182 relations: Acetonitrile, Acrylonitrile, Activated carbon, Adenosine triphosphate, Adiponitrile, Adsorption, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Algae, Almond, Amine, Ammonia, Amyl nitrite, Andrussow process, Angewandte Chemie, Anticaking agent, Apple, Apricot, Aquarium, Arsenic, Asthma, Bacteria, Ball-and-stick model, Benzidine, Blood pressure, Blueprint, Bluing (fabric), Bronchitis, Bronze sculpture, California, Calomel, Capital punishment, Carbamoyl phosphate, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Carboxylic acid, Cassava, Catalysis, Cathariostachys madagascariensis, Cellular respiration, Central nervous system, Chemical compound, Chloride, Chloromethane, Clinical chemistry, Cobalamin, Common brushtail possum in New Zealand, Concise International Chemical Assessment Document, Copper, Copper(I) cyanide, Coral reef, ..., Covalent bond, Coyote, CRC Press, Cyanide poisoning, Cyano radical, Cyanocobalamin, Cyanogen, Cyanohydrin, Cyanotype, Cysteine, Cytochrome c, Cytochrome c oxidase, Diabetes mellitus, Diethyl ether, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Electron transport chain, Electroplating, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Exhaust gas, Extermination camp, Ferric, Fluorescence, Fumigation, Functional group, Fungus, Gas chamber, Glycoside, Gold, Gold cyanidation, Golden bamboo lemur, Halide, Heart, Hemoglobin, Herbivore, Histotoxic hypoxia, Hydrocyanation, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogenase, Hydrolysis, Hydroxocobalamin, Insecticide, Internal combustion engine, Ion, Iron, Iron(II) sulfate, Isoelectronicity, IUPAC books, IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, Japan, Jewellery, Ketone bodies, Kiwi, Leprosy, Ligand, List of gold mining disasters, Lithium aluminium hydride, Los Angeles, M44 (cyanide device), Macmillan Publishers (United States), Madagascar, Methane, Methemoglobin, Methyl group, Mineral acid, Mining, Mitochondrion, Nernst equation, New Zealand, Nitrile, Nitrite, Nitrogen, Noble metal, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic substitution, Nylon, Organic compound, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Parts-per notation, Peach, Phenol, Photographic print toning, Photography, Phytochemistry (journal), Plastic, Platinum, Polyurethane, Potassium cyanide, Potassium ferrocyanide, Potato, Prussian blue, Pyrite, Pyrolysis, Redox, Reference electrode, Reflux, Rhodanese, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Saturated calomel electrode, Silver, Sodium cyanide, Sodium ferrocyanide, Sodium fusion test, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium nitrite, Sodium nitroprusside, Sodium thiosulfate, Sugar, Synthon, Tailings, Tammar wallaby, Tapioca, The Holocaust, Thiocyanate, Tobacco, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Transition metal, Trimethylsilyl cyanide, Triple bond, Tuberculosis, Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, University of Southern California, Urine, Vasodilation, Vitamin B12, World War I, Zinc, Zyklon B, 1,4-Benzoquinone. Expand index (132 more) » « Shrink index
Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
Acrylonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCN.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adiponitrile is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)4(CN)2.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amyl nitrite is a chemical compound with the formula C5H11ONO.
The Andrussow process is an industrial process for the production of hydrogen cyanide from methane and ammonia in the presence of oxygen and a platinum catalyst.
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
An anticaking agent is an additive placed in powdered or granulated materials, such as table salt or confectionaries to prevent the formation of lumps (caking) and for easing packaging, transport, and consumption.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
In chemistry, the ball-and-stick model is a molecular model of a chemical substance which is to display both the three-dimensional position of the atoms and the bonds between them.
Benzidine (trivial name), also called 1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (systematic name), is an organic compound with the formula (C6H4NH2)2.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing, an architectural plan, or an engineering design, using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets.
Bluing, laundry blue, dolly blue or washing blue is a household product used to improve the appearance of textiles, especially white fabrics.
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze".
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Calomel is a mercury chloride mineral with formula (Hg2)2+Cl2 (see mercury(I) chloride).
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
Carbamoyl phosphate is an anion of biochemical significance.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cathariostachys madagascariensis, the Madagascar giant bamboo or Volohosy in Malagasy language, is a bamboo species found in Madagascar.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chloromethane, also called methyl chloride, Refrigerant-40, R-40 or HCC 40, is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes.
Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Cobalamin (Cbl) is a general term that is referred to a number of compounds, that have cobalt ion in the middle, hence the name of the compound.
The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is a major agricultural and conservation pest in New Zealand.
Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICADs) are published by the World Health Organization within the framework of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS).
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper(I) cyanide is an inorganic compound with the formula CuCN.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Cyanide poisoning is poisoning that results from exposure to a number of forms of cyanide.
The cyanido radical (cyano is the old nomenclature) is a radical with molecular formula ·CN.
Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of 12.
Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2.
A cyanohydrin is a functional group found in organic compounds in which a cyano and a hydroxy group are attached to the same carbon atom.
Cyanotype is a photographic printing process that produces a cyan-blue print.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
The cytochrome complex, or cyt c is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase or Complex IV, is a large transmembrane protein complex found in bacteria, archaea, and in eukaryotes in their mitochondria.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Ferric refers to iron-containing materials or compounds.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides—or fumigants—to suffocate or poison the pests within.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or other animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced.
In chemistry, a glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gold cyanidation (also known as the cyanide process or the MacArthur-Forrest process) is a hydrometallurgical technique for extracting gold from low-grade ore by converting the gold to a water-soluble coordination complex.
The golden bamboo lemur (Hapalemur aureus, Malagasy bokombolomena) is a medium-sized bamboo lemur endemic to south-eastern Madagascar.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Histotoxic hypoxia (also called histoxic hypoxia) is the inability of cells to take up or use oxygen from the bloodstream, despite physiologically normal delivery of oxygen to such cells and tissues.
Hydrocyanation is, most fundamentally, the process whereby H+ and –CN ions are added to a molecular substrate.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
A hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2), as shown below: Hydrogen uptake is coupled to the reduction of electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and fumarate.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxocobalamin, also known as vitamin B12a and hydroxycobalamin, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
Isoelectronicity is the phenomenon of two or more chemical species (atoms, molecules, radicals, ions etc.) differing in the atoms that comprise them but having the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (that is, the same number of atoms with the same connectivity).
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry publishes many books, which contain its complete list of definitions.
In chemical nomenclature, the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Kiwi or kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
This is a list of gold mining disasters resulting from dam failure, cyanide leaking into the environment and inappropriate toxic waste discharge related to gold mining using the gold cyanidation technique.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The M44 cyanide device (also called a 'cyanide gun' or a 'cyanide trap') is used for the elimination of coyotes, feral dogs, and foxes.
Macmillan Publishers USA was the former name of a now mostly defunct American publishing company.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methemoglobin (English: methaemoglobin) (pronounced "met-hemoglobin") is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein hemoglobin, in which the iron in the heme group is in the Fe3+ (ferric) state, not the Fe2+ (ferrous) of normal hemoglobin.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is an acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of an electrochemical reaction (half-cell or full cell reaction) to the standard electrode potential, temperature, and activities (often approximated by concentrations) of the chemical species undergoing reduction and oxidation.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
In photography, toning is a method of changing the color of black-and-white photographs.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
Phytochemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering pure and applied plant chemistry, plant biochemistry and molecular biology.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Potassium cyanide is a compound with the formula KCN.
Potassium ferrocyanide is the inorganic compound with formula K4·3H2O.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Prussian blue is a dark blue pigment produced by oxidation of ferrous ferrocyanide salts.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reference electrode is an electrode which has a stable and well-known electrode potential.
Reflux is a technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated.
Rhodanese, also known as rhodanase, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, thiosulfate cyanide transsulfurase, and thiosulfate thiotransferase, is a mitochondrial enzyme that detoxifies cyanide (CN−) by converting it to thiocyanate (SCN−).
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
The Saturated calomel electrode (SCE) is a reference electrode based on the reaction between elemental mercury and mercury(I) chloride.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Sodium cyanide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaCN.
Sodium ferrocyanide is the sodium salt of the coordination compound of formula 4−.
The sodium fusion test, or Lassaigne's test, is used in elemental analysis for the qualitative determination of the presence of foreign elements, namely halogens, nitrogen, and sulphur, in an organic compound.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium nitrite is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2.
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), sold under the brand name Nitropress among others, is a medication used to lower blood pressure.
Sodium thiosulfate (sodium thiosulphate) is a chemical and medication.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
In retrosynthetic analysis, a synthon is a destructural unit within a molecule which is related to a possible synthetic operation.
Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens, terra-cone (terrikon), are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.
The tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), also known as the dama wallaby or darma wallaby, is a small macropod native to South and Western Australia.
Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava root (Manihot esculenta).
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology is a scientific journal for original research pertaining to action of chemicals, drugs, or natural products to animals or humans.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Trimethylsilyl cyanide is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)3SiCN.
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.
The University of Southern California (USC or SC) is a private research university in Los Angeles, California.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zyklon B (translated Cyclone B) was the trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s.
1,4-Benzoquinone, commonly known as para-quinone, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H4O2.