95 relations: Ampère's circuital law, Ampere, Area, Calcium, Capacitance, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Charge density, Continuity equation, Coulomb, Cubic metre, Dielectric, Diffusion, Displacement current, Divergence theorem, Doping (semiconductor), Dot product, Drift velocity, Effective mass (solid-state physics), Electric charge, Electric current, Electric dipole moment, Electric displacement field, Electric field, Electrical conductor, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrical wiring, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetism, Electromigration, Electron mobility, Electronics, Emission spectrum, Euclidean vector, Farad, Flashtube, Four-vector, Fourier transform, Gas-discharge lamp, Graphene nanoribbon, Green's function (many-body theory), Green–Kubo relations, Hall effect, Insulator (electricity), Integrated circuit, International System of Units, Invertible matrix, Ion, Ion channel, ..., Joule heating, Limit of a function, Linear response function, Litz wire, Magnet, Magnetic field, Magnetic moment, Magnetization, Maxwell's equations, Metre, Metric prefix, Moore's law, Multiplicative inverse, Newton (unit), Organism, Polarization density, Potassium, Power (physics), Printed circuit board, Probability current, Quantum Hall effect, Second, Semiconductor, Semiconductor device, Sheet resistance, Siemens (unit), Skin effect, Sodium, Special relativity, Spectral line, Spectroscopy, Speed of electricity, Square metre, Superconductivity, Surface (mathematics), Surface integral, Switched-mode power supply, Tensor, Transformer, Unit vector, Vector area, Volt, Volume integral, Wavelength, 180 nanometer. Expand index (45 more) » « Shrink index
In classical electromagnetism, Ampère's circuital law (not to be confused with Ampère's force law that André-Marie Ampère discovered in 1823) relates the integrated magnetic field around a closed loop to the electric current passing through the loop.
The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In electromagnetism, charge density is a measure of the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume.
A continuity equation in physics is an equation that describes the transport of some quantity.
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
The cubic metre (in British English and international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or cubic meter (in American English) is the SI derived unit of volume.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
In electromagnetism, displacement current density is the quantity appearing in Maxwell's equations that is defined in terms of the rate of change of, the electric displacement field.
In vector calculus, the divergence theorem, also known as Gauss's theorem or Ostrogradsky's theorem, reprinted in is a result that relates the flow (that is, flux) of a vector field through a surface to the behavior of the vector field inside the surface.
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space.
The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains in a material due to an electric field.
In solid state physics, a particle's effective mass (often denoted) is the mass that it seems to have when responding to forces, or the mass that it seems to have when interacting with other identical particles in a thermal distribution.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity.
In physics, the electric displacement field, denoted by D, is a vector field that appears in Maxwell's equations.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electrical wiring is an electrical installation of cabling and associated devices such as switches, distribution boards, sockets and light fittings in a structure.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
Electromigration is the transport of material caused by the gradual movement of the ions in a conductor due to the momentum transfer between conducting electrons and diffusing metal atoms.
In solid-state physics, the electron mobility characterizes how quickly an electron can move through a metal or semiconductor, when pulled by an electric field.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
The farad (symbol: F) is the SI derived unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge.
A flashtube, also called a flashlamp, is an electric arc lamp designed to produce extremely intense, incoherent, full-spectrum white light for very short durations.
In special relativity, a four-vector (also known as a 4-vector) is an object with four components, which transform in a specific way under Lorentz transformation.
The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.
Gas-discharge lamps are a family of artificial light sources that generate light by sending an electric discharge through an ionized gas, a plasma.
Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs, also called nano-graphene ribbons or nano-graphite ribbons) are strips of graphene with width less than 50 nm.
In many-body theory, the term Green's function (or Green function) is sometimes used interchangeably with correlation function, but refers specifically to correlators of field operators or creation and annihilation operators.
The Green–Kubo relations (Melville S. Green 1954, Ryogo Kubo 1957) give the exact mathematical expression for transport coefficients \gamma in terms of integrals of time correlation functions.
The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and to an applied magnetic field perpendicular to the current.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
In linear algebra, an n-by-n square matrix A is called invertible (also nonsingular or nondegenerate) if there exists an n-by-n square matrix B such that where In denotes the n-by-n identity matrix and the multiplication used is ordinary matrix multiplication.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.
Although the function (sin x)/x is not defined at zero, as x becomes closer and closer to zero, (sin x)/x becomes arbitrarily close to 1.
A linear response function describes the input-output relationship of a signal transducer such as a radio turning electromagnetic waves into music or a neuron turning synaptic input into a response.
Litz wire is a type of specialized multistrand wire or cable used in electronics to carry alternating current (AC) at radio frequencies.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
The magnetic moment is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.
In classical electromagnetism, magnetization or magnetic polarization is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced magnetic dipole moments in a magnetic material.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit.
Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.
In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a dielectric material.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
In quantum mechanics, the probability current (sometimes called probability flux) is a mathematical quantity describing the flow of probability in terms of probability per unit time per unit area.
The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized values where is the channel current, is the Hall voltage, is the elementary charge and is Planck's constant.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.
Sheet resistance is a measure of resistance of thin films that are nominally uniform in thickness.
The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).
Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
The word electricity refers generally to the movement of electrons (or other charge carriers) through a conductor in the presence of potential and an electric field.
The square metre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square meter (American spelling) is the SI derived unit of area, with symbol m2 (Unicode character). It is the area of a square whose sides measure exactly one metre.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
In mathematics, a surface is a generalization of a plane which needs not be flat, that is, the curvature is not necessarily zero.
In mathematics, a surface integral is a generalization of multiple integrals to integration over surfaces.
A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently.
In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.
In 3-dimensional geometry, for a finite planar surface of scalar area and unit normal, the vector area is defined as the unit normal scaled by the area: For an orientable surface composed of a set of flat facet areas, the vector area of the surface is given by where is the unit normal vector to the area.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
In mathematics—in particular, in multivariable calculus—a volume integral refers to an integral over a 3-dimensional domain, that is, it is a special case of multiple integrals.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
The 180 nanometer (180 nm) process refers to the level of semiconductor process technology that was reached in the 1999-2000 timeframe by most leading semiconductor companies, like Intel, Texas Instruments, IBM, and TSMC.