268 relations: Action theory (sociology), Actor, Adaptation, Adaptive system, Affect control theory, AGIL paradigm, Aksel Berg, Alan Turing, Alfred Russel Wallace, American Society for Cybernetics, Ancient Greek, André-Marie Ampère, Andrey Kolmogorov, Anthropology, Anthroposphere, Architecture, Artificial intelligence, Artificial life, Artificial neural network, Arturo Rosenblueth, Attachment theory, Attractor, Automation, Autonomous agency theory, Autopoiesis, Behaviorism, Bell Labs, Benoit Mandelbrot, Biocybernetics, Biological engineering, Biology, Biomechatronics, Biomedical engineering, Bionics, Black box, Brain–computer interface, Brownian motion, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cascading failure, Causality, Cedric Price, Cellular automaton, Chaos theory, Charles François (systems scientist), Christopher Alexander, Cliff Joslyn, Climate, Climate engineering, Cognition, Cognitive psychology, ..., Communication, Complex adaptive system, Complex system, Computational complexity theory, Computer vision, Connectionism, Consciousness, Consensus decision-making, Control system, Control system (disambiguation), Control theory, Conversation theory, Ctesibius, Cyberethics, Cybernetic Serendipity, Cyberneticist, Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, Cyborg, Dartmouth workshop, Decision support system, Decision theory, Deming Prize, Design pattern, Dynamical system, Earth system science, Ecology, Economic planning, Edward A. Shanken, Effectiveness, Efficacy, Efficiency, Efficient energy use, Electrical engineering, Embodied cognition, Emergence, Emotion, Engineering, Engineering cybernetics, Epistemology, Ernst von Glasersfeld, Evolution, Evolutionarily stable strategy, Evolutionary biology, Ștefan Odobleja, Feedback, Felix Geyer, First Alcibiades, François Jacob, France, Francis Heylighen, Francisco Varela, Gaia hypothesis, Game theory, Gene, Gene regulatory network, Genetic memory (psychology), George Gamow, Global warming, Gordon Pask, Gordon S. Brown, Governance, Governor (device), Gregory Bateson, Hans van der Zouwen, Harold Stephen Black, Heinz von Foerster, Henri Atlan, Herbert Brün, Hero of Alexandria, Heterostasis (cybernetics), Homeostasis, Horst Rittel, Human factors and ergonomics, Human–robot interaction, Humberto Maturana, Hunter B. Shirley, Industrial ecology, Information theory, Intelligence amplification, Interactive art, Interconnectivity, Jacques Monod, Jakob von Uexküll, James Clerk Maxwell, James Watt, Jasia Reichardt, Jay Wright Forrester, Joan Littlewood, John von Neumann, Julian Bigelow, Karl U. Smith, Kenneth D. Bailey (sociologist), Kenneth E. Boulding, Klaus Krippendorff, L. Bruce Archer, Labeling theory, Larry Richards, Law, Learning, Learning organization, Legal science, Life, Logic, Louis Couffignal, Louis Kauffman, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Machine, Macy conferences, Management cybernetics, Management science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematical logic, Mechanical engineering, Mechatronics, Medical cybernetics, Meme, Memetics, Metamaterial, Mind–body problem, MIT Media Lab, MIT Press, MIT Sloan School of Management, Nancy, France, Negative feedback, Net.art, Network analysis (electrical circuits), Network theory, Neuropsychology, Neuroscience, Nicholas Negroponte, Nicolas Bourbaki, Nicolas Schöffer, Norbert Wiener, Ontology, Open-source governance, Operations research, Organism, Organization, Organizational theory, Outline of Earth sciences, Paul Cockshott, Peppered moth, Perceptual control theory, Philosophy, Planetary boundaries, Plato, Political science, Principia Cybernetica, Project Cybersyn, Psycho-Cybernetics, Psychology, Pyotr Anokhin, Qian Xuesen, Ranulph Glanville, Ratio Club, Regulation, Riot, Robotics, Role, Roy Ascott, Scientific American, Second-order cybernetics, Self-organization, Self-organization in cybernetics, Self-replication, Semiotics, Simulation, Simulation modeling, Smart contract, Smart mob, Social control, Social system, Socio-ecological system, Sociocybernetics, Sociology, Soviet Union, Stafford Beer, Structure, Stuart Umpleby, Su Song, Superorganism, Sustainability, Synergetics (Haken), Synthetic biology, System, System accident, System dynamics, Systemic design, Systems art, Systems biology, Systems engineering, Systems psychology, Systems theory, Szolem Mandelbrojt, Talcott Parsons, Technological convergence, Tektology, Telematic art, Teleology, The Human Use of Human Beings, Total quality management, Transdisciplinarity, United Kingdom, United States, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Variety (cybernetics), Viable system theory, Viable systems approach, Victor Glushkov, Von Neumann cellular automaton, Von Neumann universal constructor, W. Edwards Deming, W. Ross Ashby, Walter Pitts, Warren Sturgis McCulloch, Water clock, William Grey Walter, World War II. Expand index (218 more) » « Shrink index
In sociology, action theory is the theory of social action presented by the American theorist Talcott Parsons.
An actor (often actress for women; see terminology) is a person who portrays a character in a performance.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
An adaptive system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole that together are able to respond to environmental changes or changes in the interacting parts, in a way analogous to either continuous physiological homeostasis or evolutionary adaptation in biology.
In control theory, affect control theory proposes that individuals maintain affective meanings through their actions and interpretations of events.
The AGIL paradigm is a sociological scheme created by American sociologist Talcott Parsons in the 1950s.
Aksel Ivanovich Berg (Orenburg 1893 – Moscow 1979) was a Soviet scientist and Navy Admiral (in Engineering).
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was an English naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist.
The American Society for Cybernetics (ASC) is an American non-profit scholastic organization for the advancement of cybernetics as a science and the interdisciplinary collaboration and synthesis of cybernetics.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
André-Marie Ampère (20 January 177510 June 1836) was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics".
Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (a, 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
The anthroposphere (sometimes also referred as technosphere) is that part of the environment that is made or modified by humans for use in human activities and human habitats.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study wherein researchers examine systems related to natural life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.
Arturo Rosenblueth Stearns (October 2, 1900 – September 20, 1970) was a Mexican researcher, physician and physiologist, who is known as one of the pioneers of cybernetics.
Attachment theory is a psychological model that attempts to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans.
In the mathematical field of dynamical systems, an attractor is a set of numerical values toward which a system tends to evolve, for a wide variety of starting conditions of the system.
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.
Autonomous agency theory (AAT) is a viable system theory (VST) which models autonomous social complex adaptive systems.
The term autopoiesis refers to a system capable of reproducing and maintaining itself.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
Benoit B.  Mandelbrot  (20 November 1924 – 14 October 2010) was a Polish-born, French and American mathematician and polymath with broad interests in the practical sciences, especially regarding what he labeled as "the art of roughness" of physical phenomena and "the uncontrolled element in life".
Biocybernetics is the application of cybernetics to biological science, composed of biological disciplines that benefit from the application of cybernetics including neurology and multicellular systems.
Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomechatronics is an applied interdisciplinary science that aims to integrate biology, mechanics, and electronics.
Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic).
Bionics or Biologically inspired engineering is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.
In science, computing, and engineering, a black box is a device, system or object which can be viewed in terms of its inputs and outputs (or transfer characteristics), without any knowledge of its internal workings.
A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.
Brownian motion or pedesis (from πήδησις "leaping") is the random motion of particles suspended in a fluid (a liquid or a gas) resulting from their collision with the fast-moving molecules in the fluid.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
A cascading failure is a process in a system of interconnected parts in which the failure of one or few parts can trigger the failure of other parts and so on.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Cedric Price FRIBA (11 September 1934 – 10 August 2003) was an English architect and influential teacher and writer on architecture.
A cellular automaton (pl. cellular automata, abbrev. CA) is a discrete model studied in computer science, mathematics, physics, complexity science, theoretical biology and microstructure modeling.
Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.
Charles François (born September 5, 1922), is a Belgian administrator, editor and scientist in the fields of cybernetics, systems theory and systems science, internationally known for his main work the International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics.
Christopher Wolfgang Alexander (born 4 October 1936 in Vienna, Austria) is a widely influential architect and design theorist, and currently emeritus professor at the University of California, Berkeley.
Cliff Joslyn (born 1963) is an American cognitive scientist, cyberneticist, and currently Chief Scientist for Knowledge Sciences at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Seattle, Washington, USA.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climate engineering or climate intervention, commonly referred to as geoengineering, is the deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system, usually with the aim of mitigating the adverse effects of global warming.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
A complex adaptive system is a system in which a perfect understanding of the individual parts does not automatically convey a perfect understanding of the whole system's behavior.
A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.
Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.
Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
Connectionism is an approach in the fields of cognitive science, that hopes to represent mental phenomena using artificial neural networks.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.
A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.
A control system is a device or set of devices to manage, command, invade, record, edit, hack, direct or regulate the behavior of other devices or systems.
Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.
Conversation theory is a cybernetic and dialectic framework that offers a scientific theory to explain how interactions lead to "construction of knowledge", or "knowing": wishing to preserve both the dynamic/kinetic quality, and the necessity for there to be a "knower".
Ctesibius or Ktesibios or Tesibius (Κτησίβιος; fl. 285–222 BC) was a Greek inventor and mathematician in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt.
Cyberethics is the philosophic study of ethics pertaining to computers, encompassing user behavior and what computers are programmed to do, and how this affects individuals and society.
Cybernetic Serendipity was an exhibition of cybernetic art curated by Jasia Reichardt, shown at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London in 1968, and then touring the United States.
A cyberneticist or a cybernetician is a person who practices cybernetics.
Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine is a book written by Norbert Wiener and published in 1948.
A cyborg (short for "'''cyb'''ernetic '''org'''anism") is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts.
The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence was the name of a 1956 summer workshop now considered by many (though not all) to be the seminal event for artificial intelligence as a field.
A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities.
Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.
The Deming Prize is one of the highest awards on TQM (Total Quality Management) in the world that recognizes both individuals for their contributions to the field of Total Quality Management (TQM) and businesses that have successfully implemented TQM.
A design pattern is the re-usable form of a solution to a design problem.
In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.
Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth sciences.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Economic planning is a mechanism for the allocation of resources between and within organizations which is held in contrast to the market mechanism.
Edward A. Shanken (born 1964) is an American art historian, whose work focuses on the entwinement of art, science and technology, with a focus on experimental new media art and visual culture.
Effectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result or the ability to produce desired output.
Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.
Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result.
Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of the entire body of the organism.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Engineering cybernetics or technical cybernetics, established by H.S. Tsien, is a field of cybernetics, which deals with the question of control engineering of mechatronic systems as well as chemical or biological systems.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ernst von Glasersfeld (March 8, 1917 in Munich – November 12, 2010 in Leverett, Franklin County, Massachusetts) was a philosopher, and emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Georgia, research associate at the Scientific Reasoning Research Institute, and adjunct professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
An evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a strategy which, if adopted by a population in a given environment, cannot be invaded by any alternative strategy that is initially rare.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Ştefan Odobleja (13 October 1902 – 4 September 1978) was a Romanian scientist considered to be one of the precursors of cybernetics.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
Rudolf Felix Geyer (born 13 October 1933) is a Dutch sociologist and cybernetician, former head of the methodology section of SISWO (Interuniversity Institute for Social Science Research) at the University of Amsterdam, known for his work in the fields of Social alienation, and on sociocybernetics.
The First Alcibiades or Alcibiades I (Ἀλκιβιάδης αʹ) is a dialogue featuring Alcibiades in conversation with Socrates.
François Jacob (17 June 1920 – 19 April 2013) was a French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme levels in all cells occurs through regulation of transcription.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Paul Heylighen (born 1960) is a Belgian cyberneticist investigating the emergence and evolution of intelligent organization.
Francisco Javier Varela García (September 7, 1946 – May 28, 2001) was a Chilean biologist, philosopher, and neuroscientist who, together with his teacher Humberto Maturana, is best known for introducing the concept of autopoiesis to biology, and for co-founding the Mind and Life Institute to promote dialog between science and Buddhism.
The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A gene (or genetic) regulatory network (GRN) is a collection of molecular regulators that interact with each other and with other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins.
In psychology, genetic memory is a memory present at birth that exists in the absence of sensory experience, and is incorporated into the genome over long spans of time.
George Gamow (March 4, 1904- August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov, was a Russian-American theoretical physicist and cosmologist.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Andrew Gordon Speedie Pask (28 June 1928 – 29 March 1996) was an English author, inventor, educational theorist, cybernetician and psychologist who made significant contributions to cybernetics, instructional psychology, experimental epistemology and educational technology.
Gordon Stanley Brown (August 30, 1907 in Australia – August 23, 1996 in Tucson, Arizona) was a professor of electrical engineering at MIT.
Governance is all of the processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, a market or a network, over a social system (family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) and whether through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society.
A governor, or speed limiter or controller, is a device used to measure and regulate the speed of a machine, such as an engine.
Gregory Bateson (9 May 1904 – 4 July 1980) was an English anthropologist, social scientist, linguist, visual anthropologist, semiotician, and cyberneticist whose work intersected that of many other fields.
Johannes (Hans) van der Zouwen (born 1939) is a Dutch sociologist, and Emeritus Professor of Social Research Methodology at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, known for his pioneering work with Felix Geyer in the field of sociocybernetics.
Harold Stephen Black (April 14, 1898 – December 11, 1983) was an American electrical engineer, who revolutionized the field of applied electronics by inventing the negative feedback amplifier in 1927.
Heinz von Foerster (German spelling: Heinz von Förster; November 13, 1911, Vienna – October 2, 2002, Pescadero, California) was an Austrian American scientist combining physics and philosophy, and widely attributed as the originator of Second-order cybernetics.
Henri Atlan (born 27 December 1931 in Blida, French Algeria) is a French biophysicist and philosopher.
Herbert Brün (July 9, 1918 – November 6, 2000) was a composer and pioneer of electronic and computer music.
Hero of Alexandria (ἭρωνGenitive: Ἥρωνος., Heron ho Alexandreus; also known as Heron of Alexandria; c. 10 AD – c. 70 AD) was a mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria, Roman Egypt.
Heterostasis is a medical term.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Horst Willhelm Jakob Rittel (14 July 1930 – 9 July 1990) was a design theorist and university professor.
Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems.
Human–robot interaction is the study of interactions between humans and robots.
Humberto Maturana (born September 14, 1928, in Santiago, Chile) is a Chilean biologist.
Hunter B. Shirley (December 25, 1927 – November 1, 2010) born Hunter Barentine Shirley, was a longtime licensed clinical psychologist and a former Associate Professor at Wisconsin State University where he headed a psychological research laboratory devoted to evaluating the world's first analog model of the mind.
Industrial ecology (IE) is the study of material and energy flows through industrial systems.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
Intelligence amplification (IA) (also referred to as cognitive augmentation and machine augmented intelligence) refers to the effective use of information technology in augmenting human intelligence.
Interactive art is a form of art that involves the spectator in a way that allows the art to achieve its purpose.
Interconnectivity refers to the state or quality of being connected together, or to the potential to connect in an easy and effective way.
Jacques Lucien Monod (February 9, 1910 – May 31, 1976), a French biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965, sharing it with François Jacob and Andre Lwoff "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis".
Jakob Johann Baron von Uexküll (8 September 1864 – 25 July 1944) was a Baltic German biologist who worked in the fields of muscular physiology, animal behaviour studies, and the cybernetics of life.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
Jasia Reichardt (born 1933) is a British art critic, curator, and writer.
Jay Wright Forrester (July 14, 1918 – November 16, 2016) was a pioneering American computer engineer and systems scientist.
Joan Maud Littlewood (6 October 1914 – 20 September 2002) was an English theatre director, who trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts, and is best known for her work in developing the Theatre Workshop.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
Julian Bigelow (March 19, 1913 – February 17, 2003) was a pioneering American computer engineer.
Karl Ulrich Smith (born 1 May 1907 in Zanesville, Ohio, d. 22 June 1994 in Lake Wales, Florida) was an American physiologist, psychologist and behavioral cybernetician.
Kenneth D. Bailey (born 1943) is an American sociologist, systems scientist and professor of sociology at the University of California in Los Angeles.
Kenneth Ewart Boulding (January 18, 1910 – March 18, 1993) was an English-born American economist, educator, peace activist, and interdisciplinary philosopher.
Klaus Krippendorff (born 1932) is the Gregory Bateson professor for Cybernetics, Language, and Culture at the University of Pennsylvania's Annenberg School for Communication.
Leonard Bruce Archer CBE (22 November 1922 – 16 May 2005) was a British mechanical engineer and later Professor of Design Research at the Royal College of Art who championed research in design, and helped to establish design as an academic discipline.
Labeling theory is the theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them.
Laurence Dale Richards (born 1946) was a key figure in the modern development (since 1981) of cybernetics as a transdisciplinary field of inquiry, often referred to as the new cybernetics.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
In business management, a learning organization is a company that facilitates the learning of its members and continuously transforms itself.
Legal science is one of the main components in the civil law tradition (after Roman law, canon law, commercial law, and the legacy of the revolutionary period).
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Louis Pierre Couffignal (16 March 1902 – 4 July 1966) was a French mathematician and cybernetics pioneer, born in Monflanquin.
Louis Hirsch Kauffman (born February 3, 1945) is an American mathematician, topologist, and professor of Mathematics in the Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer science at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Karl Ludwig von Bertalanffy (19 September 1901 – 12 June 1972) was an Austrian biologist known as one of the founders of general systems theory (GST).
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
The Macy Conferences were a set of meetings of scholars from various disciplines held in New York under the direction of Frank Fremont-Smith at the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation starting in 1941 and ending in 1960.
Management cybernetics is the application of cybernetics to management and organizations.
Management science (MS), is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management, economics, business, engineering, management consulting, and other sciences.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems.
Mechatronics is a multidisciplinary field of science that includes a combination of mechanical engineering, electronics, computer engineering, telecommunications engineering, systems engineering and control engineering.
Medical cybernetics is a branch of cybernetics which has been heavily affected by the development of the computer, which applies the concepts of cybernetics to medical research and practice.
A meme is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture—often with the aim of conveying a particular phenomenon, theme, or meaning represented by the meme.
Memetics is the study of information and culture based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution.
A metamaterial (from the Greek word μετά meta, meaning "beyond") is a material engineered to have a property that is not found in nature.
The mind–body problem is a philosophical problem concerning the relationship between the human mind and body, although it can also concern animal minds, if any, and animal bodies.
The MIT Media Lab is an antidisciplinary research laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, growing out of MIT's Architecture Machine Group in the School of Architecture.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
The MIT Sloan School of Management (also known as MIT Sloan or Sloan) is the business school of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Nancy (Nanzig) is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
net.art refers to a group of artists who have worked in the medium of Internet art since 1994.
A network, in the context of electronics, is a collection of interconnected components.
Network theory is the study of graphs as a representation of either symmetric relations or asymmetric relations between discrete objects.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
Nicholas Negroponte (born December 1, 1943) is a Greek American architect.
Nicolas Bourbaki is the collective pseudonym under which a group of (mainly French) 20th-century mathematicians, with the aim of reformulating mathematics on an extremely abstract and formal but self-contained basis, wrote a series of books beginning in 1935.
Nicolas Schöffer (Schöffer Miklós; 6 September 1912 — 8 January 1992) was a Hungarian-born French cybernetic artist.
Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician and philosopher.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Open-source governance (also known as open politics) is a political philosophy which advocates the application of the philosophies of the open-source and open-content movements to democratic principles to enable any interested citizen to add to the creation of policy, as with a wiki document.
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.
Organizational theory consists of approaches to organizational analysis.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Earth science: Earth science – all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.
William Paul Cockshott (born 16 March 1952 in Edinburgh) is a Scottish computer scientist, economist and a reader at the University of Glasgow.
The peppered moth (Biston betularia) is a temperate species of night-flying moth.
Perceptual control theory (PCT) is a model of behavior based on the principles of negative feedback, but differing in important respects from engineering control theory.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Planetary boundaries is a concept of nine Earth system processes which have boundaries proposed in 2009 by a group of Earth system and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Principia Cybernetica is an international cooperation of scientists in the field of cybernetics and systems science, especially known for their Principia Cybernetica Website.
Project Cybersyn was a Chilean project from 1971–1973 during the presidency of Salvador Allende aimed at constructing a distributed decision support system to aid in the management of the national economy.
Psycho-Cybernetics is a self-help book written by Maxwell Maltz in 1960.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Pyotr Kuzmich Anokhin (Пётр Кузьми́ч Ано́хин) (January 26, 1898 – March 5, 1974) was a Russian biologist and physiologist, author of Theory of functional systems and concept of systemogenesis.
Qian Xuesen, or Hsue-Shen Tsien (11 December 1911 – 31 October 2009), was a prominent Chinese aerodynamicist and cyberneticist who contributed to rocket science and established engineering cybernetics.
Ranulph Glanville (13 June 1946 – 20 December 2014) was an Anglo-Irish cybernetician, design researcher, theorist, educator and multi-platform artist/designer/performer, who was professor of research in Innovation Design Engineering at the Royal College of Art, London, professor of research design in the Faculty of Architecture Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, and adjunct professor of design research at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne.
The Ratio Club was a small informal dining club of young psychiatrists, psychologists, physiologists, mathematicians and engineers who met to discuss issues in cybernetics.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.
A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviors, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation.
Roy Ascott (born 26 October 1934) is a British artist, who works with cybernetics and telematics, on an art which is technoetic, focusing on the impact of digital and telecommunications networks on consciousness. Ascott exhibits internationally (including the Biennales of Venice and Shanghai), and is collected by Tate Britain and Arts Council England. He is recognised by Ars Electronica as the “visionary pioneer of media art”, and widely seen as a radical innovator in arts education and research, having occupied leading academic roles in England, Europe, North America, and China, and currently establishing his Technoetic Arts studio in Shanghai, and directing a worldwide doctoral research network. He is President of the Planetary Collegium, Professor of Technoetic Arts Plymouth University, and the De Tao Master of Technoetic Arts at the DeTao Masters Academy in Shanghai. He is the founding editor of the research journal Technoetic Arts, an honorary editor of Leonardo Journal, and author of the book Telematic Embrace: Visionary Theories of Art, Technology and Consciousness. University of California Press He is recipient of the Prix Ars Electronica Golden Nica award for Visionary Pioneer of Media Art 2014. The award is for “those men and women whose artistic, technological and social achievements have decisively influenced and advanced the development of new artistic directions.” He is a Doctor Honoris Causa of Ionian University, Corfu, Greece; Honorary Professor at Aalborg University Copenhagen; Honorary Professor at University of West London.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Second-order cybernetics, also known as the cybernetics of cybernetics, is the recursive application of cybernetics to itself.
Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.
Self-organization, a process where some form of overall order arises out of the local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system, was discovered in cybernetics by William Ross Ashby in 1947.
Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
Simulation modeling is the process of creating and analyzing a digital prototype of a physical model to predict its performance in the real world.
A smart contract is a computer protocol intended to digitally facilitate, verify, or enforce the negotiation or performance of a contract.
A smart mob is a group whose coordination and communication abilities have been empowered by digital communication technologies.
Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.
In sociology, a social system is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coherent whole that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions.
A social-ecological system consists of 'a bio-geo-physical' unit and its associated social actors and institutions.
Sociocybernetics is an independent chapter of science in sociology based upon the general systems theory and cybernetics.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stafford Beer (born Anthony Stafford Beer, 25 September 1926 – 23 August 2002) was a British theorist, consultant and professor at the Manchester Business School.
Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.
Stuart Anspach Umpleby (born March 5, 1944) is an American cybernetician and professor in the Department of Management and Director of the Research Program in Social and Organizational Learning in the School of Business at the George Washington University.
Su Song (courtesy name: Zirong 子容) (1020–1101 AD) was a renowned Hokkien polymath who was described as a scientist, mathematician, statesman, astronomer, cartographer, horologist, medical doctor, pharmacologist, mineralogist, zoologist, botanist, mechanical and architectural engineer, poet, antiquarian, and ambassador of the Song Dynasty (960–1279).
A superorganism or supraorganism (the latter is less frequently used but more etymologically correct) is a group of synergetically interacting organisms of the same species.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Synergetics is an interdisciplinary science explaining the formation and self-organization of patterns and structures in open systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
A system accident is an "unanticipated interaction of multiple failures" in a complex system.
System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear behaviour of complex systems over time using stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, table functions and time delays.
Systemic design is a recent initiative in design that integrates systems thinking and human-centered design, with the intention of helping designers cope with complex design projects.
Systems art is art influenced by cybernetics, and systems theory, that reflects on natural systems, social systems and social signs of the art world itself.
Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles.
Systems psychology is a branch of both theoretical psychology and applied psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems.
Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.
Szolem Mandelbrojt (10 January 1899 – 23 September 1983) was a Polish-French mathematician who specialized in mathematical analysis.
Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism.
This article describe science and technology convergence, with illustrations to convergence of emerging technologies (NBIC, nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies) and convergence of media technology.
Tektology (sometimes transliterated as "tectology") is a term used by Alexander Bogdanov to describe a discipline that consisted of unifying all social, biological and physical sciences by considering them as systems of relationships and by seeking the organizational principles that underlie all systems.
Telematic art is a descriptive of art projects using computer mediated telecommunications networks as their medium.
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
The Human Use of Human Beings is a book by Norbert Wiener, the founding thinker of cybernetics theory and an influential advocate of automation; it was first published in 1950 and revised in 1954.
Total quality management (TQM) consists of organization-wide efforts to install and make a permanent climate in which an organization continuously improves its ability to deliver high-quality products and services to customers.
Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic approach.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
In cybernetics, the term variety denotes the total number of distinct states of a system.
Viable system theory (VST) concerns cybernetic processes in relation to the development/evolution of dynamical systems.
The viable systems approach (VSA) is a systems theory in which the observed entities and their environment are interpreted through a systemic viewpoint, starting with the analysis of fundamental elements and finally considering more complex related systems (von Bertalanffy, 1968).
Victor Mikhailovich Glushkov (a; August 24, 1923 – January 30, 1982) was a Soviet mathematician, the founding father of information technology in the Soviet Union, and one of the founders of Cybernetics.
Von Neumann cellular automata are the original expression of cellular automata, the development of which were prompted by suggestions made to John von Neumann by his close friend and fellow mathematician Stanislaw Ulam.
John von Neumann's universal constructor is a self-replicating machine in a cellular automata (CA) environment.
William Edwards Deming (October 14, 1900 – December 20, 1993) was an American engineer, statistician, professor, author, lecturer, and management consultant.
Walter Harry Pitts, Jr. (23 April 1923 – 14 May 1969) was a logician who worked in the field of computational neuroscience.
Warren Sturgis McCulloch (November 16, 1898 – September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician, known for his work on the foundation for certain brain theories and his contribution to the cybernetics movement.
A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.
William Grey Walter (February 19, 1910 – May 6, 1977) was an American-born British neurophysiologist, cybernetician and robotician.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.