262 relations: ABC News, Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature, Adlai Stevenson II, Admiral, Aerospace Defense Command, Air Force Cross (United States), Alaska, Alexander Alexeyev, Alexander Feklisov, Alfred Hitchcock, Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues, American Heritage (magazine), American Journal of Sociology, American Political Science Review, Amintore Fanfani, Anadyr (town), Anadyr River, Anastas Mikoyan, Anatoly Dobrynin, Andrei Gromyko, Apulia, Arms Control Association, Artemisa Province, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., Atglen, Pennsylvania, Ballistic missile, Ballistic missile submarine, Bay of Pigs Invasion, BBC, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Bering Sea, Berlin, Berlin Crisis of 1961, Berlin Wall, Blockade, Boeing B-47 Stratojet, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Boeing C-135 Stratolifter, Bomber gap, Brazil, Call of Duty: Black Ops, Casus belli, Cemal Gürsel, Central Intelligence Agency, Chaguaramas, Trinidad and Tobago, Chancellor, Charles de Gaulle, Che Guevara, Chester Bowles, Chief of Naval Operations, ..., Chukotsky District, Cleveland Park, Cold War, Communism, Contiguous United States, Convair F-102 Delta Dagger, Corona (satellite), Cuba, Cuba–Soviet Union relations, Cuban exile, Cuban Project, Curtis LeMay, Daniel Ellsberg, David A. Burchinal, Dean Rusk, DEFCON, Defense Intelligence Agency, Denial and deception, Depth charge, Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union, Destroyer, Diplomatic History (journal), Double agent, Dr. Strangelove, Dwight D. Eisenhower, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Time Zone, Edward Lansdale, Essence of Decision, Ettore Bernabei, EXCOMM, Fidel Castro, Flagship, Foreign Affairs, Foy D. Kohler, George Ball (diplomat), George Washington University, George Whelan Anderson Jr., Giorgi Abashvili, Giulio Andreotti, Graham T. Allison, Grumman HU-16 Albatross, Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Harold Macmillan, Harry S. Truman, Harvard University, Heavy cruiser, History (U.S. TV network), Ilyushin Il-28, Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Intermediate-range ballistic missile, International law, Issa Pliyev, Italy, Jack J. Catton, John A. McCone, John A. Scali, John Diefenbaker, John F. Kennedy, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Journal of Cold War Studies, K-19: The Widowmaker, Kenneth Keating, KGB, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, Konrad Adenauer, Latin America, Le Figaro, Le Monde, Lebanon, Leninsky Komsomol-class cargo ship, Leon Uris, List of ambassadors of Russia to the United States, List of nuclear close calls, Llewellyn Thompson, Lockheed U-2, Lyndon B. Johnson, Main Intelligence Directorate, Matinee (1993 film), Maxwell D. Taylor, McCoy Air Force Base, McGeorge Bundy, Medium-range ballistic missile, Miami, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, Military Air Transport Service, Miller Center of Public Affairs, Ministry of Defence (Russia), Missile gap, Missile launch facility, Monroe Doctrine, Moscow, Moscow Kremlin, Moscow–Washington hotline, Mutual assured destruction, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, NATO, Naval boarding, Naval War College Review, Nikita Khrushchev, No first use, Norman Cousins, Northwestern University, Norwegian rocket incident, NPR, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, Nuclear disarmament, Nuclear warfare, Nuclear weapon, Oleg Penkovsky, Operation Anadyr, Operation Ortsac, Organization of American States, Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado, Oval Office, Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, PBS, People's Daily, PGM-19 Jupiter, Pinar del Río Province, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Pope John XXIII, Pre-emptive nuclear strike, Princeton, New Jersey, Project MUSE, R-12 Dvina, R-14 Chusovaya, R-7 Semyorka, Raúl Castro, Radio Moscow, RAI, Raymond Aron, Reconnaissance, Resident spy, Richard S. Heyser, Robert F. Kennedy, Robert McNamara, Rocket artillery, Rodion Malinovsky, Rudolf Anderson, Russia, Russian Far East, Russian military deception, S-75 Dvina, Sakhalin, San Cristóbal, Cuba, SeaQuest DSV, SeaQuest DSV 4600, Secret Intelligence Service, Secrets of the Dead, Security Studies (journal), Sergei Khrushchev, South Carolina, Soviet Navy, Soviet Union, Special Activities Division, Sphere of influence, Strategic Air Command, Suez Crisis, Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Surface-to-air missile, Tactical Air Command, Taiwan, Tanker (ship), TASS, Ted Sorensen, The Fog of War, The Kennedys (miniseries), The Missiles of October, The New York Review of Books, Thermonuclear fusion, Thirteen Days (book), Thirteen Days (film), Thomas Powers, TNT equivalent, Tom Clancy, Topaz (1969 film), Topaz (novel), Turkey, U Thant, UGM-27 Polaris, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, United States Army, United States Congress, United States Department of Justice, United States Department of State, United States elections, 1962, United States embargo against Cuba, University of Virginia, Ur (novella), Valerian Zorin, Vasili Arkhipov, Vietnam War, Vought F-8 Crusader, Walter Lippmann, Warsaw Pact, West Berlin, West Germany, Western Hemisphere, White House, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, World War II, Wrangel Island, X-Men: First Class, 1960 U-2 incident. 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ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
The Academy Award for Documentary Feature is an award for documentary films.
Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat, noted for his intellectual demeanor, eloquent public speaking, and promotion of progressive causes in the Democratic Party.
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
Aerospace Defense Command was a major command of the United States Air Forces, responsible for continental air defence.
The Air Force Cross is the second highest military award that can be given to a member of the United States Air Force.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Alexander Ivanovich Alexeyev (Александр Иванович Алексеев, born Shitov (Шитов); 1 August 1913 – 1989) was a Soviet intelligence agent who posed first as a journalist and later a diplomat.
Aleksandr Semyonovich Feklisov (March 9, 1914 – October 26, 2007) was a Soviet scout, the First Chief Directorate Case Officer who received information from Julius Rosenberg and Klaus Fuchs, among others.
Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980) was an English film director and producer, widely regarded as one of the most influential filmmakers in the history of cinema.
The Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues is a searchable collection of vetted annotations and bibliographic information for resources including books, articles, films, CD-ROMs, and websites pertaining to nuclear topics.
American Heritage is a magazine dedicated to covering the history of the United States of America for a mainstream readership.
Established in 1895 as the first US scholarly journal in its field, American Journal of Sociology (AJS) presents pathbreaking work from all areas of sociology, with an emphasis on theory building and innovative methods.
The American Political Science Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all areas of political science.
Amintore Fanfani (6 February 1908 – 20 November 1999) was an Italian politician and the Prime Minister of Italy for five separate runs.
Anadyr (p; Chukchi: Кагыргын, Kagyrgyn) is a port town and the administrative center of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located at the mouth of the Anadyr River, on the tip of the southern promontory that protrudes into Anadyrsky Liman.
Anadyr (Ана́дырь) is a river in the far northeast Siberia which flows into Anadyr Bay of the Bering Sea and drains much of the interior of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.
Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan (25 November 1895 – 21 October 1978) was a Soviet Armenian revolutionary, Old Bolshevik and statesman during the mandates of Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
Anatoly Fyodorovich Dobrynin (Анатолий Фёдорович Добрынин, 16 November 1919 – 6 April 2010) was a Russian statesman and a Soviet diplomat and politician.
Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко; Андрэ́й Андрэ́евіч Грамы́ка; – 2 July 1989) was a Soviet communist politician during the Cold War.
Apulia (Puglia; Pùglia; Pulia; translit) is a region of Italy in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Òtranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south.
The Arms Control Association is a United States-based nonpartisan membership organization founded in 1971, with the self-stated mission of "promoting public understanding of and support for effective arms control policies." The group publishes the monthly magazine Arms Control Today.
Artemisa Province is one of the two new provinces created from the former La Habana Province, whose creation was approved by the Cuban National Assembly on August 1, 2010, the other being Mayabeque Province.
Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual.
Atglen is a borough in Chester County, Pennsylvania, United States.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The Robert and Renée Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs (also known as the Belfer Center) is a permanent research center located within the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
The Bering Sea (r) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin Crisis of 1961 (Berlin-Krise) occurred between 4 June – 9 November 1961, and was the last major politico-military European incident of the Cold War about the occupational status of the German capital city, Berlin, and of post–World War II Germany.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
The Boeing B-47 Stratojet (company Model 450) is an American long range, six-engine, turbojet-powered strategic bomber designed to fly at high subsonic speed and at high altitude to avoid enemy interceptor aircraft.
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.
The Boeing C-135 Stratolifter is a transport aircraft derived from the prototype Boeing 367-80 jet airliner (also the basis for the 707) in the early 1950s.
The bomber gap was the Cold War belief that the Soviet Union's Long Range Aviation department had gained an advantage in deploying jet-powered strategic bombers.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Call of Duty: Black Ops is a first-person shooter video game, developed by Treyarch and published by Activision.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
Cemal Gürsel (13 October 1895 – 14 September 1966) was a Turkish army officer, and the fourth President of Turkey.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chaguaramas (pronounced, in the local English dialect, "shag-gah-rah-muss") lies in the North West Peninsula of Trinidad west of Port of Spain; the name is often applied to the entire peninsula, but is sometimes used to refer to its most developed area.
Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.
Chester Bliss Bowles (April 5, 1901 – May 25, 1986) was an American diplomat and ambassador, Governor of Connecticut, Congressman and co-founder of a major advertising agency, Benton & Bowles, now part of Publicis Groupe.
The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the most senior officer in the United States Navy.
Chukotsky District (Чуко́тский райо́н; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн район) is an administrativeLaw #33-OZ and municipalLaw #47-OZ district (raion), one of the six in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia.
Cleveland Park is a residential neighborhood in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C. It is located at and bounded approximately by Rock Creek Park to the east, Wisconsin and Idaho Avenues to the west, Klingle and Woodley Roads to the south, and Rodman and Tilden Streets to the north.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C. on the continent of North America.
The Convair F-102 Delta Dagger was an American interceptor aircraft that was built as part of the backbone of the United States Air Force's air defenses in the late 1950s.
The Corona program was a series of American strategic reconnaissance satellites produced and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency Directorate of Science & Technology with substantial assistance from the U.S. Air Force.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
After the establishment of diplomatic ties with the Soviet Union after the Cuban Revolution of 1959, Cuba became increasingly dependent on Soviet markets and military aid, becoming an ally of the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The term "Cuban exile" refers to the many Cubans who fled from or left the island of Cuba.
The Cuban Project, also known as Operation Mongoose, was a covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that was commissioned in March 1960 during the final year of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration.
Curtis LeMay (November 15, 1906 – October 1, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent Party candidate George Wallace in the 1968 presidential election.
Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is an American activist and former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of U.S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.
David Arthur Burchinal (April 17, 1915 – August 17, 1990) was a United States Air Force four-star general who served as Deputy Commander in Chief, United States European Command (DCINCEUR), from 1966 to 1973.
David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
The defense readiness condition (DEFCON) is an alert state used by the United States Armed Forces.
The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is an external intelligence service of the United States federal government specializing in defense and military intelligence.
Denial and deception (D&D) is a Western theoretical framework for conceiving and analyzing military intelligence techniques pertaining to secrecy and deception.
A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare weapon.
This is a list of all Deputy Premiers of the Soviet Union, meaning the government.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
Diplomatic History is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the foreign relations history of the United States.
In the field of counterintelligence, a double agent (also double secret agent) is an employee of a secret intelligence service for one country, whose primary purpose is to spy on a target organization of another country, but who, in fact, has been discovered by the target organization and is now spying on their own country's organization for the target organization.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands.
Edward Geary Lansdale (February 6, 1908 – February 23, 1987) was a United States Air Force officer who served in the Office of Strategic Services and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis is an analysis by political scientist Graham T. Allison, of the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.
Ettore Bernabei (16 May 1921 – 13 August 2016) was an Italian television director and producer.
The Executive Committee of the National Security Council (commonly referred to as simply the Executive Committee or ExComm) was a body of United States government officials that convened to advise President John F. Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
A flagship is a vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships, characteristically a flag officer entitled by custom to fly a distinguishing flag.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Foy David Kohler (February 15, 1908 – December 23, 1990) was an American diplomat and career Foreign Service Officer who was Ambassador to the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
George Wildman Ball (December 21, 1909 – May 26, 1994) was an American diplomat and banker.
George Whelan Anderson Jr. (December 15, 1906 – March 20, 1992) was an admiral in the United States Navy and a diplomat.
Georgy Abashvili (გიორგი აბაშვილი; Георгий Семенович Абашвили, Georgiy Semyonovich Abashvili) (8 January 1910 – 26 September 1982) was a Soviet naval commander, vice-admiral (1955).
Giulio Andreotti (14 January 1919 – 6 May 2013) was an Italian politician and statesman who served as the 41st Prime Minister of Italy and leader of the Christian Democracy party; he was the sixth longest-serving Prime Minister since the Italian Unification and the second longest-serving post-war Prime Minister, after Silvio Berlusconi.
Graham Tillett Allison, Jr. (born March 23, 1940) is an American political scientist and professor at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard.
The Grumman HU-16 Albatross is a large twin–radial engine amphibious flying boat that was used by the United States Air Force (USAF), the U.S. Navy (USN) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), primarily as a search and rescue aircraft.
Guantanamo Bay Naval Base (Base Naval de la Bahía de Guantánamo), officially known as Naval Station Guantanamo Bay or NSGB (also called GTMO because of the abbreviation of Guantanamo or Gitmo because of the common pronunciation of this word by the U.S. military), is a United States military base located on 120 square kilometres (45 sq mi) of land and water at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, which the U.S. leased for use as a coaling station and naval base in 1903 for $2,000 in gold per year until 1934, when the payment was set to match the value in gold in dollars; in 1974, the yearly lease was set to $4,085.
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The heavy cruiser was a type of cruiser, a naval warship designed for long range and high speed, armed generally with naval guns of roughly 203mm calibre (8 inches in caliber) of whose design parameters were dictated by the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
The Ilyushin Il-28 (Илью́шин Ил-28 NATO reporting name: Beagle) is a jet bomber of the immediate postwar period that was originally manufactured for the Soviet Air Forces.
The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (commonly known as the Rio Treaty, the Rio Pact, or by the Spanish-language acronym TIAR from Tratado Interamericano de Asistencia Recíproca) was an agreement signed in 1947 in Rio de Janeiro among many countries of the Americas.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
An intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of 3,000–5,500 km (1,864–3,418 miles), between a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) and an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Issa Alexandrovich Pliyev (Плиты Алыксандры фырт Иссæ; Исса Александрович Плиев) (also spelled as Pliev) (— 2 February 1979) was a Soviet military commander, Army General (1962), twice Hero of the Soviet Union (16 April 1944 and 8 September 1945), Hero of the Mongolian People's Republic (1971).
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
General Jack Joseph Catton (February 5, 1920 – December 5, 1990) was a United States Air Force four-star general and was commander of the Air Force Logistics Command with headquarters at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and of the Military Airlift Command.
John Alexander McCone (January 4, 1902 – February 14, 1991) was an American businessman and politician who served as Director of Central Intelligence from 1961 to 1965, during the height of the Cold War.
John Alfred Scali (April 27, 1918 – October 9, 1995) was the United States Ambassador to the United Nations from 1973 to 1975.
John George Diefenbaker (September 18, 1895 – August 16, 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada, serving from June 21, 1957 to April 22, 1963.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library and museum of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, (1917-1963), the 35th President of the United States (1961–1963).
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters.
The Journal of Cold War Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal on the history of the Cold War.
K-19: The Widowmaker is a 2002 historical thriller film about the first of many disasters that befell the Soviet submarine ''K-19''.
Kenneth Barnard Keating (May 18, 1900 – May 5, 1975), was a Republican United States Representative and a U.S. Senator from New York and later an appellate judge and a diplomat representing the United States as ambassador to India and later to Israel.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Khrushchev: The Man and His Era is a 2003 biography of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Leninsky Komsomol class (also transliterated as Leninskiy Komsomol or Leninskij Komsomol (Russian: Ленинский Комсомол класс) is a class of 25 ocean-going dry cargo ships; tweendeckers with turbine main engines, built between 1959 and 1968 in the Soviet Union under the designations Projects 567 and 567K. Twenty were built by the Kherson Shipyard, and five in either the Nikolayev Shipyard, or the Nosenko Shipyard in Nikolayev. They were part of a program to modernize the Soviet Union's merchant fleet. Three forms of transliteration of the Russian name are used in English-language sources.
Leon Marcus Uris (August 3, 1924 – June 21, 2003) was an American author of historical fiction who wrote two bestselling books, Exodus (published in 1958) and Trinity (published in 1976).
The Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United States of America is the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary from the Russian Federation to the United States of America.
A nuclear close call is an incident that could lead to, or could have led to, at least one unintended nuclear detonation/explosion.
Llewellyn E. "Tommy" Thompson Jr. (August 24, 1904 – February 6, 1972), was a United States diplomat.
The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed "Dragon Lady", is an American single-jet engine, ultra-high altitude reconnaissance aircraft operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Main Intelligence Directorate (p), abbreviated GRU (p), is the foreign military intelligence agency of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (formerly the Soviet Army General Staff of the Soviet Union).
Matinee is a 1993 period comedy film directed by Joe Dante.
General Maxwell Davenport "Max" Taylor (August 26, 1901 – April 19, 1987) was a senior United States Army officer and diplomat of the mid-20th century.
McCoy AFB (1940–1947, 1951–1975) is a former U.S. Air Force installation located 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Orlando, Florida.
McGeorge "Mac" Bundy (March 30, 1919 – September 16, 1996) was an American expert in foreign and defense policy, serving as United States National Security Advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson from 1961 through 1966.
A medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) is a type of ballistic missile with medium range, this last classification depending on the standards of certain organizations.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-21; NATO reporting name: Fishbed) is a supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Military Air Transport Service (MATS) is an inactive Department of Defense Unified Command.
The Miller Center is a nonpartisan affiliate of the University of Virginia that specializes in United States presidential scholarship, public policy, and political history and strives to apply the lessons of history to the nation’s most pressing contemporary governance challenges.
The Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation (Министерство обороны Российской Федерации, Минобороны России, informally abbreviated as МО, МО РФ or Minoboron) exercises administrative and operational leadership of the Russian Armed Forces.
The missile gap was the Cold War term used in the US for the perceived superiority of the number and power of the USSR's missiles in comparison with its own (a lack of military parity).
A missile launch facility, also known as an underground missile silo, launch facility (LF), or nuclear silo, is a vertical cylindrical structure constructed underground, for the storage and launching of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas beginning in 1823.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
The Moscow–Washington hotline (formally known in the United States as the Washington–Moscow Direct Communications Link; r) is a system that allows direct communication between the leaders of the United States and the Russian Federation.
Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see pre-emptive nuclear strike and second strike).
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is both a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Naval boarding is to come up against, or alongside, an enemy ship to attack by placing combatants aboard the enemy ship.
The Naval War College Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the United States Navy's Naval War College.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
No first use (NFU) refers to a pledge or a policy by a nuclear power not to use nuclear weapons as a means of warfare unless first attacked by an adversary using nuclear weapons.
Norman Cousins (June 24, 1915 – November 30, 1990) was an American political journalist, author, professor, and world peace advocate.
Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.
The Norwegian rocket incident, also known as the Black Brant scare, occurred on January 25, 1995, when a team of Norwegian and U.S. scientists launched a Black Brant XII four-stage sounding rocket from the Andøya Rocket Range off the northwestern coast of Norway.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
The Nuclear Age Peace Foundation was founded in 1982, and is composed of individuals and organizations worldwide who support worldwide efforts to abolish nuclear weapons.
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Oleg Vladimirovich Penkovsky (Олег Владимирович Пеньковский; 23 April 1919 – 16 May 1963), codenamed HERO, was a Soviet military intelligence (GRU) colonel during the late 1950s and early 1960s.
Operation Anadyr (Анадырь) was the code name used by the Soviet Union for its Cold War secret operation in 1962 of deploying ballistic missiles, medium-range bombers, and a division of mechanized infantry to Cuba to create an army group that would be able to prevent an invasion of the island by United States forces.
Operation Ortsac (Castro backwards) was the project name of a possible invasion of Cuba planned by the United States military in 1962.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado (April 17, 1919 – June 23, 1983) was a Cuban politician who served as the President of Cuba from 1959 until 1976.
The Oval Office is the working office space of the President of the United States located in the West Wing of the White House, Washington, DC.
The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.
The PGM-19 Jupiter was the first nuclear tipped, medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) of the United States Air Force (USAF).
Pinar del Río (formerly Nuevas Filipinas) is one of the provinces of Cuba.
The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Pope John XXIII (Ioannes; Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli,; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 to his death in 1963 and was canonized on 27 April 2014.
In nuclear strategy, a first strike is a preemptive surprise attack employing overwhelming force.
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.
Project MUSE, a non-profit collaboration between libraries and publishers, is an online database of peer-reviewed academic journals and electronic books.
The R-12 was a theatre ballistic missile developed and deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The R-14 Chusovaya (Чусовая) was a single stage Intermediate-range ballistic missile developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician and leader who is currently serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the Communist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011.
Radio Moscow (r), also known as Radio Moscow World Service, was the official international broadcasting station of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics until 1993.
RAI – Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. (commercially styled Rai; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane is the national public broadcasting company of Italy, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. The RAI operates many DVB and Sat television channels and radio stations, broadcasting via digital terrestrial transmission (15 television and 7 radio channels nationwide) and from several satellite platforms. It is the biggest television broadcaster in Italy and competes with Mediaset, and other minor television and radio networks. The RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 33.8%. RAI broadcasts are also received in neighboring countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Vatican City, Switzerland, and Tunisia, and elsewhere on cable and satellite. Sometimes Rai 1 was received even further in Europe via Sporadic E until the digital switch off in July 2012. Half of the RAI's revenues come from broadcast receiving licence fees, the rest from the sale of advertising time Retrieved on 2007-10-10 Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10. In 1950, the RAI became one of the 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union.
Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron (14 March 1905 – 17 October 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist, political scientist, and journalist. He is best known for his 1955 book The Opium of the Intellectuals, the title of which inverts Karl Marx's claim that religion was the opium of the people – Aron argues that in post-war France, Marxism was the opium of the intellectuals.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
In espionage, a resident spy is an agent operating within a foreign country for extended periods of time.
Richard S. Heyser (3 April 1927 – 6 October 2008), lieutenant colonel, USAF (Retired), was a pilot in the United States Air Force whose photographs revealed Soviet medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba, precipitating the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962.
Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 64th United States Attorney General from January 1961 to September 1964, and as a U.S. Senator for New York from January 1965 until his assassination in June 1968.
Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
Rocket artillery is a type of artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional guns or mortars.
Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Родио́н Я́ковлевич Малино́вский; – 31 March 1967) was a Soviet military commander in World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union, and Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s.
Rudolf Anderson Jr. (September 15, 1927 – October 27, 1962), was a pilot and commissioned officer in the United States Air Force and the first recipient of the Air Force Cross, the U.S. Air Force's second-highest award for heroism.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
Russian military deception, sometimes known as maskirovka (lit), is a military doctrine developed from the start of the twentieth century.
The S-75 (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance.
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
San Cristóbal is a municipality and city in the Artemisa Province of Cuba.
SeaQuest DSV (stylized as seaQuest DSV and also promoted as simply seaQuest) is an American science fiction television series created by Rockne S. O'Bannon.
The UEO seaQuest DSV 4600 and the UEO seaQuest DSV 4600-II are the two titular submarines featured in the science fiction television series seaQuest DSV, which ran for three seasons on NBC from 1993 to 1996.
The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.
Secrets of the Dead, produced by Thirteen/WNET New York, is an ongoing PBS television series which began in 2000.
Security Studies is a peer-reviewed quarterly academic journal covering international relations published by Routledge that was established in 1991.
Sergei Nikitich Khrushchev (Серге́й Ники́тич Хрущёв, born July 2, 1935) is the son of former Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Soviet Navy (Military Maritime Fleet of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
Strategic Air Command (SAC) was both a Department of Defense Specified Command and a United States Air Force (USAF) Major Command (MAJCOM), responsible for Cold War command and control of two of the three components of the U.S. military's strategic nuclear strike forces, the so-called "nuclear triad," with SAC having control of land-based strategic bomber aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs (the third leg of the triad being submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) of the U.S. Navy).
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) is the head of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE), also known as Allied Command Operations (ACO), of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), based in Casteau, Belgium.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Tactical Air Command (TAC) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
A tanker (or tank ship or tankship) is a ship designed to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk.
Russian News Agency TASS (Informatsionnoye agentstvo Rossii TASS), abbr.
Theodore Chaikin "Ted" Sorensen (May 8, 1928 – October 31, 2010) was an American lawyer, writer, and presidential adviser.
The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara is a 2003 American documentary film about the life and times of former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara illustrating his observations of the nature of modern warfare.
The Kennedys is a Canadian-American television miniseries chronicling the lives of the Kennedy family, including key triumphs and tragedies it has experienced.
The Missiles of October is a 1974 docudrama made-for-television play about the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs.
Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.
Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis is Robert F. Kennedy's account of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.
Thirteen Days is a 2000 American historical political thriller film directed by Roger Donaldson, dramatizing the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, seen from the perspective of the US political leadership.
Thomas Powers (New York City, December 12, 1940) is an American author and intelligence expert.
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion.
Thomas Leo Clancy Jr. (April 12, 1947 – October 1, 2013) was an American novelist best known for his technically detailed espionage and military-science storylines set during and after the Cold War.
Topaz is a 1969 American espionage thriller film directed by Alfred Hitchcock.
Topaz is a Cold War suspense novel by Leon Uris, published in 1967 by McGraw-Hill.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Thant (22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974), known honorifically as U Thant, was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1961 to 1971, the first non-European to hold the position.
The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The 1962 United States elections were held on November 6, and elected the members of the 88th United States Congress.
The United States embargo against Cuba (in Cuba called el bloqueo, "the blockade") is a commercial, economic, and financial embargo imposed by the United States on Cuba.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Ur is a novella by Stephen King.
Valerian Alexandrovich Zorin (Валериан Александрович Зорин; 1 January 1902 - 14 January 1986) was a Soviet diplomat best remembered for his famous confrontation with Adlai Stevenson on 25 October 1962, during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Vasili Alexandrovich Arkhipov (p, 30 January 1926 – 19 August 1998) was a Soviet Navy officer credited with casting the single vote that prevented a Soviet nuclear strike (and, presumably, all-out nuclear war) during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Vought F-8 Crusader (originally F8U) is a single-engine, supersonic, carrier-based air superiority jet aircraft built by Vought for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, replacing the Vought F7U Cutlass, and for the French Navy.
Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 – December 14, 1974) was an American writer, reporter, and political commentator famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of Cold War, coining the term "stereotype" in the modern psychological meaning, and critiquing media and democracy in his newspaper column and several books, most notably his 1922 book Public Opinion.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center), located in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrangel Island (p) is an island in the Arctic Ocean, between the Chukchi Sea and East Siberian Sea.
X-Men: First Class (stylized onscreen as X: First Class) is a 2011 American superhero film, based on the X-Men characters appearing in Marvel Comics.
On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep into Soviet territory.
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 Cuban missile crisis, Black Saturday (Cuban Missile Crisis), Caribbean Crisis, Caribbean crisis, Crisis de Octubre, Crisis de octubre, Cuba Crisis, Cuba Missile Crisis, Cuba crisis, Cuba missile crisis, Cuban Crisis, Cuban Missile, Cuban Missile crisis, Cuban Missle Crisis, Cuban Quarantine, Cuban crisis, Cuban missile crisis, Karibskiy krizis, Missile Crisis, Missile Scare, Naval quarantine of Cuba, The cuban missile crisis, Turkish missile crisis, United States naval quarantine of Cuba, Карибский кризис.