108 relations: Adaptive radiation, Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart, Africa, Alethopteridaceae, Amphibian, Antarctic, Antilles, Arecaceae, Argentina, Australasia, Australia, Beetle, Bennettitales, Beta-Methylamino-L-alanine, Bog, Bowenia, Branch, Carboniferous, Central America, Charles Edwin Bessey, China, Clade, Climate, Coral, Cretaceous, Crown (botany), Cyanobacteria, Cycadales, Cycas, Cycas rumphii, Cylinder, Desert, Dioecy, Early Cretaceous, Endemism, Eocene, Equator, Europe, Evergreen, Extinction event, Family (biology), Fern, Fertilisation, Flowering plant, Fossil Cycad National Monument, Fractal, Genetic drift, Genus, Ginkgo, Ginkgoales, ..., Glossary of leaf morphology, Gnetum, Gondwana, Gymnosperm, Halophyte, Holocene, Hypothesis, Incised, India, Japan, Latitudinal gradients in species diversity, Laurasia, Leaf, Leaflet (botany), Living fossil, Madagascar, Medullosales, Melanesia, Mexico, Micronesia, Molecular biology, Neontology, Neurological disorder, Neurotoxin, Nitrogen fixation, North America, Organic matter, Pangaea, Permian, Pinnation, Pollination, Pollinator, Rainforest, Rock (geology), Rosette (botany), Sand, Seed, Sodium chloride, South America, Southeast Asia, Southern Africa, Species, Spermatophyte, Sri Lanka, Stangeriaceae, Subtropics, The New York Times, Triassic, Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Tropics, Trunk (botany), United States, William Stanger (surveyor), Woody plant, Xerophyte, Year, Zamiaceae. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart FRS FRSE FGS (14 January 1801 – 18 February 1876) was a French botanist.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Alethopteridaceae are a family of extinct plants belonging to Pteridospermatophyta, or seed ferns.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.
The Antilles (Antilles in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch and Antilhas in Portuguese) is an archipelago bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the south and west, the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the north and east.
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
Bennettitales (also known as cycadeoids) is an extinct order of seed plants that first appeared in the Triassic period and became extinct in most areas toward the end of the Cretaceous (i.e. they existed around 252 to 66 million years ago), although some Bennettitales appear to have survived into Oligocene times in Tasmania and eastern Australia.
β-Methylamino-L-alanine, or BMAA, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
The genus Bowenia includes two living and two fossil species of cycads in the family Stangeriaceae, sometimes placed in their own family Boweniaceae.
A branch or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a tree (or sometimes a shrub).
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Charles Edwin Bessey (21 May 1845 – 25 February 1915) was an American botanist.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
The crown of a plant refers to the totality of an individual plant's aboveground parts, including stems, leaves, and reproductive structures.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cycadales is an order of seed plants that includes all the extant cycads.
Cycas is the type genus and the only genus recognised in the family Cycadaceae.
Cycas rumphii, commonly known as queen sago or the queen sago palm, is a dioecious gymnosperm, a species of cycad in the genus Cycas native to Indonesia, New Guinea and Christmas Island.
A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Dioecy (Greek: διοικία "two households"; adjective form: dioecious) is a characteristic of a species, meaning that it has distinct male and female individual organisms.
The Early Cretaceous/Middle Cretaceous (geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Fossil Cycad National Monument was a national monument in the U.S. state of South Dakota beginning in 1922.
In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants.
Ginkgoales or Ginkgophyte is a gymnosperm order containing only one extant species: Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree.
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants.
Gnetum is a genus of gymnosperms, the sole genus in the family Gnetaceae and order Gnetales.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
A halophyte is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity, coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs and seashores.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
Incised means cut, particularly with a "V" shape.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The increase in species richness or biodiversity that occurs from the poles to the tropics, often referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is one of the most widely recognized patterns in ecology.
Laurasia was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
A leaflet (occasionally called foliole) in botany is a leaf-like part of a compound leaf.
A living fossil is an extant taxon that closely resembles organisms otherwise known only from the fossil record.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
The Medullosales is an order of pteridospermous seed plants characterised by large ovules with circular cross-section, with a vascularised nucellus, complex pollen-organs, stems and rachides with a dissected stele, and frond-like leaves.
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Micronesia ((); from μικρός mikrós "small" and νῆσος nêsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
Pinnation (also called pennation) is the arrangement of feather-like or multi-divided features arising from both sides of a common axis.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
In botany, a rosette is a circular arrangement of leaves or of structures resembling leaves.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stangeriaceae is the smallest family of cycads, both in number of living and fossil species.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
The Tropic of Cancer, also referred to as the Northern Tropic, is the most northerly circle of latitude on Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead.
The Tropic of Capricorn (or the Southern Tropic) is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December (or southern) solstice.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
In botany, the trunk (or bole) is the stem and main wooden axis of a tree, which is an important feature in tree identification, and which often differs markedly from the bottom of the trunk to the top, depending on the species.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
William Stanger (27 September 1811 in Tydd St. Mary, Wisbech – 14 March 1854 in Durban) was best known as a surveyor-general in South Africa, but was also a geologist, botanist and medical doctor.
A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue.
A xerophyte (from Greek ξηρός xeros dry, φυτόν phuton plant) is a species of plant that has adaptations to survive in an environment with little liquid water, such as a desert or an ice- or snow-covered region in the Alps or the Arctic.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
The Zamiaceae are a family of cycads that are superficially palm or fern-like.