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Index Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen. [1]

225 relations: Accretion (geology), Aerobic organism, Akinete, Algae, Algae fuel, Algal bloom, Algenol, Ammonia, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Anabaena, Anaerobic organism, Anatoxin-a, Anatoxin-a(S), Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper, Anoxygenic photosynthesis, Antarctic, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Aplysiatoxin, Archaea, Archaeplastida, Archean, Azolla, Édouard Chatton, Bacteria, Bacterial circadian rhythm, Bacterial gliding, Bacterial phyla, Beggiatoa, Beta-Methylamino-L-alanine, Bicarbonate, Bioavailability, Biodiesel, Bioelectrogenesis, Biofertilizer, Biofilm, Black band disease, Calcium carbonate, Calcium hypochlorite, Calothrix, Cambridge University Press, Camouflage, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, Carbonic anhydrase, Carboxysome, Carotenoid, Cell (biology), Cell wall, Cellular respiration, ..., Chara (alga), Chlorophyll b, Chloroplast, Chroococcales, Chroococcidiopsis, Circadian rhythm, Colony (biology), Copper(II) sulfate, Coral, Cyanobiont, Cyanothece, Cyanotoxin, Cylindrospermopsin, Cytotoxicity, Desert, Diatom, Diazotroph, Diesel fuel, DNA sequencing, Domoic acid, Drinking water, Electron, Electron transport chain, Endolith, Endosymbiont, Epiphyte, Ernst Haeckel, Erosion, Etioplast, Eukaryote, Eutrophication, Fabaceae, Filamentation, Flagellum, Flowering plant, Fresh water, Fungus, Gas vesicle, Gasoline, Genome, Genomics, Geological history of oxygen, Glaucophyte, Global warming, Gloeobacter, Great Oxygenation Event, Green algae, Green sulfur bacteria, Gunflintia, Gunnera, Harmful algal bloom, Hepatotoxicity, Heterocyst, Heterotroph, Hormogonium, Host (biology), Huronian glaciation, Hydrogen sulfide, Hypolith, Icosahedron, Incertae sedis, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, Jet fuel, Konstantin Mereschkowski, Leucoplast, Lichen, Light-dependent reactions, Light-harvesting complex, Light-independent reactions, Lipid bilayer, Lipopolysaccharide, Lynn Margulis, Marine bacteriophage, Marine biology, Mascoma Lake, Matryoshka doll, Methane, Microalgae, Microbial mat, Microcystin, Microcystis, Microorganism, Monera, Monophyly, Morphology (biology), Neosaxitoxin, Neurotoxin, New Scientist, Nick Lane, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nitrate, Nitrite, Nitrogen, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogenase, Nodularia, Nodularin, Nostoc punctiforme, Nostocales, Ocean, Oncolite, Organelle, Organic compound, Oscillatoria, Oscillatoriales, Oxygen, Oxygen cycle, Ozarkcollenia, Paddy field, Parasitism, Peltigera, Photic zone, Photosynthesis, Photosystem, Phototroph, Phototrophic biofilm, Phycobiliprotein, Phycobilisome, Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Phytoplankton, Plankton, Plant, Plastid, Pleurocapsales, Polysaccharide, Precambrian, Prochloraceae, Prochlorococcus, Prochloron, Prochlorophyta, Prokaryote, Proterozoic, Protist, Pteridophyte, Purple bacteria, Purple sulfur bacteria, Red algae, Redox, Reducing atmosphere, Renewable energy, Rhizaria, Rivulariaceae, Roger Stanier, RuBisCO, Saxitoxin, Sedimentary structures, Shark Bay, Simazine, Sloth, Soil crust, Spirulina (dietary supplement), Spirulinales, Sponge, Stromatolite, Structure, Substrate channeling, Succinate dehydrogenase, Sunlight, Symbiogenesis, Symbiosis, Synechococcales, Synechocystis, Terrabacteria, Thylakoid, Toxicity, Unicellular organism, University of California, Berkeley, Viridiplantae, Water treatment, Wolfram Demonstrations Project, Yeast. Expand index (175 more) »

Accretion (geology)

Accretion, in geology, is a process by which material is added to a tectonic plate or a landmass.

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Aerobic organism

An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.

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An akinete is an enveloped, thick-walled, non-motile, dormant cell formed by filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria under the order Nostocales and Stigonematales.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Algae fuel

Algae fuel, algal biofuel, or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils.

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Algal bloom

An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.

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Algenol, founded in 2006, headquartered in Fort Myers, Florida, Algenol is an industrial biotechnology company that is commercializing patented algae technology for production of ethanol and other fuels.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.

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Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria that exist as plankton.

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Anaerobic organism

An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.

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Anatoxin-a, also known as Very Fast Death Factor (VFDF), is a secondary, bicyclic amine alkaloid and cyanotoxin with acute neurotoxicity.

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Anatoxin-a(S) "Salivary" is a naturally occurring cyanotoxin commonly isolated from cyanobacteria (specifically of the genus Anabaena) and causes excess salivation in mammals via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase.

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Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper

Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper (12 May 1856 – 9 September 1901) was a German botanist and phytogeographer who made major contributions in the fields of histology, ecology and plant geography.

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Anoxygenic photosynthesis

Bacterial anoxygenic photosynthesis is distinguished from the more familiar terrestrial plant oxygenic photosynthesis by the nature of the terminal reductant (e.g. hydrogen sulfide rather than water) and in the byproduct generated (e.g. elemental sulfur instead of molecular oxygen).

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The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.

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Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is a brackish and freshwater species of cyanobacteria found around the world, including the Baltic Sea and the Great Lakes.

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Aplysiatoxin is a cyanotoxin produced by certain cyanobacteria species.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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The Archaeplastida (or kingdom Plantae sensu lato) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae, and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes.

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The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).

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Azolla (mosquito fern, duckweed fern, fairy moss, water fern) is a genus of seven species of aquatic ferns in the family Salviniaceae.

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Édouard Chatton

Édouard Chatton (11 October 1883 – 23 April 1947, Banyuls-sur-Mer) was a French biologist who first characterized the distinction between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems of cellular organization.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacterial circadian rhythm

Bacterial circadian rhythms, like other circadian rhythms, are endogenous "biological clocks" that have the following three characteristics: (a) in constant conditions (i.e. constant temperature and either constant light or constant darkness) they oscillate with a period that is close to, but not exactly, 24 hours in duration, (b) this "free-running" rhythm is temperature compensated, and (c) the rhythm will entrain to an appropriate environmental cycle.

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Bacterial gliding

Bacterial gliding is a process of motility whereby a bacterium can move under its own power.

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Bacterial phyla

The bacterial phyla are the major lineages, known as phyla or divisions, of the domain Bacteria.

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Beggiatoa is a genus of bacteria in the order Thiotrichales.

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β-Methylamino-L-alanine, or BMAA, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria.

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In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.

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In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.

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Bioelectrogenesis is the generation of electricity by living organisms, a phenomenon that belongs to the science of electrophysiology.

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A bio fertilizer (also bio-fertilizer) is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seeds, plant surfaces, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant.

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A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.

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Black band disease

Black band disease is a coral disease in which corals develop a black band.

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Calcium hypochlorite

Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula2.

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Calothrix is a genus of cyanobacteria.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.

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Carbonic anhydrase

The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).

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Carboxysomes are bacterial compartments consisting of polyhedral protein shells filled with the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) -the predominant enzyme in carbon fixation and the rate limiting enzyme in the Calvin Cycle-and a carbonic anhydrase.

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Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell wall

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Chara (alga)

Chara is a genus of charophyte green algae in the family Characeae.

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Chlorophyll b

Chlorophyll b is a form of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll b helps in photosynthesis by absorbing light energy. It is more soluble than chlorophyll ''a'' in polar solvents because of its carbonyl group. Its color is yellow, and it primarily absorbs blue light. In land plants, the light-harvesting antennae around photosystem II contain the majority of chlorophyll b. Hence, in shade-adapted chloroplasts, which have an increased ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I, there is a higher ratio of chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a. This is adaptive, as increasing chlorophyll b increases the range of wavelengths absorbed by the shade chloroplasts.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.

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The Chroococcales are an order of cyanobacteria in some classifications which includes the harmful algal bloom Microcystis aeruginosa.

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Chroococcidiopsis is one of the most primitive cyanobacteria known.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Colony (biology)

In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.

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Copper(II) sulfate

Copper(II) sulfate, also known as cupric sulfate, or copper sulphate, is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Cyanobionts are cyanobacteria that live in symbiosis with a wide range of organisms such as terrestrial or aquatic plants; as well as, algal and fungal species.

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Cyanothece is a genus of unicellular, diazotrophic, oxygenic photosynthesizing cyanobacteria.

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Cyanotoxins are toxins produced by bacteria called cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae).

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Cylindrospermopsin (abbreviated to CYN, or CYL) is a cyanotoxin produced by a variety of freshwater cyanobacteria.

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Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

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A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.

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Diazotrophs are bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Domoic acid

Domoic acid (DA) is a kainic acid analog neurotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP).

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Drinking water

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron transport chain

An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.

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An endolith is an organism (archaeon, bacterium, fungus, lichen, algae or amoeba) that lives inside rock, coral, animal shells, or in the pores between mineral grains of a rock.

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An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.

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An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it.

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Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

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In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).

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Etioplasts are chloroplasts that have not been exposed to light.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.

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The Fabaceae or Leguminosae, Article 18.5 states: "The following names, of long usage, are treated as validly published:....Leguminosae (nom. alt.: Fabaceae; type: Faba Mill.);...

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Filamentation is the anomalous growth of certain bacteria, such as E. coli, in which cells continue to elongate but do not divide (no septa formation).

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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gas vesicle

Gas vesicles are components of the gas vacuole in certain prokaryotic organisms.

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Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.

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Geological history of oxygen

Before photosynthesis evolved, Earth's atmosphere had no free oxygen (O2).

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The glaucophytes, also known as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a small group of rare freshwater microscopic algae.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Gloeobacter is a genus of cyanobacteria.

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Great Oxygenation Event

The Great Oxygenation Event, the beginning of which is commonly known in scientific media as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation) was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere.

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Green algae

The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.

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Green sulfur bacteria

The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria.

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Gunflintia is an extinct genus of cyanobacteria that once existed in what is now Canada and Australia.

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Gunnera is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants.

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Harmful algal bloom

A harmful algal bloom (HAB) are organisms that can severely lower oxygen levels in natural waters, killing marine life.

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Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.

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Heterocysts are specialized nitrogen-fixing cells formed during nitrogen starvation by some filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc punctiforme, Cylindrospermum, and Anabaena sphaerica.

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A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.

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Hormogonia are motile filaments of cells formed by some cyanobacteria in the order Nostocales and Stigonematales.

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Host (biology)

In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.

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Huronian glaciation

The Huronian glaciation (or Makganyene glaciation) was a glaciation that extended from 2.4 billion years ago (Ga) to 2.1 Ga, during the Siderian and Rhyacian periods of the Paleoproterozoic era.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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In Arctic and Antarctic ecology, a hypolith is a photosynthetic organism, and an extremophile, that lives underneath rocks in climatically extreme deserts such as Cornwallis Island and Devon Island in the Canadian high Arctic.

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In geometry, an icosahedron is a polyhedron with 20 faces.

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Incertae sedis

Incertae sedis (Latin for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.

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International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".

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International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes

The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) formerly the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) or Bacteriological Code (BC) governs the scientific names for Bacteria and Archaea.

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Jet fuel

Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.

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Konstantin Mereschkowski

Konstantin Sergeevich Mereschkowski (p; – 9 January 1921) was a prominent Russian biologist and botanist, active mainly around Kazan, whose research on lichens led him to propose the theory of symbiogenesis – that larger, more complex cells (of eukaryotes) evolved from the symbiotic relationship between less complex ones.

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Leucoplasts (λευκός leukós "white", πλαστός plastós "formed, molded") are a category of plastid and as such are organelles found in plant cells.

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A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.

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Light-dependent reactions

In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes.

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Light-harvesting complex

A light-harvesting complex has a complex of subunit proteins that may be part of a larger supercomplex of a photosystem, the functional unit in photosynthesis.

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Light-independent reactions

The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

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Lynn Margulis

Lynn Margulis (born Lynn Petra Alexander; March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist and biologist, science author, educator, and popularizer, and was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution.

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Marine bacteriophage

Marine bacteriophages or marine phages are viruses that live as obligate parasitic agents in marine bacteria such as cyanobacteria.

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Marine biology

Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.

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Mascoma Lake

Mascoma Lake is a lake in western New Hampshire, United States.

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Matryoshka doll

A matryoshka doll (a), also known as a Russian nesting doll, stacking dolls, or Russian doll, is a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one inside another.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Microalgae or microphytes are microscopic algae, typically found in freshwater and marine systems, living in both the water column and sediment.

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Microbial mat

A microbial mat is a multi-layered sheet of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and archaea.

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Microcystins — or cyanoginosins — are a class of toxins produced by certain freshwater cyanobacteria; primarily Microcystis aeruginosa but also other Microcystis, as well as members of the Planktothrix, Anabaena, Oscillatoria and Nostoc genera.

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Microcystis is a genus of freshwater cyanobacteria which includes the harmful algal bloom Microcystis aeruginosa.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Monera (Greek - μονήρης (monḗrēs), "single", "solitary") is a kingdom that contains unicellular organisms with a prokaryotic cell organization (having no nuclear membrane), such as bacteria.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Neosaxitoxin (NSTX) is included, as other saxitoxin-analogs, in a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs).

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Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Nick Lane

Nick Lane (born 1967) is a British biochemist and writer.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.

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Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.

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The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitrogen fixation

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.

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Nitrogenases are enzymes that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).

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Nodularia is a genus of filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae.

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Nodularins are potent toxins produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena.

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Nostoc punctiforme

Nostoc punctiforme is a species of filamentous cyanobacteria.

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The Nostocales are an order of cyanobacteria containing most of its species.

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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Oncolites are sedimentary structures composed of oncoids, which are layered structures formed by cyanobacterial growth.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous cyanobacterium which is named after the oscillation in its movement.

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The Oscillatoriales are an order of cyanobacteria.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxygen cycle

The oxygen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle of oxygen within its four main reservoirs: the atmosphere (air), the total content of biological matter within the biosphere (the global sum of all ecosystems), the hydrosphere (the combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of planet Earth), and the lithosphere/Earth's crust.

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Ozarkcollenia is an extinct genus of stromatolite-making cyanobacteria from Missouri, United States.

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Paddy field

A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic rice.

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Peltigera is a genus of approximately 91 species of foliose lichens in the family Peltigeraceae.

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Photic zone

The photic zone, euphotic zone (Greek for "well lit": εὖ "well" + φῶς "light"), or sunlight or (sunlit) zone is the uppermost layer of water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to intense sunlight.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Photosystems are functional and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis that together carry out the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis: the absorption of light and the transfer of energy and electrons.

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Phototrophs (Gr: φῶς, φωτός.

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Phototrophic biofilm

Phototrophic biofilms occur on contact surfaces in a range of terrestrial and aquatic environments.

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Phycobiliproteins are water-soluble proteins present in cyanobacteria and certain algae (rhodophytes, cryptomonads, glaucocystophytes) which capture light energy, which is then passed on to chlorophylls during photosynthesis.

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Phycobilisomes are light harvesting antennae of photosystem II in cyanobacteria, red algae and glaucophytes.

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Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, along with allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin.

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Phycoerythrin (PE) is a red protein-pigment complex from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, present in red algae and cryptophytes, accessory to the main chlorophyll pigments responsible for photosynthesis.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.

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Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.

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The Pleurocapsales are an order of cyanobacteria.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.

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The Prochloraceae are a family of cyanobacteria.

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Prochlorococcus is a genus of very small (0.6 µm) marine cyanobacteria with an unusual pigmentation (chlorophyll ''a2'' and ''b2'').

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Prochloron (from the Greek pro (before) and the Greek chloros (green)) is a unicellular oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryote commonly found as an extracellular symbiont on coral reefs, particularly in didemnid ascidians (sea squirts).

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Prochlorophyta is a group of photosynthetic bacteria, an important component of picoplankton.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.

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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).

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Purple bacteria

Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, that is, capable of producing their own food via photosynthesis.

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Purple sulfur bacteria

The purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) are part of a group of Proteobacteria capable of photosynthesis, collectively referred to as purple bacteria.

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Red algae

The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reducing atmosphere

A reducing atmosphere is an atmospheric condition in which oxidation is prevented by removal of oxygen and other oxidizing gases or vapours, and which may contain actively reducing gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and gases such as hydrogen sulphide that would be oxidized by any present oxygen.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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The Rhizaria are a species-rich supergroup of mostly unicellular eukaryotes.

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The Rivulariaceae are a family of cyanobacteria within the Nostocales in which the filaments (trichomes) are tapered from wider at the base to narrower at the tip.

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Roger Stanier

Roger Yate Stanier (22 October 1916 – 29 January 1982) was a Canadian microbiologist who was influential in the development of modern microbiology.

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Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, commonly known by the abbreviations RuBisCO, RuBPCase, or RuBPco, is an enzyme involved in the first major step of carbon fixation, a process by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to energy-rich molecules such as glucose.

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Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent neurotoxin and the best-known paralytic shellfish toxin (PST).

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Sedimentary structures

Sedimentary structures are those structures formed during sediment deposition.

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Shark Bay

Shark Bay is a World Heritage Site in the Gascoyne region of Western Australia.

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Simazine is an herbicide of the triazine class.

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Sloths are arboreal mammals noted for slowness of movement and for spending most of their lives hanging upside down in the trees of the tropical rainforests of South America and Central America.

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Soil crust

Soil crusts are soil surface layers that are distinct from the rest of the bulk soil, often hardened with a platy surface.

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Spirulina (dietary supplement)

Spirulina represents a biomass of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be consumed by humans and other animals.

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The Spirulinales are an order of cyanobacteria.

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Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

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Stromatolites or stromatoliths (from Greek στρῶμα strōma "layer, stratum" (GEN στρώματος strōmatos), and λίθος lithos "rock") are layered mounds, columns, and sheet-like sedimentary rocks that were originally formed by the growth of layer upon layer of cyanobacteria, a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe.

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Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.

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Substrate channeling

Substrate channeling is the passing of the intermediary metabolic product of one enzyme directly to another enzyme or active site without its release into solution.

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Succinate dehydrogenase

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in many bacterial cells and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes.

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Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.

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Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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The Synechococcales are an order of cyanobacteria, with over 70 genera.

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Synechocystis is a genus of unicellular, freshwater cyanobacteria primarily represented by the strain Synechocystis sp.

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Terrabacteria is a taxon containing approximately two-thirds (6,157 sp.) of prokaryote species, including those in the gram positive phyla (Actinobacteria and Firmicutes) as well as the phyla Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Deinococcus-Thermus.

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A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.

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Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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Unicellular organism

A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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Viridiplantae (literally "green plants") are a clade of eukaryotic organisms made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them.

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Water treatment

Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.

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Wolfram Demonstrations Project

The Wolfram Demonstrations Project is an organized, open-source collection of small (or medium-size) interactive programs called Demonstrations, which are meant to visually and interactively represent ideas from a range of fields.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria

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