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Culture

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. [1]

237 relations: Acculturation, Adolf Bastian, Age of Enlightenment, Agenda 21 for culture, Agriculture, Alan Sokal, Alfred Weber, Anarchy, Ancient Rome, Angela McRobbie, Animal culture, Anthropology, Archaeology, Art, Art history, Austria-Hungary, Authenticity (philosophy), Émile Durkheim, Barbarian, Behavioral modernity, Bildung, Biological anthropology, Body modification, Bro (subculture), Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Capitalism, Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, Christian revival, Cicero, Civilization, Classical music, Clothing, Cognitive adequacy, Cognitive science, Colonization, Communication, Comparative cultural studies, Comparative literature, Consilience (book), Cooking, Count noun, Counterculture, Critical theory, Cultural analysis, Cultural anthropology, Cultural area, Cultural artifact, Cultural assimilation, Cultural capital, Cultural evolution, ..., Cultural invention, Cultural materialism (cultural studies), Cultural relativism, Cultural studies, Cultural turn, Cultural universal, Culture change, Culture industry, Dance, Dick Hebdige, Diffusion, Diffusion of innovations, E. P. Thompson, Eclecticism, Education, Edward Burnett Tylor, Edward S. Casey, Elite, English people, Ethnic group, Evolutionary origin of religions, Experience, False consciousness, Fandom, Fashion, Feminism, Feminism in France, Feminist movement, Film, Film theory, Folk music, Folklore, Food, Frankfurt School, Franz Boas, Future orientation, Gender, Generative actor, Georg Simmel, Germans, Germany, Giulio Angioni, Globalism, Griselda Pollock, Hairstyle, Hamburger, Harvard University Press, Haute cuisine, Herbert Spencer, Hermeneutics, High culture, Human, Human evolution, Humanism, Humanities, Ice age, Ideology, Immanuel Kant, Indigenization, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Influence of mass media, Institution, Intangible cultural heritage, Interaction, International Mother Language Day, Involution (esoterism), Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jeffrey C. Alexander, Jewellery, Johann Gottfried Herder, Julia Kristeva, Karl Marx, Learning, Left-wing politics, Lewis H. Morgan, Liberalism, Linguistic anthropology, Literary theory, Literature, Louis Althusser, Low culture, Macmillan Publishers (United States), Marxism, Mass media, Mass production, Material culture, Matthew Arnold, Max Weber, Means of production, Media culture, Metaphor, Mikhail Bakhtin, Modernity, Multiculturalism, Museology, Music, Mutation, Mythology, Nationalism, Nationality, New York City, Noble savage, Non-material culture, Oral literature, Outline of culture, Oxford University Press, Paul Gilroy, Paul Willis, Perfection, Philosophy, Photography, Pierre Bourdieu, Political economy, Political organisation, Polity (publisher), Popular culture, Postmodern philosophy, Power (social and political), Psychoanalysis, Raimon Panikkar, Raymond Williams, Rein Raud, Relations of production, Religion, Richard Hoggart, Richard Velkley, Ritual, Romanticism, Ronald Reagan, Ruling class, Samuel von Pufendorf, Schema (psychology), Science, Semiotics of culture, Shelter (building), Social behavior, Social class, Social Darwinism, Social group, Social network, Social norm, Social organization, Social psychology, Social science, Social stratification, Social structure, Social theory, Society, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, Sociology, Sociology of culture, Sokal affair, Sophistication, Structural functionalism, Structuralism, Structuration theory, Stuart Hall (cultural theorist), Subculture, Symbol, Syncretism, Technology, Teleology, Terror management theory, The arts, The Extended Phenotype, The New Yorker, Thomas Hobbes, Tool, Tradition, Trans-cultural diffusion, Transculturation, Tusculanae Disputationes, Umberto Eco, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United States, University of Birmingham, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Value (ethics), Weimar Republic, Western culture, Wilhelm von Humboldt, World population, World view, Writing, Written language. Expand index (187 more) »

Acculturation

Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures.

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Adolf Bastian

Adolf Bastian (26 June 18262 February 1905) was a 19th-century polymath best remembered for his contributions to the development of ethnography and the development of anthropology as a discipline.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Agenda 21 for culture

Agenda 21 for culture (now also known as Culture 21) is a program for cultural governance developed in 2002–2004 and organized by United Cities and Local Governments.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Alan Sokal

Alan David Sokal (born January 24, 1955) is a professor of mathematics at University College London and professor of physics at New York University.

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Alfred Weber

Alfred Weber (30 July 1868 – 2 May 1958) was a German economist, geographer, sociologist and theoretician of culture whose work was influential in the development of modern economic geography.

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Anarchy

Anarchy is the condition of a society, entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Angela McRobbie

Angela McRobbie, FBA (born 1951) is a British cultural theorist, feminist and commentator whose work combines the study of popular culture, contemporary media practices and feminism through conceptions of a third-person reflexive gaze.

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Animal culture

Animal culture describes the current theory of cultural learning in non-human animals through socially transmitted behaviors.

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Anthropology

Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Archaeology

Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Art

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Art history

Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Authenticity (philosophy)

Authenticity is a concept in psychology (in particular existential psychiatry) as well as existentialist philosophy and aesthetics (in regard to various arts and musical genres).

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Émile Durkheim

David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.

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Barbarian

A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.

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Behavioral modernity

Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates.

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Bildung

Bildung ("education, formation, etc.") refers to the German tradition of self-cultivation (as related to the German for: creation, image, shape), wherein philosophy and education are linked in a manner that refers to a process of both personal and cultural maturation.

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Biological anthropology

Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.

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Body modification

Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human physical appearance.

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Bro (subculture)

Bro is a male youth subculture of "conventional guys' guys" who spend time partying in ways similar to each other.

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Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary, abbreviated CALD) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies

The Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) was a research centre at the University of Birmingham, England.

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Christian revival

Revivalism is increased spiritual interest or renewal in the life of a church congregation or society, with a local, national or global effect.

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Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Civilization

A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Clothing

Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.

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Cognitive adequacy

Cognitive adequacy is a term proposed by Rein Raud as a standard of judging cultural phenomena.

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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Colonization

Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.

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Communication

Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

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Comparative cultural studies

Comparative cultural studies is a contextual approach to the study of culture in a global and intercultural context.

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Comparative literature

Comparative literature is an academic field dealing with the study of literature and cultural expression across linguistic, national, and disciplinary boundaries.

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Consilience (book)

Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge is a 1998 book by biologist E. O. Wilson, in which the author discusses methods that have been used to unite the sciences and might in the future unite them with the humanities.

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Cooking

Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.

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Count noun

In linguistics, a count noun (also countable noun) is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, and that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, etc.

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Counterculture

A counterculture (also written counter-culture) is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores.

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Critical theory

Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities.

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Cultural analysis

As a discipline, cultural analysis is based on using qualitative research methods of the arts, humanities, social sciences, in particular ethnography and anthropology, to collect data on cultural phenomena and to interpret cultural representations and practices; in an effort to gain new knowledge or understanding through analysis of that data and cultural processes.

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Cultural anthropology

Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans.

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Cultural area

In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geographical area with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities (culture).

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Cultural artifact

A cultural artifact, or cultural artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.

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Cultural assimilation

Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.

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Cultural capital

In sociology, cultural capital consists of the social assets of a person (education, intellect, style of speech and dress, etc.) that promote social mobility in a stratified society.

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Cultural evolution

Cultural evolution is an evolutionary theory of social change.

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Cultural invention

A cultural invention is any innovation developed by people that is not a material object.

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Cultural materialism (cultural studies)

Cultural materialism in literary theory and cultural studies traces its origin to the work of the left-wing literary critic Raymond Williams.

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Cultural relativism

Cultural relativism is the idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another.

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Cultural studies

Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies.

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Cultural turn

The cultural turn is a movement beginning in the early 1970s among scholars in the humanities and social sciences to make culture the focus of contemporary debates; it also describes a shift in emphasis toward meaning and away from a positivist epistemology.

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Cultural universal

A cultural universal (also called an anthropological universal or human universal), as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide.

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Culture change

Culture change is a term used in public policy making that emphasizes the influence of cultural capital on individual and community behavior.

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Culture industry

The term culture industry (Kulturindustrie) was coined by the critical theorists Theodor Adorno (1903–1969) and Max Horkheimer (1895–1973), and was presented as critical vocabulary in the chapter "The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception", of the book Dialectic of Enlightenment (1944), wherein they proposed that popular culture is akin to a factory producing standardized cultural goods—films, radio programmes, magazines, etc.—that are used to manipulate mass society into passivity.

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Dance

Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.

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Dick Hebdige

Dick Hebdige (born 1951) is an expatriate British media theorist and sociologist, and a Professor of Art and Media Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

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Diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Diffusion of innovations

Diffusion of innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread.

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E. P. Thompson

Edward Palmer Thompson (3 February 1924 – 28 August 1993), usually cited as E. P.

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Eclecticism

Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.

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Education

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Edward Burnett Tylor

Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (2 October 1832 – 2 January 1917) was an English anthropologist, the founder of cultural anthropology.

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Edward S. Casey

Edward S. Casey (born February 24, 1939 in Topeka, Kansas) is an American philosopher and university professor.

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Elite

In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.

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English people

The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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Evolutionary origin of religions

The emergence of religious behavior by the Neolithic period has been discussed in terms of evolutionary psychology, the origin of language and mythology, cross-cultural comparison of the anthropology of religion, as well as evidence for spirituality or cultic behavior in the Upper Paleolithic, and similarities in great ape behavior.

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Experience

Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.

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False consciousness

False consciousness is a term used by sociologists and expounded by some Marxists for the way in which material, ideological, and institutional processes in capitalist society mislead members of the proletariat and other class actors.

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Fandom

Fandom is a subculture composed of fans characterized by a feeling of empathy and camaraderie with others who share a common interest.

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Fashion

Fashion is a popular style, especially in clothing, footwear, lifestyle products, accessories, makeup, hairstyle and body.

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Feminism

Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.

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Feminism in France

Feminism in France refers to the history of feminist thought and movements in France.

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Feminist movement

The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement.

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Film

A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.

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Film theory

Film theory is a set of scholarly approaches within the academic discipline of cinema studies that questions the essentialism of cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large.

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Folk music

Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Folklore

Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.

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Food

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Frankfurt School

The Frankfurt School (Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt.

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Franz Boas

Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858December 21, 1942) was a German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".

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Future orientation

Future orientation is broadly defined as the extent to which an individual thinks about the future, anticipates future consequences, and plans ahead before acting.

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Gender

Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.

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Generative actor

A generative actor is an instigator of social change.

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Georg Simmel

Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.

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Germans

Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Giulio Angioni

Giulio Angioni (28 October 1939 – 12 January 2017) was an Italian writer and anthropologist.

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Globalism

Globalism is a group of ideologies that advocate the concept of globalization.

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Griselda Pollock

Griselda Pollock (born 11 March 1949) is a visual theorist, cultural analyst and scholar of international, postcolonial feminist studies in the visual arts.

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Hairstyle

A hairstyle, hairdo, or haircut refers to the styling of hair, usually on the human scalp.

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Hamburger

A hamburger, beefburger or burger is a sandwich consisting of one or more cooked patties of ground meat, usually beef, placed inside a sliced bread roll or bun.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Haute cuisine

Haute cuisine (French: literally "high cooking") or grande cuisine refers to the cuisine of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels.

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Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

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Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.

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High culture

High culture encompasses the cultural products of aesthetic value, which a society collectively esteem as exemplary art.

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Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human evolution

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.

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Humanism

Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Humanities

Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.

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Ice age

An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

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Ideology

An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Indigenization

Indigenization is the act of making something more native; transformation of some service, idea, etc.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Influence of mass media

In media studies, media psychology, communication theory and sociology, media influence and media effects are topics relating to mass media and media culture effects on individual or audience thought, attitudes and behavior.

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Institution

Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".

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Intangible cultural heritage

An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill, as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts, and cultural spaces that are considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage.

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Interaction

Interaction is a kind of action that occur as two or more objects have an effect upon one another.

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International Mother Language Day

International Mother Language Day (IMLD) is a worldwide annual observance held on 21 February to promote awareness of linguistic and cultural diversity and promote multilingualism.

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Involution (esoterism)

The term involution refers to different things depending on the writer.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.

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Jeffrey C. Alexander

Jeffrey Charles Alexander (born May 30, 1947) is an American sociologist, and one of the world's leading social theorists.

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Jewellery

Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.

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Johann Gottfried Herder

Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.

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Julia Kristeva

Julia Kristeva (Юлия Кръстева; born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Learning

Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.

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Lewis H. Morgan

Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was a pioneering American anthropologist and social theorist who worked as a railroad lawyer.

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Liberalism

Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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Linguistic anthropology

Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life.

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Literary theory

Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.

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Literature

Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.

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Louis Althusser

Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.

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Low culture

"Low culture" is a derogatory term for forms of popular culture that have mass appeal.

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Macmillan Publishers (United States)

Macmillan Publishers USA was the former name of a now mostly defunct American publishing company.

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Marxism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Mass media

The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.

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Mass production

Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.

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Material culture

Material culture is the physical aspect of culture in the objects and architecture that surround people.

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Matthew Arnold

Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.

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Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.

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Means of production

In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.

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Media culture

In cultural studies, media culture refers to the current Western capitalist society that emerged and developed from the 20th century, under the influence of mass media.

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Metaphor

A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.

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Mikhail Bakhtin

Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Бахти́н,; – 7 March 1975) was a Russian philosopher, literary critic, semiotician and scholar who worked on literary theory, ethics, and the philosophy of language.

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Modernity

Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".

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Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.

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Museology

Museology or museum studies is the study of museums.

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Music

Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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Mutation

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mythology

Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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Nationalism

Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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Nationality

Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Noble savage

A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an "other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization, and therefore symbolizes humanity's innate goodness.

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Non-material culture

Culture consists of both material culture and non-material culture.

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Oral literature

Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.

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Outline of culture

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to culture: Culture – set of patterns of human activity within a community or social group and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Paul Gilroy

Paul Gilroy FBA (born 16 February 1956) is a Professor of American and English Literature at King's College London.

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Paul Willis

Paul Willis (born 1950) is a British social scientist known for his work in sociology and cultural studies.

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Perfection

Perfection is, broadly, a state of completeness and flawlessness.

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Philosophy

Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Photography

Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

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Pierre Bourdieu

Pierre Felix Bourdieu (1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher, and public intellectual.

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Political economy

Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.

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Political organisation

A political organisation or political organization is any organization that involves itself in the political process, including political parties, non-governmental organizations, advocacy groups and special interest groups.

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Polity (publisher)

Polity is a publisher in the social sciences and humanities.

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Popular culture

Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.

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Postmodern philosophy

Postmodern philosophy is a philosophical movement that arose in the second half of the 20th century as a critical response to assumptions allegedly present in modernist philosophical ideas regarding culture, identity, history, or language that were developed during the 18th-century Enlightenment.

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Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.

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Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.

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Raimon Panikkar

Raimon Panikkar Alemany (November 2, 1918 – August 26, 2010; also known as Raimundo Panikkar and Raymond Panikkar) was a Spanish Roman Catholic priest and a proponent of inter-religious dialogue.

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Raymond Williams

Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 – 26 January 1988) was a Welsh Marxist theorist, academic, novelist and critic.

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Rein Raud

Rein Raud is an Estonian scholar and author.

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Relations of production

Relations of production (German: Produktionsverhältnisse) is a concept frequently used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in their theory of historical materialism and in Das Kapital.

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Religion

Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Richard Hoggart

Herbert Richard Hoggart FRSL (24 September 1918 – 10 April 2014) was a British academic whose career covered the fields of sociology, English literature and cultural studies, with emphasis on British popular culture.

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Richard Velkley

Richard L. Velkley (born March 17, 1949) is an American philosopher and Celia Scott Weatherhead Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at Tulane University.

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Ritual

A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Ruling class

The ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda.

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Samuel von Pufendorf

Freiherr Samuel von Pufendorf (8 January 1632 – 13 October 1694) was a German jurist, political philosopher, economist and historian.

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Schema (psychology)

In psychology and cognitive science, a schema (plural schemata or schemas) describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them.

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Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Semiotics of culture

Semiotics of culture is a research field within semiotics that attempts to define culture from semiotic perspective and as a type of human symbolic activity, creation of signs and a way of giving meaning to everything around.

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Shelter (building)

A shelter is a basic architectural structure or building that provides protection from the local environment.

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Social behavior

Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms, typically from the same species.

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Social class

A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.

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Social Darwinism

The term Social Darwinism is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society.

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Social group

In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.

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Social network

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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Social organization

In sociology, a social organization is a pattern of relationships between and among individuals and social groups.

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Social psychology

Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

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Social structure

In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.

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Social theory

Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms, that are used to study and interpret social phenomena.

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Society

A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge

The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) is the oldest Anglican mission organisation, and the leading publisher of Christian books in the United Kingdom.

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Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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Sociology of culture

The sociology of culture and, the related, cultural sociology concerns the systematic analysis of culture, usually understood as the ensemble of symbolic codes used by a members of a society, as it is manifested in the society.

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Sokal affair

The Sokal affair, also called the Sokal hoax,Derrida (1997) was a scholarly publishing sting perpetrated by Alan Sokal, a physics professor at New York University and University College London.

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Sophistication

Sophistication has come to mean a few things, but its original definition was "to denature, or simplify".

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Structural functionalism

Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".

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Structuralism

In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.

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Structuration theory

The theory of structuration is a social theory of the creation and reproduction of social systems that is based in the analysis of both structure and agents (see structure and agency), without giving primacy to either.

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Stuart Hall (cultural theorist)

Stuart McPhail Hall, FBA (3 February 1932 – 10 February 2014) was a Jamaican-born cultural theorist, political activist and Marxist sociologist who lived and worked in the United Kingdom from 1951.

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Subculture

A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.

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Symbol

A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.

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Syncretism

Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Technology

Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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Teleology

Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.

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Terror management theory

In social psychology, terror management theory (TMT) proposes a basic psychological conflict that results from having a self-preservation instinct, whilst realizing that death is inevitable and to some extent unpredictable.

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The arts

The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.

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The Extended Phenotype

The Extended Phenotype is a 1982 book by Richard Dawkins, in which the author introduced a biological concept of the same name.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Tool

A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.

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Tradition

A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.

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Trans-cultural diffusion

In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.

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Transculturation

Transculturation is a term coined by Cuban anthropologist Fernando Ortiz in 1947 to describe the phenomenon of merging and converging cultures.

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Tusculanae Disputationes

The Tusculanae Disputationes (also Tusculanae Quaestiones; English: Tusculanes or Tusculan Disputations) is a series of five books written by Cicero, around 45 BC, attempting to popularise Greek philosophy in Ancient Rome, including Stoicism.

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Umberto Eco

Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian novelist, literary critic, philosopher, semiotician, and university professor.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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University of Birmingham

The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

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University of North Carolina at Charlotte

The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, also known as UNC Charlotte, is a public research university located in Charlotte, North Carolina, United States.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.

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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.

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Wilhelm von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt, a naturalist).

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World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.

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World view

A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.

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Writing

Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.

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Written language

A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system.

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Cultre, Cultur, Cultural, Cultural Codes, Cultural background, Cultural bloc, Cultural influence, Cultural links, Culturally, Culture and Development, Culture of Earth, Culture of human beings, Culture system, Cultured, Cultures, Human Culture, Human culture, Kultur, Natinal customs.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture

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