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Index Crystallography

Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). [1]

151 relations: Aaron Klug, Abnormal grain growth, Ada Yonath, Arthur Lindo Patterson, Arthur Moritz Schoenflies, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic packing factor, Auguste Bravais, Austenite, Beevers–Lipson strip, Biomolecule, Boris Delaunay, Bracket, Bragg's law, C. Arnold Beevers, Capsid, Carl Hermann, Charge density, Charged particle, Charles-Victor Mauguin, Chemical bond, Christian Samuel Weiss, Clay, Condensed matter physics, Constance Tipper, Crystal, Crystal engineering, Crystal growth, Crystal optics, Crystal structure, Crystal system, Crystallite, Crystallization, Crystallographic database, Crystallographic defect, Crystallographic point group, Cubic crystal system, Dan Shechtman, Daniel Vorländer, David Eisenberg, Deuterium, Diffraction, Diffusion, DNA, Don Craig Wiley, Dorothy Hodgkin, Dynamical theory of diffraction, Electron, Electron crystallography, ..., Electron diffraction, Ernest-François Mallard, Euclidean plane isometry, Evgraf Fedorov, Fixed points of isometry groups in Euclidean space, Fractional coordinates, Francis Crick, Friedrich Mohs, Friedrich Reinitzer, Gautam Radhakrishna Desiraju, Georges Friedel, Goniometer, Greek language, Group action, Henry Lipson, Hugo Rietveld, Hydrogen, Hygroscopy, Institut Laue–Langevin, International Year of Crystallography, Ion implantation, Iron, Isabella Karle, Jack D. Dunitz, Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle, Jerome Karle, Johann Deisenhofer, Johann F. C. Hessel, John Desmond Bernal, Judith Howard, Kathleen Lonsdale, Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection, Laser-heated pedestal growth, Lawrence Bragg, Lens (optics), Louis Pasteur, Macromolecule, Magnetic field, Magnetic moment, Martin Julian Buerger, Materials science, Mathematics, Max Perutz, Max von Laue, Membrane protein, Metallurgy, Michael Levitt, Michael Rossmann, Miller index, Mineralogy, Modeling of polymer crystals, Neutron, Neutron diffraction, Nicolas Steno, Normal (geometry), Nuclear force, Nuclear magnetic resonance crystallography, Nucleic acid, Open-pool Australian lightwater reactor, Order of magnitude, Otto Lehmann (physicist), Paul Heinrich von Groth, Paul Niggli, Paul Peter Ewald, Paul Scherrer, Permutation group, Peter Debye, Pierre Curie, Point group, Pole figure, Powder diffraction, Precession electron diffraction, Precipitation (chemistry), Protein, Protein Data Bank, PyMOL, Quasicrystal, Ralph Walter Graystone Wyckoff, RasMol, René Just Haüy, RNA, Robert Huber, Rosalind Franklin, Royal Institution, Solid-state chemistry, Space group, Stereographic projection, Symmetric group, Symmetry (physics), Synchrotron radiation, Tej P. Singh, Texture (crystalline), United Nations, Wayne Hendrickson, William Astbury, William Barlow (geologist), William Hallowes Miller, William Henry Bragg, X-ray, X-ray crystallography, Zone plate. Expand index (101 more) »

Aaron Klug

Sir Aaron Klug (born 11 August 1926) is a Lithuanian-born, South African-educated, British chemist and biophysicist, and winner of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes.

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Abnormal grain growth

Abnormal or discontinuous grain growth, also referred to as exaggerated or secondary recrystallisation grain growth, is a grain growth phenomenon through which certain energetically favorable grains (crystallites) grow rapidly in a matrix of finer grains resulting in a bimodal grain size distribution.

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Ada Yonath

Ada E. Yonath (עדה יונת.) (born 22 June 1939) is an Israeli crystallographer best known for her pioneering work on the structure of the ribosome.

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Arthur Lindo Patterson

Arthur Lindo Patterson (23 July 1902, Nelson, New Zealand - 6 November 1966, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was a pioneering British X-ray crystallographer.

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Arthur Moritz Schoenflies

Arthur Moritz Schoenflies (17 April 1853 – 27 May 1928), sometimes written as Schönflies, was a German mathematician, known for his contributions to the application of group theory to crystallography, and for work in topology.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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Atomic packing factor

In crystallography, atomic packing factor (APF), packing efficiency or packing fraction is the fraction of volume in a crystal structure that is occupied by constituent particles.

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Auguste Bravais

Auguste Bravais (23 August 1811, Annonay, Ardèche – 30 March 1863, Le Chesnay, France) was a French physicist known for his work in crystallography, the conception of Bravais lattices, and the formulation of Bravais law.

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Austenite, also known as gamma-phase iron (γ-Fe), is a metallic, non-magnetic allotrope of iron or a solid solution of iron, with an alloying element.

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Beevers–Lipson strip

Beevers–Lipson strips were a computational aid for early crystallographers in calculating Fourier transforms to determine the structure of crystals from crystallographic data, enabling the creation of models for complex molecules.

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A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.

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Boris Delaunay

Boris Nikolaevich Delaunay or Delone (Бори́с Никола́евич Делоне́; March 15, 1890 – July 17, 1980) was one of the first Russian mountain climbers and a Soviet/Russian mathematician, and the father of physicist Nikolai Borisovich Delone.

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A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.

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Bragg's law

In physics, Bragg's law, or Wulff–Bragg's condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice.

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C. Arnold Beevers

Cecil Arnold Beevers (27 May 1908 – 16 January 2001) was a British crystallographer, known for Beevers–Lipson strips, a computational aid for calculating Fourier transforms to determine the structure of crystals from crystallographic data, enabling the creation of models for complex molecules.

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A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.

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Carl Hermann

Carl Hermann (17 June 1898 – 12 September 1961) was a German professor of crystallography.

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Charge density

In electromagnetism, charge density is a measure of the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume.

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Charged particle

In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.

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Charles-Victor Mauguin

French professor of mineralogy Charles-Victor Mauguin (19 September 1878 – 25 April 1958) was inventor (with Carl Hermann) of an international standard notation for crystallographic groups known as the Hermann–Mauguin notation or International notation.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.

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Christian Samuel Weiss

Christian Samuel Weiss (26 February 1780 – 1 October 1856) was a German mineralogist born in Leipzig.

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Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.

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Constance Tipper

Constance Fligg Elam Tipper (born Constance Fligg Elam) (6 February 1894 – 14 December 1995) was an English metallurgist and crystallographer.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Crystal engineering

Crystal engineering is the design and synthesis of molecular solid state structures with desired properties, based on an understanding and use of intermolecular interactions.

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Crystal growth

Crystal growth is the process where a pre-existing crystal becomes larger as more molecules or ions add in their positions in the crystal lattice.

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Crystal optics

Crystal optics is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in anisotropic media, that is, media (such as crystals) in which light behaves differently depending on which direction the light is propagating.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Crystal system

In crystallography, the terms crystal system, crystal family and lattice system each refer to one of several classes of space groups, lattices, point groups or crystals.

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A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.

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Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.

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Crystallographic database

A crystallographic database is a database specifically designed to store information about the structure of molecules and crystals.

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Crystallographic defect

Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.

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Crystallographic point group

In crystallography, a crystallographic point group is a set of symmetry operations, like rotations or reflections, that leave a central point fixed while moving other directions and faces of the crystal to the positions of features of the same kind.

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Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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Dan Shechtman

Dan Shechtman (Hebrew: דן שכטמן; born January 24, 1941).

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Daniel Vorländer

Daniel Vorländer (11 June 1867 – 8 June 1941) was a German chemist who synthesized most of the liquid crystals known until his retirement in 1935.

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David Eisenberg

David S. Eisenberg (born 15 March 1939) is an American biochemist and biophysicist best known for his contributions to structural biology and computational molecular biology.

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Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).

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--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Don Craig Wiley

Don Craig Wiley (October 21, 1944 – November 2001) was an American structural biologist.

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Dorothy Hodgkin

Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (12 May 1910 – 29 July 1994) was a British chemist who developed protein crystallography, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.

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Dynamical theory of diffraction

The dynamical theory of diffraction describes the interaction of waves with a regular lattice.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron crystallography

Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope (TEM).

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Electron diffraction

Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons.

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Ernest-François Mallard

Ernest-François Mallard (4 February 1833 – 6 July 1894) was a French mineralogist and a member of the French Academy of Sciences.

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Euclidean plane isometry

In geometry, a Euclidean plane isometry is an isometry of the Euclidean plane, or more informally, a way of transforming the plane that preserves geometrical properties such as length.

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Evgraf Fedorov

Evgraf Stepanovich Fedorov (Евгра́ф Степа́нович Фёдоров, – 21 May 1919) was a Russian mathematician, crystallographer and mineralogist.

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Fixed points of isometry groups in Euclidean space

A fixed point of an isometry group is a point that is a fixed point for every isometry in the group.

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Fractional coordinates

In crystallography, a fractional coordinate system is a coordinate system in which the edges of the unit cell are used as the basic vectors to describe the positions of atomic nuclei.

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Francis Crick

Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.

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Friedrich Mohs

Carl Friedrich Christian Mohs (29 January 1773 – 29 September 1839) was a German geologist and mineralogist.

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Friedrich Reinitzer

Friedrich Richard Reinitzer (25 February 1857 in Prague – 16 February 1927 in Graz) was an Austrian botanist and chemist.

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Gautam Radhakrishna Desiraju

Gautam Radhakrishna Desiraju is an Indian chemist who has contributed substantially to the themes of crystal engineering and weak hydrogen bonding.

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Georges Friedel

Georges Friedel (19 July 1865 in Mulhouse – 11 December 1933 in Strasbourg) was a French mineralogist and crystallographer.

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A goniometer is an instrument that either measures an angle or allows an object to be rotated to a precise angular position.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Group action

In mathematics, an action of a group is a formal way of interpreting the manner in which the elements of the group correspond to transformations of some space in a way that preserves the structure of that space.

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Henry Lipson

Henry (Solomon) Lipson CBE FRS (11 March 1910 – 26 April 1991) was a British physicist.

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Hugo Rietveld

Hugo M. Rietveld (7 March 1932 – 16 July 2016) was a Dutch crystallographer who is famous for his publication on the full profile refinement method in powder diffraction, which became later known as the Rietveld refinement method.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.

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Institut Laue–Langevin

The Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) is an internationally financed scientific facility, situated on the Polygone Scientifique in Grenoble, France.

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International Year of Crystallography

The International Year of Crystallography (abbreviation: IYCr2014) is an event promoted in the year 2014 by the United Nations to celebrate the centenary of the discovery of X-ray crystallography and to emphasise the global importance of crystallography in human life.

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Ion implantation

Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Isabella Karle

Isabella Karle (December 2, 1921 – October 3, 2017) was an American chemist who was instrumental in developing techniques to extract plutonium chloride from a mixture containing plutonium oxide.

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Jack D. Dunitz

Jack David Dunitz (born 29 March 1923, Glasgow) FRS is a British chemist and widely known chemical crystallographer.

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Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle

Jean-Baptiste Louis Romé de l'Isle (August 26, 1736 – July 3, 1790) was a French mineralogist, considered one of the creators of modern crystallography.

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Jerome Karle

Jerome Karle (born Jerome Karfunkle; June 18, 1918 – June 6, 2013) was an American physical chemist.

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Johann Deisenhofer

Johann Deisenhofer (born September 30, 1943) is a German biochemist who, along with Hartmut Michel and Robert Huber, received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1988 for their determination of the first crystal structure of an integral membrane protein, a membrane-bound complex of proteins and co-factors that is essential to photosynthesis.

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Johann F. C. Hessel

Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel (27 April 1796 – 3 June 1872) was a German physician (MD, University of Würzburg, 1817) and professor of mineralogy (PhD, University of Heidelberg, 1821) at the University of Marburg.

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John Desmond Bernal

John Desmond Bernal (10 May 1901 – 15 September 1971) was an Irish scientist who pioneered the use of X-ray crystallography in molecular biology.

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Judith Howard

Judith Ann Kathleen Howard (née Duckworth) CBE FRS (21 October 1945 in Cleethorpes, Lincolnshire) is a distinguished British chemist, crystallographer and Professor of Chemistry at Durham University.

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Kathleen Lonsdale

Dame Kathleen Lonsdale, DBE, FRS (née Yardley; 28 January 1903 – 1 April 1971) was an Irish crystallographer who proved, in 1929, that the benzene ring is flat by using X-ray diffraction methods to elucidate the structure of hexamethylbenzene.

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Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection

The Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection is a particular mapping from a sphere to a disk (that is, a region bounded by a circle).

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Laser-heated pedestal growth

Laser-heated pedestal growth (LHPG) or laser floating zone (LFZ) is a crystal growth technique.

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Lawrence Bragg

Sir William Lawrence Bragg, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

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A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Magnetic moment

The magnetic moment is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.

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Martin Julian Buerger

Buerger was a member of the Provisional International Crystallographic Committee chaired by P. P. Ewald from 1946 to 1948, and he continued as a member of the IUCr Executive Committee from 1948 to 1951.

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Max Perutz

Max Ferdinand Perutz (19 May 1914 – 6 February 2002) was an Austrian-born British molecular biologist, who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with John Kendrew, for their studies of the structures of haemoglobin and myoglobin.

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Max von Laue

Max Theodor Felix von Laue (9 October 1879 – 24 April 1960) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.

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Membrane protein

Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with, or are part of, biological membranes.

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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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Michael Levitt

Michael Levitt, (מיכאל לויט; born 9 May 1947) is an American-British-Israeli biophysicist and a professor of structural biology at Stanford University, a position he has held since 1987.

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Michael Rossmann

Michael G. Rossmann (born 1930) is a German-American physicist, microbiologist, and Hanley Distinguished Professor of Biological Sciences at Purdue University who led a team of researchers to be the first to map the structure of a human common cold virus to an atomic level.

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Miller index

Miller indices form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices.

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Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.

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Modeling of polymer crystals

Polymer crystals have different properties than simple atomic crystals.

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| magnetic_moment.

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Neutron diffraction

Neutron diffraction or elastic neutron scattering is the application of neutron scattering to the determination of the atomic and/or magnetic structure of a material.

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Nicolas Steno

Nicolas Steno (Niels Steensen; Latinized to Nicolaus Stenonis or Nicolaus Stenonius; 1 January 1638 – 25 November 1686 – Aber, James S. 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2012.) was a Danish scientist, a pioneer in both anatomy and geology who became a Catholic bishop in his later years.

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Normal (geometry)

In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object.

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Nuclear force

The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is a force that acts between the protons and neutrons of atoms.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance crystallography

Nuclear magnetic resonance crystallography (NMR crystallography) is a method which utilizes primarily NMR spectroscopy to determine the structure of solid materials on the atomic scale.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Open-pool Australian lightwater reactor

The Open-pool Australian lightwater reactor (OPAL) is a 20 megawatt (MW) pool-type nuclear research reactor.

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Order of magnitude

An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.

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Otto Lehmann (physicist)

Otto Lehmann (13 January 1855 in Konstanz, Germany – 17 June 1922 in Karlsruhe) was a German physicist and "father" of liquid crystal.

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Paul Heinrich von Groth

Paul Heinrich Ritter von Groth (23 June 1843 – 2 December 1927) was a German mineralogist.

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Paul Niggli

Niggli was born in Zofingen and studied at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich and the University of Zurich, where he obtained a doctorate.

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Paul Peter Ewald

Paul Peter Ewald, FRS (January 23, 1888 in Berlin, Germany – August 22, 1985 in Ithaca, New York) was a German crystallographer and physicist, a pioneer of X-ray diffraction methods.

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Paul Scherrer

Paul Hermann Scherrer (3 February 1890 – 25 September 1969) was a Swiss physicist.

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Permutation group

In mathematics, a permutation group is a group G whose elements are permutations of a given set M and whose group operation is the composition of permutations in G (which are thought of as bijective functions from the set M to itself).

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Peter Debye

Peter Joseph William Debye (March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch-American physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel laureate in Chemistry.

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Pierre Curie

Pierre Curie (15 May 1859 – 19 April 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity.

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Point group

In geometry, a point group is a group of geometric symmetries (isometries) that keep at least one point fixed.

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Pole figure

A pole figure is a graphical representation of the orientation of objects in space.

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Powder diffraction

Powder diffraction is a scientific technique using X-ray, neutron, or electron diffraction on powder or microcrystalline samples for structural characterization of materials.

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Precession electron diffraction

Precession electron diffraction (PED) is a specialized method to collect electron diffraction patterns in a transmission electron microscope (TEM).

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Precipitation (chemistry)

Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein Data Bank

The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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PyMOL is computer software, a molecular visualization system created by Warren Lyford DeLano.

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A quasiperiodic crystal, or quasicrystal, is a structure that is ordered but not periodic.

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Ralph Walter Graystone Wyckoff

Ralph Walter Graystone Wyckoff, Sr. (born August 9, 1897 in Geneva, New York; died November 3, 1994 in Tucson, Arizona) was an American scientist and pioneer of X-ray crystallography.

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RasMol is a computer program written for molecular graphics visualization intended and used mainly to depict and explore biological macromolecule structures, such as those found in the Protein Data Bank.

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René Just Haüy

René Just Haüy FRS MWS FRSE (28 February 1743 – 3 June 1822) was a French priest and mineralogist, commonly styled the Abbé Haüy after he was made an honorary canon of Notre Dame.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Robert Huber

Robert Huber (born 20 February 1937) is a German biochemist and Nobel laureate.

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Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.

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Royal Institution

The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or Ri) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.

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Solid-state chemistry

Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred to as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids.

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Space group

In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.

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Stereographic projection

In geometry, the stereographic projection is a particular mapping (function) that projects a sphere onto a plane.

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Symmetric group

In abstract algebra, the symmetric group defined over any set is the group whose elements are all the bijections from the set to itself, and whose group operation is the composition of functions.

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Symmetry (physics)

In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation.

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Synchrotron radiation

Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.

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Tej P. Singh

Tej P. Singh (born 1944) is an Indian biophysicist known for his work in the fields of Rational Structure-based drug design, Protein Structure biology and X-ray crystallography. He has played an active role in the development of drug design in the fields of Antibacterial therapeutics, Tuberculosis, Inflammation, Cancer and Gastropathy. He is a fellow of six academies, namely, the Third World Academy of Sciences, Indian National Science Academy, National Academy of Sciences Indian Academy of Sciences, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and Biotech Research Society of India.

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Texture (crystalline)

In materials science, texture is the distribution of crystallographic orientations of a polycrystalline sample (it is also part of the geological fabric).

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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Wayne Hendrickson

Wayne A. Hendrickson (born April 25, 1941, New York City) is an American biophysicist and University professor at Columbia.

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William Astbury

William Thomas Astbury FRS (also Bill Astbury; 25 February 1898, Longton – 4 June 1961, Leeds) was an English physicist and molecular biologist who made pioneering X-ray diffraction studies of biological molecules.

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William Barlow (geologist)

William Barlow FRS (8 August 1845 – 28 February 1934) was an English amateur geologist specialising in crystallography.

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William Hallowes Miller

Prof William Hallowes Miller FRS HFRSE LLD DCL (6 April 1801 – 20 May 1880) was a Welsh mineralogist and laid the foundations of modern crystallography.

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William Henry Bragg

Sir William Henry Bragg (2 July 1862 – 12 March 1942) was a British physicist, chemist, mathematician and active sportsman who uniquelyThis is still a unique accomplishment, because no other parent-child combination has yet shared a Nobel Prize (in any field).

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Zone plate

A zone plate is a device used to focus light or other things exhibiting wave character.

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Chrystallography, Crystal Mapping, Crystallographic, Crystallographic planes, Crystalography, Kristalografi, Mathematical crystallography, Mathematical crystalography.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystallography

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