168 relations: Allotropy, Ambient pressure, Amorphous carbon, Amorphous ice, Amorphous metal, Amorphous solid, Ancient Greek, Anisotropy, Anticrystal, Antifreeze protein, Aragonite, Atom, Atomic packing factor, Bedrock, Beryl, Birefringence, Boron, Boule (crystal), Bravais lattice, Bridgman–Stockbarger technique, Calcite, Carbon, Cave of the Crystals, Ceramic, Chemical bond, Chlorine, Cocrystal, Colloidal crystal, Corundum, Covalent bond, Crystal growth, Crystal habit, Crystal healing, Crystal oscillator, Crystal structure, Crystal system, Crystal twinning, Crystallite, Crystallization, Crystallographic database, Crystallographic defect, Crystallographic restriction theorem, Crystallography, Cubic crystal system, Czochralski process, Dan Shechtman, Deposition (phase transition), Diamond, Diamond color, Diffraction, ..., Dislocation, Dopant, Dotdash, Druse (geology), Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Enthalpy of fusion, Epitaxy, Euhedral and anhedral, Evaporation, Evaporite, Face (geometry), Facet, Freezing, Frost, Fused quartz, Gallium, Gemstone, Glacier, Glass, Grain boundary, Granite, Graphite, Gypsum, Halite, Henry Liddell, Hexagonal crystal family, Honeycomb (geometry), Hydrothermal synthesis, Hydroxylapatite, Ice, Ice cube, Ice Ic, Ice Ih, Ice II, Igneous rock, Impurity, Incantation, Inorganic compound, Insulin, International Union of Crystallography, Interstitial defect, Ion, Ionic bonding, Ionic compound, Lava, Limestone, Liquid crystal, Madagascar, Magma, Marble, Materials science, Melting, Metal, Metallic bonding, Metamorphic rock, Metamorphism, Metre, Miller index, Molecular solid, Molecule, Mollusca, Mosaicity, Network covalent bonding, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Organism, Permittivity, Phase (matter), Photoelasticity, Piezoelectricity, Plane (geometry), Plastic, Polyamorphism, Polymer, Polymorphism (materials science), Pottery, Pseudoscience, Quartz, Quartzite, Quasicrystal, Recrystallization (chemistry), Robert Scott (philologist), Rock (geology), Ruby, Salt, Sandstone, Sapphire, Schist, Sea ice, Selenite (mineral), Semiconductor, Semiconductor device, Shale, Silicon, Single crystal, Snow, Snowflake, Sodium, Solid, Space group, Space manufacturing, Spanish National Research Council, Stoichiometry, Strength of materials, Stress (mechanics), Sublimation (phase transition), Surface energy, Temperature, Thin film, Time crystal, Transistor, Vacancy defect, Van der Waals force, Vertebrate, Wax, Wicca, Work hardening, X-ray crystallography, Young's modulus. Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
The ambient pressure on an object is the pressure of the surrounding medium, such as a gas or liquid, in contact with the object.
Amorphous carbon is free, reactive carbon that does not have any crystalline structure (also called diamond-like carbon).
Amorphous ice (non-crystalline ("vitreous") ice) is an amorphous solid form of water.
An amorphous metal (also known as metallic glass or glassy metal) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with a disordered atomic-scale structure.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.
An anticrystal is a theoretical solid that is completely disordered, making it the opposite of a crystal.
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria that permit their survival in subzero environments.
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
In crystallography, atomic packing factor (APF), packing efficiency or packing fraction is the fraction of volume in a crystal structure that is occupied by constituent particles.
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith at the surface of the Earth or other terrestrial planets.
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
A boule is a single crystal ingot produced by synthetic means.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
The Bridgman–Stockbarger technique is named after Harvard physicist Percy Williams Bridgman (1882-1961) and MIT physicist Donald C. Stockbarger (1895–1952).
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Cave of the Crystals or Giant Crystal Cave is a cave connected to the Naica Mine at a depth of, in Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
The definition of a cocrystal has been debated in the crystallography field.
A colloidal crystal is an ordered array of colloid particles, analogous to a standard crystal whose repeating subunits are atoms or molecules.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Crystal growth is the process where a pre-existing crystal becomes larger as more molecules or ions add in their positions in the crystal lattice.
In mineralogy, crystal habit is the characteristic external shape of an individual crystal or crystal group.
Crystal healing is a pseudoscientific alternative medicine technique that employs stones and crystals.
A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a precise frequency.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In crystallography, the terms crystal system, crystal family and lattice system each refer to one of several classes of space groups, lattices, point groups or crystals.
Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
A crystallographic database is a database specifically designed to store information about the structure of molecules and crystals.
Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.
The crystallographic restriction theorem in its basic form was based on the observation that the rotational symmetries of a crystal are usually limited to 2-fold, 3-fold, 4-fold, and 6-fold.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e.g. silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide), metals (e.g. palladium, platinum, silver, gold), salts and synthetic gemstones.
Dan Shechtman (Hebrew: דן שכטמן; born January 24, 1941).
Deposition is a thermodynamic process, a phase transition in which gas transforms into solid without passing through the liquid phase.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond is perfectly transparent with no hue, or color.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
In materials science, a dislocation or Taylor's dislocation is a crystallographic defect or irregularity within a crystal structure.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
In geology, druse, also known as drusy or druzy, refers to a coating of fine crystals on a rock fracture surface, vein or within a vug or geode.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
The enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as (latent) heat of fusion, is the change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat, to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid, at constant pressure.
Epitaxy refers to the deposition of a crystalline overlayer on a crystalline substrate.
Euhedral crystals are those that are well-formed, with sharp, easily recognised faces.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
In solid geometry, a face is a flat (planar) surface that forms part of the boundary of a solid object; a three-dimensional solid bounded exclusively by flat faces is a polyhedron.
Facets are flat faces on geometric shapes.
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.
Frost is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.
Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
A grain boundary is the interface between two grains, or crystallites, in a polycrystalline material.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
Henry George Liddell (6 February 1811 – 18 January 1898) was dean (1855–91) of Christ Church, Oxford, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University (1870–74), headmaster (1846–55) of Westminster School (where a house is now named after him), author of A History of Rome (1855), and co-author (with Robert Scott) of the monumental work A Greek–English Lexicon, known as "Liddell and Scott", which is still widely used by students of Greek.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
In geometry, a honeycomb is a space filling or close packing of polyhedral or higher-dimensional cells, so that there are no gaps.
Hydrothermal synthesis includes the various techniques of crystallizing substances from high-temperature aqueous solutions at high vapor pressures; also termed "hydrothermal method".
Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
An ice cube is a small, roughly cube-shaped piece of ice (frozen water), conventionally used to cool beverages.
Ice Ic (pronounced "ice one c" or "ice icy") is a metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice.
Photograph showing details of an ice cube under magnification. Ice Ih is the form of ice commonly seen on Earth. Phase space of ice Ih with respect to other ice phases. Ice Ih (pronounced: ice one h, also known as ice-phase-one) is the hexagonal crystal form of ordinary ice, or frozen water.
Ice II is a rhombohedral crystalline form of ice with a highly-ordered structure.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product.
An incantation, enchantment, or magic spell is a set of words, spoken or unspoken, which are considered by its user to invoke some magical effect.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU) and exists to serve the world community of crystallographers.
Interstitials defects are a variety of crystallographic defects where atoms assume a normally unoccupied site in the crystal structure.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
Miller indices form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices.
A molecular solid is a solid consisting of discrete molecules.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
In crystallography, mosaicity is a measure of the spread of crystal plane orientations.
A network solid or covalent network solid is a chemical compound (or element) in which the atoms are bonded by covalent bonds in a continuous network extending throughout the material.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
Photoelasticity describes changes in the optical properties of a material under mechanical deformation.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Polyamorphism is the ability of a substance to exist in several different amorphous modifications.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quartzite (from Quarzit) is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.
A quasiperiodic crystal, or quasicrystal, is a structure that is ordered but not periodic.
In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.
Robert Scott (26 January 1811 – 2 December 1887) was a British academic philologist and Church of England priest.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
Schist (pronounced) is a medium-grade metamorphic rock with medium to large, flat, sheet-like grains in a preferred orientation (nearby grains are roughly parallel).
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
Selenite, satin spar, desert rose, and gypsum flower are four varieties of the mineral gypsum; all four varieties show obvious crystalline structure.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
A single crystal or monocrystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries.
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
A snowflake is a single ice crystal that has achieved a sufficient size, and may have amalgamated with others, then falls through the Earth's atmosphere as snow.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
Space manufacturing is the production of manufactured goods in an environment outside a planetary atmosphere.
The Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Surface Free energy, or interfacial free energy, quantifies the disruption of intermolecular bonds that occur when a surface is created.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness.
A time crystal or space-time crystal is a structure that repeats in time, as well as in space.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
In crystallography, a vacancy is a type of point defect in a crystal.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
Wicca, also termed Pagan Witchcraft, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement.
Work hardening, also known as strain hardening, is the strengthening of a metal or polymer by plastic deformation.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.
Crystal (mineral), Crystal form, Crystal phase, Crystaline solid, Crystaline solids, Crystalline, Crystalline Rock, Crystalline Solid, Crystalline form, Crystalline rock, Crystalline solid, Crystalline solids, Crystallisation point, Crystals, Crystels, Cryſtal, Morphous solid, Xtal.