recipient would otherwise not alter.
Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963, is an American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. He is the author of several books on general security topics, computer security and cryptography. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute. He has been working for IBM since they acquired Resilient Systems where Schneier was CTO. He is also a contributing writer for The Guardian news organization.
In cryptography, a brute-force attack consists of an attacker trying many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly.
E in the plaintext becomes B in the ciphertext.
Capstone is the name of a United States government long-term project to develop cryptography standards for public and government use.
Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.
The chicken or the egg causality dilemma is commonly stated as "which came first: the chicken or the egg?".
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the cryptanalyst can gather information by obtaining the decryptions of chosen ciphertexts.
A chosen-plaintext attack (CPA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis which presumes that the attacker can obtain the ciphertexts for arbitrary plaintexts.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
A cipher disk is an enciphering and deciphering tool developed in 1470 by the Italian architect and author Leon Battista Alberti.
In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher.
In cryptography, a ciphertext-only attack (COA) or known ciphertext attack is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker is assumed to have access only to a set of ciphertexts.
In cryptography, a classical cipher is a type of cipher that was used historically but now has fallen, for the most part, into disuse.
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".
Clifford B. Hicks (August 10, 1920 – September 29, 2010) was an American writer and magazine editor, best known for his children's books chronicling the adventures of Alvin Fernald.
Clifford Christopher Cocks CB FRS (born 28 December 1950) is a British mathematician and cryptographer.
The Clipper chip was a chipset that was developed and promoted by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) as an encryption device that secured “voice and data messages" with a built-in backdoor.
Cryptography in simple terms means the use of any alphabet or numerical statement which has a meaning or stores a message.
In communication, a code word is an element of a standardized code or protocol.
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
Colossus was a set of computers developed by British codebreakers in the years 1943–1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.
Combinatorics is an area of mathematics primarily concerned with counting, both as a means and an end in obtaining results, and certain properties of finite structures.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.
The tables below compare cryptography libraries that deal with cryptography algorithms and have api function calls to each of the supported features.
Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.
In computational complexity theory, a computational hardness assumption is the hypothesis that a particular problem cannot be solved efficiently (where efficiently typically means "in polynomial time").
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
The Copyright Directive (officially the Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, also known as the Information Society Directive or the InfoSoc Directive), is a directive of the European Union enacted to implement the WIPO Copyright Treaty and to harmonise aspects of copyright law across Europe, such as copyright exceptions. The directive was enacted under the internal market provisions of the Treaty of Rome. The directive was subject to unprecedented lobbying and has been cited as a success for copyright industries. The directive gives EU Member States significant freedom in certain aspects of transposition. Member States had until 22 December 2002 to implement the directive into their national laws. However, only Greece and Denmark met the deadline and the European Commission eventually initiated enforcement action against six Member States for non-implementation.
Copyright infringement is the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works.
The Cramer–Shoup system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm, and was the first efficient scheme proven to be secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack using standard cryptographic assumptions.
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
Cryptanalysis of the Enigma ciphering system enabled the western Allies in World War II to read substantial amounts of Morse-coded radio communications of the Axis powers that had been enciphered using Enigma machines.
The Crypto Wars is an unofficial name for the U.S. and allied governments' attempts to limit the public's and foreign nations' access to cryptography strong enough to resist decryption by national intelligence agencies (especially USA's NSA).
A cryptogram is a type of puzzle that consists of a short piece of encrypted text.
Cryptographic Engineering is the discipline of using cryptography to solve human problems.
A cryptographic hash function is a special class of hash function that has certain properties which make it suitable for use in cryptography.
Cryptographic primitives are well-established, low-level cryptographic algorithms that are frequently used to build cryptographic protocols for computer security systems.
A security protocol (cryptographic protocol or encryption protocol) is an abstract or concrete protocol that performs a security-related function and applies cryptographic methods, often as sequences of cryptographic primitives.
There are a number of standards related to cryptography.
Cryptologia is a journal in cryptography published quarterly since January 1977.
CrypTool is an open source project.
In cryptography, a cryptosystem is a suite of cryptographic algorithms needed to implement a particular security service, most commonly for achieving confidentiality (encryption).
Daniel Julius Bernstein (sometimes known simply as djb; born October 29, 1971) is a German-American mathematician, cryptologist, and programmer.
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric-key algorithm for the encryption of electronic data.
Data integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of the accuracy and consistency of, data over its entire life-cycle, and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation and usage of any system which stores, processes, or retrieves data.
David Kahn (b. February 7, 1930*) is a US historian, journalist and writer.
Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.
Diffie–Hellman key exchange (DH)Synonyms of Diffie–Hellman key exchange include.
Digital currency (digital money or electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available only in digital form, not in physical (such as banknotes and coins).
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
Digital rights management (DRM) is a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works.
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for presenting the authenticity of digital messages or documents.
The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a Federal Information Processing Standard for digital signatures.
A digital watermark is a kind of marker covertly embedded in a noise-tolerant signal such as an audio, video or image data.
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with one or more other states or international organizations.
In the mathematics of the real numbers, the logarithm logb a is a number x such that, for given numbers a and b. Analogously, in any group G, powers bk can be defined for all integers k, and the discrete logarithm logb a is an integer k such that.
Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.
E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.
Eavesdropping is secretly or stealthily listening to the private conversation or communications of others without their consent.
Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.
Edward William Felten (born March 25, 1963) is a professor of computer science and public affairs at Princeton University.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
Electronic cash was until 2007 the debit card system of the German Banking Industry Committee, the association which represents the top German financial interest groups.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) is an independent non-profit research center in Washington, D.C. EPIC's mission is to focus public attention on emerging privacy and related human rights issues.
In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which is based on the Diffie–Hellman key exchange.
In mathematics, an elliptic curve is a plane algebraic curve defined by an equation of the form which is non-singular; that is, the curve has no cusps or self-intersections.
Elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields.
In Internet, an email client, email reader or more formally mail user agent (MUA) is a computer program in the category of groupware environments used to access and manage a user's email.
Email privacy is the broad topic dealing with issues of unauthorized access and inspection of electronic mail.
EMV is a payment method based upon a technical standard for smart payment cards and for payment terminals and automated teller machines that can accept them.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
The Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security is a comprehensive work on Cryptography for both information security professionals and experts in the fields of Computer Science, Applied Mathematics, Engineering, Information Theory, Data Encryption, etc.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
The export of cryptography is the transfer from one country to another of devices and technology related to cryptography.
Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion.
Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder.
The FBI–Apple encryption dispute concerns whether and to what extent courts in the United States can compel manufacturers to assist in unlocking cell phones whose data are cryptographically protected.
In cryptography, FEAL (the Fast data Encipherment ALgorithm) is a block cipher proposed as an alternative to the Data Encryption Standard (DES), and designed to be much faster in software.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Federal Register (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.
The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases.
Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
In cryptanalysis, frequency analysis is the study of the frequency of letters or groups of letters in a ciphertext.
Major Friedrich Wilhelm Kasiski (29 November 1805 – 22 May 1881) was a German infantry officer, cryptographer and archeologist.
In cryptanalysis, gardening is the act of encouraging a target to use known plaintext in an encrypted message.
Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders.
The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.
In the history of cryptography, a grille cipher was a technique for encrypting a plaintext by writing it onto a sheet of paper through a pierced sheet (of paper or cardboard or similar).
A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size.
HD DVD (short for High Definition Digital Versatile Disc) is a discontinued high-density optical disc format for storing data and playback of high-definition video.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
In cryptography, a hybrid cryptosystem is one which combines the convenience of a public-key cryptosystem with the efficiency of a symmetric-key cryptosystem.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Nadīm (ابوالفرج محمد بن إسحاق النديم), his surname was Abū al-Faraj Muḥammad ibn Abī Ya'qūb Ishāq ibn Muḥammad ibn Ishāq al-Warrāq and he is more commonly, albeit erroneously, known as Ibn al-Nadim (d. 17 September 995 or 998 CE) was a Muslim scholar and bibliographer Al-Nadīm was the tenth century Baghdadī bibliophile compiler of the Arabic encyclopedic catalogue known as 'Kitāb al-Fihrist'.
IEEE Computer Society (sometimes abbreviated Computer Society or CS) is a professional society of IEEE.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
Information-theoretic security is a cryptosystem whose security derives purely from information theory.
In number theory, integer factorization is the decomposition of a composite number into a product of smaller integers.
Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.
In computational complexity theory, an interactive proof system is an abstract machine that models computation as the exchange of messages between two parties.
CRYPTO, the International Cryptology Conference, is one of the largest academic conferences in cryptography and cryptanalysis.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.
Invisible ink, also known as security ink, is a substance used for writing, which is invisible either on application or soon thereafter, and can later be made visible by some means.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
James Gannon is a freelance writer and producer of documentaries for NBC News.
James Henry Ellis (25 September 1924 – 25 November 1997) was a British engineer and cryptographer.
The Jefferson disk, or wheel cypher as Thomas Jefferson named it, also known as the Bazeries Cylinder, is a cipher system using a set of wheels or disks, each with the 26 letters of the alphabet arranged around their edge.
Johannes Trithemius (1 February 1462 – 13 December 1516), born Johann Heidenberg, was a German Benedictine abbot and a polymath who was active in the German Renaissance as a lexicographer, chronicler, cryptographer, and occultist.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Kama Sutra (कामसूत्र) is an ancient Indian Hindu text written by Vātsyāyana.
In cryptanalysis, Kasiski examination (also referred to as Kasiski's test or Kasiski's method) is a method of attacking polyalphabetic substitution ciphers, such as the Vigenère cipher.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
In cryptography, Kerckhoffs's principle (also called Kerckhoffs's desideratum, assumption, axiom, doctrine or law) was stated by Netherlands born cryptographer Auguste Kerckhoffs in the 19th century: A cryptosystem should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public knowledge.
In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm.
Key disclosure laws, also known as mandatory key disclosure, is legislation that requires individuals to surrender cryptographic keys to law enforcement.
Key escrow (also known as a “fair” cryptosystem) is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow so that, under certain circumstances, an authorized third party may gain access to those keys.
Key management refers to management of cryptographic keys in a cryptosystem.
In cryptography, key size or key length is the number of bits in a key used by a cryptographic algorithm (such as a cipher).
The known-plaintext attack (KPA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker has access to both the plaintext (called a crib), and its encrypted version (ciphertext).
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.
Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian humanist author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher and cryptographer; he epitomised the Renaissance Man.
Leonard Adleman (born December 31, 1945) is an American computer scientist.
Lexicographic codes or lexicodes are greedily generated error-correcting codes with remarkably good properties.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
In cryptography, linear cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis based on finding affine approximations to the action of a cipher.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
List of cryptographers.
This is a list of important publications in cryptography, organized by field.
This article is a list of unsolved problems in computer science.
The Lorenz SZ40, SZ42a and SZ42b were German rotor stream cipher machines used by the German Army during World War II.
Malcolm John Williamson was a British mathematician and cryptographer.
In cryptography and computer security, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack where the attacker secretly relays and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other.
Martin Gardner (October 21, 1914May 22, 2010) was an American popular mathematics and popular science writer, with interests also encompassing scientific skepticism, micromagic, philosophy, religion, and literature—especially the writings of Lewis Carroll, L. Frank Baum, and G. K. Chesterton.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Mathematics during the Golden Age of Islam, especially during the 9th and 10th centuries, was built on Greek mathematics (Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius) and Indian mathematics (Aryabhata, Brahmagupta).
The MD4 Message-Digest Algorithm is a cryptographic hash function developed by Ronald Rivest in 1990.
The MD5 algorithm is a widely used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
In cryptography, a message authentication code (MAC), sometimes known as a tag, is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message—in other words, to confirm that the message came from the stated sender (its authenticity) and has not been changed.
Michael Oser Rabin (מִיכָאֵל עוזר רַבִּין, born September 1, 1931) is an Israeli computer scientist and a recipient of the Turing Award.
A microdot is text or an image substantially reduced in size onto a small disc to prevent detection by unintended recipients.
Microsoft Outlook is a personal information manager from Microsoft, available as a part of the Microsoft Office suite.
Mihir Bellare is a cryptographer and professor at the University of California San Diego.
Military communications or military signals involve all aspects of communications, or conveyance of information, by armed forces.
In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) is an American trade association representing the six major film studios of Hollywood.
Mozilla Thunderbird is a free and open-source cross-platform email client, news client, RSS and chat client developed by the Mozilla Foundation.
The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency created by the United States Congress to regulate, charter, and supervise federal credit unions.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
Netscape Navigator was a proprietary web browser, and the original browser of the Netscape line, from versions 1 to 4.08, and 9.x. It was the flagship product of the Netscape Communications Corp and was the dominant web browser in terms of usage share in the 1990s, but by 2002 its use had almost disappeared.
Niels T. Ferguson (born 10 December 1965, Eindhoven) is a Dutch cryptographer and consultant who currently works for Microsoft.
The NIST hash function competition was an open competition held by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to develop a new hash function called SHA-3 to complement the older SHA-1 and SHA-2.
Non-repudiation refers to a state of affairs where the author of a statement will not be able to successfully challenge the authorship of the statement or validity of an associated contract.
Nonsense is a communication, via speech, writing, or any other symbolic system, that lacks any coherent meaning.
Number theory, or in older usage arithmetic, is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.
Oded Goldreich (עודד גולדרייך; b. 1957) is a professor of Computer Science at the Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science of Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel.
In cryptography, the one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cracked, but requires the use of a one-time pre-shared key the same size as, or longer than, the message being sent.
In computer science, a one-way function is a function that is easy to compute on every input, but hard to invert given the image of a random input.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cryptography: Cryptography (or cryptology) – practice and study of hiding information.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
A passphrase is a sequence of words or other text used to control access to a computer system, program or data.
A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access.
PC World, stylized PCWorld, is a global computer magazine published monthly by IDG.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
Philip R. "Phil" Zimmermann, Jr. (born February 12, 1954) is the creator of Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), the most widely used email encryption software in the world.
Phillip Rogaway is a professor of computer science at the University of California, Davis.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
In cryptography, plaintext or cleartext is unencrypted information, as opposed to information encrypted for storage or transmission.
Plausible deniability is the ability of people (typically senior officials in a formal or informal chain of command) to deny knowledge of or responsibility for any damnable actions committed by others in an organizational hierarchy because of a lack of evidence that can confirm their participation, even if they were personally involved in or at least willfully ignorant of the actions.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
Post-quantum cryptography (sometimes referred to as quantum-proof, quantum-safe or quantum-resistant) refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum computer.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is an encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication.
Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.
Provable security refers to any type or level of security that can be proved.
In cryptography, a pseudorandom function family, abbreviated PRF, is a collection of efficiently-computable functions which emulate a random oracle in the following way: no efficient algorithm can distinguish (with significant advantage) between a function chosen randomly from the PRF family and a random oracle (a function whose outputs are fixed completely at random).
A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of roles, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key encryption.
Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.
A puzzle is a game, problem, or toy that tests a person's ingenuity or knowledge.
Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.
Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Ralph C. Merkle (born February 2, 1952) is a computer scientist.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
In cryptography, a random oracle is an oracle (a theoretical black box) that responds to every unique query with a (truly) random response chosen uniformly from its output domain.
In cryptography, RC4 (Rivest Cipher 4 also known as ARC4 or ARCFOUR meaning Alleged RC4, see below) is a stream cipher.
Recreational mathematics is mathematics carried out for recreation (entertainment) rather than as a strictly research and application-based professional activity.
The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (c.23) (RIP or RIPA) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, regulating the powers of public bodies to carry out surveillance and investigation, and covering the interception of communications.
Ronald Linn Rivest (born May 6, 1947) is a cryptographer and an Institute Professor at MIT.
In cryptography, a rotor machine is an electro-mechanical stream cipher device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages.
RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is one of the first public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission.
RSA Security LLC, formerly RSA Security, Inc. and doing business as RSA, is an American computer and network security company.
S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is a standard for public key encryption and signing of MIME data.
Sarah Flannery (born 1982, County Cork, Ireland) was, at sixteen years old, the winner of the 1999 Esat Young Scientist Exhibition for development of the Cayley–Purser algorithm, based on work she had done with researchers at Baltimore Technologies during a brief internship there.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
In cryptography, a Schnorr signature is a digital signature produced by the Schnorr signature algorithm.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Secrecy (also called clandestinity or furtiveness) is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know", perhaps while sharing it with other individuals.
Secret sharing (also called secret splitting) refers to methods for distributing a secret amongst a group of participants, each of whom is allocated a share of the secret.
In cryptography, a secure channel is a way of transferring data that is resistant to overhearing and tampering.
Secure communication is when two entities are communicating and do not want a third party to listen in.
Secure multi-party computation (also known as secure computation, multi-party computation/MPC, or privacy-preserving computation) is a subfield of cryptography with the goal of creating methods for parties to jointly compute a function over their inputs while keeping those inputs private.
Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.
Security engineering is a specialized field of engineering that focuses on the security aspects in the design of systems that need to be able to deal robustly with possible sources of disruption, ranging from natural disasters to malicious acts.
Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech and organization, that tends toward insurrection against the established order.
Selected Areas in Cryptography (SAC) is an international cryptography conference (originally a workshop) held every August in Canada since 1994.
In cryptography, SHA-1 (Secure Hash Algorithm 1) is a cryptographic hash function which takes an input and produces a 160-bit (20-byte) hash value known as a message digest - typically rendered as a hexadecimal number, 40 digits long.
SHA-2 (Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).
SHA-3 (Secure Hash Algorithm 3) is the latest member of the Secure Hash Algorithm family of standards, released by NIST on August 5, 2015.
The SIAM Journal on Computing is a scientific journal focusing on the mathematical and formal aspects of computer science.
In computer security, a side-channel attack is any attack based on information gained from the implementation of a computer system, rather than weaknesses in the implemented algorithm itself (e.g. cryptanalysis and software bugs).
A signature (from signare, "to sign") is a handwritten (and often stylized) depiction of someone's name, nickname, or even a simple "X" or other mark that a person writes on documents as a proof of identity and intent.
In cryptography, signcryption is a public-key primitive that simultaneously performs the functions of both digital signature and encryption.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
In cryptography, Skipjack is a block cipher—an algorithm for encryption—developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA).
Social engineering, in the context of information security, refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
In mathematics, a square is the result of multiplying a number by itself.
A numeric sequence is said to be statistically random when it contains no recognizable patterns or regularities; sequences such as the results of an ideal dice roll or the digits of π exhibit statistical randomness.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video.
Steven Levy (born 1951) is an American journalist who has written several books on computers, technology, cryptography, the internet, cybersecurity, and privacy.
A stream cipher is a symmetric key cipher where plaintext digits are combined with a pseudorandom cipher digit stream (keystream).
Strong cryptography or cryptographic-ally strong are general terms applied to cryptographic systems or components that are considered highly resistant to cryptanalysis.
In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encrypting by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth.
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.
Syllabical and Steganographical Table (French: Tableau syllabique et stéganographique) is an eighteenth-century work.
Symmetric-key algorithms are algorithms for cryptography that use the same cryptographic keys for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext.
In cryptography, the tabula recta (from Latin tabula rēcta) is a square table of alphabets, each row of which is made by shifting the previous one to the left.
The Code Book: The Science of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum Cryptography is a book by Simon Singh, published in New York in 1999 by Doubleday.
The Codebreakers – The Story of Secret Writing is a book by David Kahn, published in 1967 comprehensively chronicling the history of cryptography from ancient Egypt to the time of its writing.
The Denver Post is a daily newspaper and website that has been published in the Denver, Colorado area since 1892.
"The Gold-Bug" is a short story by Edgar Allan Poe published in 1843.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Register (nicknamed El Reg) is a British technology news and opinion website co-founded in 1994 by Mike Magee, John Lettice and Ross Alderson.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
In computer science, the time complexity is the computational complexity that describes the amount of time it takes to run an algorithm.
In cryptography, a timing attack is a side channel attack in which the attacker attempts to compromise a cryptosystem by analyzing the time taken to execute cryptographic algorithms.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Traffic analysis is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication, which can be performed even when the messages are encrypted.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.
In cryptography, a transposition cipher is a method of encryption by which the positions held by units of plaintext (which are commonly characters or groups of characters) are shifted according to a regular system, so that the ciphertext constitutes a permutation of the plaintext.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
In cryptography, Triple DES (3DES), officially the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA or Triple DEA), is a symmetric-key block cipher, which applies the DES cipher algorithm three times to each data block.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Copyright Office, a part of the Library of Congress, is the official U.S. government body that maintains records of copyright registration in the United States, including a Copyright Catalog.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a U.S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States District Court for the District of Colorado (in case citations, D. Colo. or D. Col.) is a federal court in the Tenth Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit).
The United States Munitions List (USML) is a list of articles, services, and related technology designated as defense- and space-related by the United States federal government.
United States v. ElcomSoft and Dmitry Sklyarov was a 2001–2002 criminal case in which Dmitry Sklyarov and his employer ElcomSoft were charged with alleged violation of the DMCA.
United States v. Fricosu, 841 F.Supp.2d 1232 (D. Col 2012), is a federal criminal case in Colorado that addressed whether a person can be compelled to reveal his or her encryption passphrase or password, despite the U.S. Constitution's Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Illinois Press (UIP) is a major American university press and is part of the University of Illinois system.
The USENIX Annual Technical Conference is a conference of computing professions sponsored by the USENIX association.
Vātsyāyana is the name of an ancient Indian philosopher, known for writing the Kama Sutra, the most famous book in the world on human sexuality.
In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in or customer lock-in, makes a customer dependent on a vendor for products and services, unable to use another vendor without substantial switching costs.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vigenère cipher is a method of encrypting alphabetic text by using a series of interwoven Caesar ciphers based on the letters of a keyword.
A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies is a multilateral export control regime (MECR) with 42 participating states including many former Comecon (Warsaw Pact) countries.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
The Web Cryptography API is the World Wide Web Consortium’s (W3C) recommendation for a low-level interface that would increase the security of web applications by allowing them to perform cryptographic functions without having to access raw keying material.
Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name.
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN).
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
In cryptography, a zero-knowledge proof or zero-knowledge protocol is a method by which one party (the prover Peggy) can prove to another party (the verifier Victor) that she knows a value x, without conveying any information apart from the fact that she knows the value x. Another way of understanding this would be: Interactive zero-knowledge proofs require interaction between the individual (or computer system) proving their knowledge and the individual validating the proof.
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