197 relations: Abd-Rabbo al-Barassi, Achaemenid Empire, Africa (Roman province), Afrika Korps, Ahmed al-Senussi, Ajdabiya, Al Jazeera, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Allies of World War II, Ancient Libya, Annuario Pontificio, Aphrodisiac, Apollonia, Cyrenaica, Arbutus pavarii, Aristippus, Artemisia herba-alba, Asphodelus ramosus, Athrun, Libya, Autonomous administrative division, Awjila, Awjila language, Ayyubid dynasty, Barca (ancient city), Barley, Bayda, Libya, Bedouin, Benghazi, Berber languages, Berbers, Berenice, Cyrenaica, Bomba, Libya, Boreum, Cyrenaica, British Empire, Byzantine Crete, Byzantine Empire, Calanshio Sand Sea, Callimachus, Cambyses II, Capital city, Catechetical School of Alexandria, Ceratonia siliqua, Chalcedon, Christianity in Libya, Colonies in antiquity, Colony, Colossae, Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Crete, Crete and Cyrenaica, ..., Cultural tourism, Cupressus sempervirens, Cyrenaica Emirate, Cyrenaics, Cyrene, Libya, Derna, Libya, Diadochi, Diocese of Africa, Diocese of Egypt, Diocletian, Districts of Libya, Dystis, Early Christianity, Ecoregion, Ecotourism, Egypt (Roman province), Emir, Ephesus, Eratosthenes, Erythrum, Fatimid Caliphate, Fezzan, First Council of Nicaea, Foster and Partners, Garrigue, Governorates of Libya, Great Sand Sea, Greece, Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa, Gulf of Bomba, Gulf of Sirte, Hellenistic art, Herodotus, Histories (Herodotus), History of Benghazi, History of Libya, Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church, House of Representatives (Libya), Hypatia, Ibrahim Jadhran, Idris of Libya, Islam in Libya, Italian Army, Italian Cyrenaica, Italian Libya, Italo-Turkish War, Jaghbub, Libya, Jebel Akhdar, Libya, Juniperus phoenicea, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Libya, Kufra District, Libu, Libya, Libya (satrapy), Libyan Civil War (2011), Libyan Desert, Limestone, List of Catholic dioceses in Libya, List of colonial governors of Italian Cyrenaica, List of governors of Roman Egypt, List of kings of Cyrene, Magas of Cyrene, Mamluk, Maquis shrubland, Marble Arch (Libya), Marj, Mark the Evangelist, Marmarica, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe, Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean woodlands and forests, Mersa Matruh, Meshwesh, Military dictatorship, Miocene, Muammar Gaddafi, Musaeum, National Transitional Council, Nazi Germany, Neoplatonism, New Kingdom of Egypt, Oak savanna, Oasis, Olbia, Libya, Olive, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Tripolitania, Patriarch of Alexandria, Paul the Apostle, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia lentiscus, Pope John VI of Alexandria, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Pope Theophilus of Alexandria, Postage stamps and postal history of Cyrenaica, Praeses, Praetorian prefecture, Praetorian prefecture of Italy, Praetorian prefecture of the East, Protectorate, Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemais, Cyrenaica, Ptolemy Apion, Ptolemy I Soter, Ptolemy VIII Physcon, Quercus coccifera, Roman province, Roman Republic, Rome, Sahara, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, Santorini, Sarcopoterium, Sea level, Senussi, Shabiyah, Silphium, Simon of Cyrene, Sirte, Siwa Oasis, Steppe, Susa, Libya, Synesius, Synoptic Gospels, Tabula Peutingeriana, Terra rossa (soil), Tetrarchy, The Economist, The Guardian, Theodorus of Cyrene, Titular see, Tobruk, Tocra, Tolmeita, Tripolitania, Umar, Umayyad Caliphate, United Kingdom, Vandal Kingdom, Vandalic War, Wheat, World War II, Zopyrus (bishop of Barca), 365 Crete earthquake. Expand index (147 more) » « Shrink index
Abd-Rabbo al-Barassi (عبد ربّه البرعصي) is the self-declared head of the government of Barqa, the eastern half of Libya.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
Prince Ahmed Al-Zubair al-Senussi, also known as Zubeir Ahmed El-Sharif, (أحمد الزبير الشريف) (born 1934) is a Libyan member of the Senussi house and a member of the National Transitional Council representing political prisoners.
Ajdabiya (أجدابيا, Agedábia), previously known as Agedabia or Ajdabya, is a town in and capital of the Al Wahat District in northeastern Libya.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb.
The Annuario Pontificio (Italian for Pontifical Yearbook) is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Catholic Church.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
Apollonia (Ἀπολλωνία) in Cyrenaica (modern Libya) was founded by Greek colonists and became a significant commercial centre in the southern Mediterranean.
Arbutus pavarii is a species of plant in the heath family.
Aristippus of Cyrene (Ἀρίστιππος ὁ Κυρηναῖος; c. 435 – c. 356 BCE) was the founder of the Cyrenaic school of Philosophy.
Artemisia herba-alba, the white wormwood, is a perennial shrub in the genus Artemisia that grows commonly on the dry steppes of the Mediterranean regions in Northern Africa (Saharan Maghreb), Western Asia (Arabian Peninsula) and Southwestern Europe.
Asphodelus ramosus, also known as branched asphodel, is a perennial herb in the Asparagales order.
Athrun (also spelled Lathrun, or Latrun) is a small town in northern Libya about east of Cyrene.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
Awjila (Berber: Awilan, Awjila, Awgila; أوجلة; Latin: Augila) is an oasis town in the Al Wahat District in the Cyrenaica region of northeastern Libya.
Awjila (also Aujila, Augila, Aoudjila, Awgila, Awdjila; Berber name: Tawjilit) is a severely endangered (considered "moribund" by Ethnologue) Eastern Berber language spoken in Cyrenaica, Libya, in the Awjila oasis.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Barca, also called Barce) (Βάρκη, برقة, Berber: Berqa) is an Ancient city and former bishopric, which survives in both Latin Catholic and Orthodox titular see.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Bayda, or Elbeida (or; البيضاء) (also spelt az-Zāwiyat al-Bayḑā’, Zāwiyat al-Bayḑā’, Beida and El Beida; known as Beda Littoria under Italian colonial rule), is a commercial and industrial city in eastern Libya.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Benghazi (بنغازي) is the second-most populous city in Libya and the largest in Cyrenaica.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Berenice, was an ancient Greek and Roman era city near Benghazi in today's Libya, named after Berenice II of Egypt.
Bomba (البمبة) is a village in eastern Libya on the Gulf of Bomba.
Boreum was a city and diocese in Roman Libya.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The island of Crete came under the rule of the Byzantine Empire in two periods: the first extends from the late Roman period (3rd century) to the conquest of the island by Andalusian exiles in the late 820s, and the second from the island's reconquest in 961 to its capture by the competing forces of Genoa and Venice in 1205.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Calanshio Sand Sea (Sarīr Kalanshiyū ar Ramlī al Kabīr) is a sand desert region located in the Libyan Desert, of the Kufra District in Cyrenaica, eastern Libya.
Callimachus (Καλλίμαχος, Kallimakhos; 310/305–240 BC) was a native of the Greek colony of Cyrene, Libya.
Cambyses II (𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya כנבוזי Kanbūzī; Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
The Catechetical School of Alexandria was a school of Christian theologians and priests in Alexandria.
Ceratonia siliqua, known as the carob tree or carob bush, St John's-bread, locust bean (not African locust bean), or simply locust-tree, is a flowering evergreen tree or shrub in the pea family, Fabaceae.
Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
Christianity is a minority religion in Libya.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Colossae (Greek: Κολοσσαί) was an ancient city of Phrygia in Asia Minor, and was the location to which the Apostle Paul directed his Epistle to the Colossians.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯⲉⲕ̀ⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ ̀ⲛⲣⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ⲛⲟⲣⲑⲟⲇⲟⲝⲟⲥ, ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church) is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa and the Middle East.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Crete and Cyrenaica (Provincia Creta et Cyrenaica) was a senatorial province of the Roman Empire, established in 67 BC.
Cultural tourism is the subset of tourism concerned with a traveler's engagement with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life.
Cupressus sempervirens, the Mediterranean cypress (also known as Italian cypress, Tuscan cypress, Persian cypress, or pencil pine), is a species of cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region, in northeast Libya, southern Albania, southern coastal Croatia (Dalmatia), southern Montenegro, southern Greece, southern Turkey, Cyprus, northern Egypt, western Syria, Lebanon, Malta, Italy, Israel, western Jordan, and also a disjunct population in Iran.
The Emirate of Cyrenaica, or "Principality of Cyrenaica", came into existence when Sayyid Idris unilaterally proclaimed Cyrenaica an independent Senussi emirate on 1 March 1949, backed by the United Kingdom.
The Cyrenaics or Kyrenaics (Κυρηναϊκοί; Kyrēnaïkoí) were a sensual hedonist Greek school of philosophy founded in the 4th century BCE, supposedly by Aristippus of Cyrene, although many of the principles of the school are believed to have been formalized by his grandson of the same name, Aristippus the Younger.
Cyrene (translit) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya.
Derna (درنة) is a port city in eastern Libya.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
The Diocese of Africa (Dioecesis Africae) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of North Africa, except Mauretania Tingitana.
The Diocese of Egypt (Dioecesis Aegypti, Διοίκησις Αἰγύπτου) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire (from 395 the Eastern Roman Empire), incorporating the provinces of Egypt and Cyrenaica.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
There are twenty-two districts of Libya, known by the term shabiyah (Arabic singular شعبية šaʿbiyya, plural šaʿbiyyāt).
Dystis was a city and bishopric in Roman Libya, which remains a Latin Catholic titular see.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.
Erythrum was a city and bishopric in Roman Africa, which remains a Catholic titular see.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Fezzan (ⴼⴻⵣⵣⴰⵏ, Fezzan; فزان, Fizzān; Fizan; Phasania) or Phazania is the southwestern region of modern Libya.
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
Foster + Partners is a British international studio for architecture and integrated design, with headquarters in London.
Garigue or phrygana is a type of low, soft-leaved scrubland ecoregion and plant community in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome.
The governorates of Libya (muhafazah) were a tenfold top-level administrative division of Libya from 1963 until 1983.
The Great Sand Sea is an approximately 72,000 km² sand desert region in North Africa stretching between western Egypt and eastern Libya.
The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa (Greek: Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀλεξανδρείας καὶ πάσης Ἀφρικῆς, Patriarcheîon Alexandreías kaì pásēs Aphrikês) is an autocephalous Byzantine Rite jurisdiction of the Eastern Orthodox Church, having the African continent as its canonical territory.
The Gulf of Bomba is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the northern coast of Libya.
Gulf of Sirte (خليج سرت, Khalij Surt), or Gulf of Sidra (خليج السدرة, Khalij as-Sidra) after the port of Sidra, is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the northern coast of Libya.
Hellenistic art is the art of the period in classical antiquity generally taken to begin with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and end with the conquest of the Greek world by the Romans, a process well underway by 146 BCE, when the Greek mainland was taken, and essentially ending in 31 BCE with the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt following the Battle of Actium.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
Libya's second largest city Benghazi, has a history which extends from when the city was first inhabited in the 6th century BCE to the present day.
Libya's history covers its rich mix of ethnic groups added to the indigenous Berber tribes.
The Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the highest Orthodox authority in the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
The House of Representatives (HoR) (translation, Camera dei rappresentanti libica) is the legislature of Libya.
Hypatia (born 350–370; died 415 AD) was a Hellenistic Neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Egypt, then part of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Ibrahim jadran (إبراهيم الجضران; born 1981), is a self imposed Libyan militia leader from Ajdabiya in eastern Libya.
Idris, GBE (إدريس الأول; El Sayyid Prince Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi; 12 March 1889 – 25 May 1983), was a Libyan political and religious leader who served as the Emir of Cyrenaica and then as the King of Libya from 1951 to 1969.
Most Libyans adhere to the Sunni branch of Islam, which provides both a spiritual guide for individuals and a keystone for government policy.
The Italian Army (Italian: Esercito Italiano) is the land defence force of the Italian Armed Forces of the Italian Republic.
Italian Cyrenaica was an Italian colony, located in present-day eastern Libya, that existed from 1927 to 1934.
Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.
The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912.
Jaghbub (الجغبوب, Giarabub) is a remote desert village in the Al Jaghbub Oasis in the eastern Libyan Desert.
The Jebel Akhdar (الجبل الأخضر, The Green Mountain) is a heavily forested, fertile upland area in northeastern Libya.
Juniperus phoenicea, the Phoenicean juniper or Arâr, is a juniper found throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal east to Italy, Turkey and Egypt, south on the mountains of Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, and in western Saudi Arabia near the Red Sea, and also on Madeira and the Canary Islands.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Libya (المملكة الليبية; Libyan Kingdom; Regno di Libia), originally called the United Kingdom of Libya, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic.
Kufra or Kofra (الكفرة), also spelled Cufra, is the largest district of Libya.
The Libu (rbw; also transcribed Rebu, Lebu) were an Ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin, from which the name ''Libya'' derives.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Libya (𐎱𐎢𐎫𐎠𐎹 Putāya) was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire according to King Darius I of Persia Naqshe Rustam and King Xerxes I of Persia' Daiva inscription.
The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
The Libyan Desert forms the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
The Catholic Church in Libya consists solely of Latin exempt missionary pre-diocesan jurisdictions, so there is no ecclesiastical province as they are all immediately subject to the Holy See and its missionary Roman Congregation Propaganda Fide.
This article lists the colonial governors of Italian Cyrenaica from 1912 to 1935.
During the Classical Roman Empire, the governor of Roman Egypt (praefectus Aegypti) was a prefect who administered the Roman province of Egypt with the delegated authority (imperium) of the emperor.
Cyrene or Cyrenaica was a Greek colony on the North African coast, in what is now northeastern Libya, founded by Dorian settlers from Thera (modern Santorini) in the 7th century BC.
Magas of Cyrene (Μάγας ὁ Κυρηναῖος; born before 317 BC – 250 BC, ruled 276 BC – 250 BC) was a Greek Macedonian nobleman and King of Cyrenaica.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Low Maquis in Corsica High ''macchia'' in Sardinia Maquis (French) or macchia (Italian: macchia mediterranea) is a shrubland biome in the Mediterranean region, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs.
The Marble Arch, also Arch of the Philaeni (Arco dei Fileni), formerly known in Libya as El Gaus (i.e. "The Arch"), was a monument in Libya built during the days of Italian colonization.
Marj (المرج, The Meadows), also spelt El Merj, generally believed to be on the site of the ancient city of Barca or Barce, is a city in northeastern Libya and the administrative seat of the Marj District.
Saint Mark the Evangelist (Mārcus; Μᾶρκος; Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ; מרקוס; مَرْقُس; ማርቆስ; ⵎⴰⵔⵇⵓⵙ) is the traditionally ascribed author of the Gospel of Mark.
Marmarica in ancient geography was a littoral area in Ancient Libya, located between Cyrenaica and Aegyptus.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe is a Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub ecoregion of North Africa.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Mediterranean woodlands and forests is an ecoregion, of the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome, in the coastal plains, hills, and mountains bordering the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean in North Africa.
Mersa Matruh (مرسى مطروح) is a seaport in Egypt, the capital of the Matrouh Governorate.
The Meshwesh (often abbreviated in ancient Egyptian as Ma) were an ancient Libyan tribe of Berber origin from beyond Cyrenaica.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
The Musaeum or Mouseion at Alexandria (Μουσεῖον τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας), which included the famous Library of Alexandria, was an institution founded by Ptolemy I Soter or, perhaps more likely, by his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus.
The National Transitional Council of Libya (المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
An oak savanna is a type of savanna, or lightly forested grassland, where oaks (Quercus spp.) are the dominant trees.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
Olbia or Theodorias was a Roman / Byzantine town between Marj and Bayda in the Cyrenaica region of modern Libya.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The coastal region of what is today Libya was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania (ایالت طرابلس غرب Eyālet-i Trâblus Gârb) or Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary from 1551 to 1864 and as the Vilayet of Tripolitania (ولايت طرابلس غرب Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârb) from 1864 to 1911.
The Patriarch of Alexandria is the archbishop of Alexandria, Egypt.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Pinus halepensis, commonly known as the Aleppo pine, is a pine native to the Mediterranean region.
Pistacia lentiscus (also lentisk; mastic; μαστίχα) is a dioecious evergreen shrub or small tree of the pistacia genus growing up to tall which is cultivated for its aromatic resin, mainly on the Greek island of Chios.
Pope John VI of Alexandria, 74th Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark.
The Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, a faith with ancient Christian roots in Egypt.
Theophilus was the 23rd Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St.
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Cyrenaica, now part of Libya.
Praeses (Latin praesides) is a Latin word meaning "placed before" or "at the head".
The praetorian prefecture (praefectura praetorio; in Greek variously named ἐπαρχότης τῶν πραιτωρίων or ὑπαρχία τῶν πραιτωρίων) was the largest administrative division of the late Roman Empire, above the mid-level dioceses and the low-level provinces.
The praetorian prefecture of Italy (Praefectura praetorio Italiae, in its full form (until 356) praefectura praetorio Italiae, Illyrici et Africae) was one of four Praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided.
The praetorian prefecture of the East or of Oriens (praefectura praetorio Orientis, ἐπαρχότης/ὑπαρχία τῶν πραιτωρίων τῆς ἀνατολῆς) was one of four large praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemais (Greek: Πτολεμαΐς) was one of the five cities that formed the Pentapolis of Cyrenaica, the others being Cyrene, Euesperides (later Berenice, and now Benghazi), Tauchira/Teuchira (later Arsinoe, and now Tocra), and Apollonia (now Susa).
Ptolemy Apion or simply known as Apion (Πτολεμαῖος Ἀπίων, between 150 BC and 145 BC – 96 BC) was the last Greek King of Cyrene and was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs "Ptolemy the Benefactor"; c. 182 BC – June 26, 116 BC), nicknamed Physcon (Φύσκων "the Fat"), was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
Quercus coccifera, the kermes oak, is an oak tree in the ''Quercus'' section ''Cerris''.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Saif al-Islam Gaddafi (سيف الإسلام معمر القذافي; born 25 June 1972) is a Libyan political figure.
Santorini (Σαντορίνη), classically Thera (English pronunciation), and officially Thira (Greek: Θήρα), is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Greece's mainland.
Sarcopoterium is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
The Senussi, or Sanussi (السنوسية), are a Muslim political-religious tariqa (Sufi order) and clan in colonial Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi (السنوسي الكبير), the Algerian Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi.
Shabiyah (plural: Shabiyat, شعبيات) is an administrative division of Libya.
Silphium (also known as silphion, laserwort, or laser) was a plant that was used in classical antiquity as a seasoning and as a medicine.
Simon of Cyrene ("Hearkening; listening", Standard Hebrew Šimʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimʿôn;, Simōn Kyrēnaios) was the man compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus as Jesus was taken to his crucifixion, according to all three Synoptic Gospels.
Sirte (سرت,; from Σύρτις), also spelled Sirt, Surt, Sert or Syrte, is a city in Libya.
The Siwa Oasis (واحة سيوة, Wāḥat Sīwah) is an urban oasis in Egypt between the Qattara Depression and the Great Sand Sea in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Susa or Soussa (Ἀπολλωνία) (سوسة) is a town and seaside resort in the District of Jabal al Akhdar in north-eastern Libya.
Synesius (Συνέσιος; c. 373 – c. 414), a Greek bishop of Ptolemais in the Libyan Pentapolis after 410, was born of wealthy parents who claimed descent from Spartan kings, at Balagrae (now Bayda, Libya) near Cyrene between 370 and 375.
The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar or sometimes identical wording.
Tabula Peutingeriana (Latin for "The Peutinger Map"), also referred to as Peutinger's Tabula or Peutinger Table, is an illustrated itinerarium (ancient Roman road map) showing the layout of the cursus publicus, the road network of the Roman Empire.
Terra rossa (Italian for "red soil") is a well-drained, reddish, clayey to silty clayey soil with neutral pH conditions and is typical of the Mediterranean region.
The term "tetrarchy" (from the τετραρχία, tetrarchia, "leadership of four ") describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Theodorus of Cyrene (Θεόδωρος ὁ Κυρηναῖος) was an ancient Libyan Greek and lived during the 5th century BC.
A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese".
Tobruk or Tubruq (Αντίπυργος) (طبرق Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt.
Tocra, Taucheira, Tukrah or El Agouriya, is a town on the coast of the Marj District in the Cyrenaica region of northeastern Libya, founded by Cyrene.
Tolmeita, Tolmeta or Tolmeitha طلميتة is a tiny village in the northern Cyrenaica region of eastern Libya, some east of Benghazi, near Ad Dirsiyah.
Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Vandal Kingdom (Regnum Vandalum) or Kingdom of the Vandals and Alans (Regnum Vandalorum et Alanorum) was a kingdom, established by the Germanic Vandals under Genseric, in North Africa and the Mediterranean from 435 AD to 534 AD.
The Vandalic War (Βανδηλικὸς πόλεμος) was a conflict fought in North Africa (largely in modern Tunisia) between the forces of the Eastern Roman ("Byzantine") Empire and the Vandalic Kingdom of Carthage, in 533–534.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zopyrus (Bishop of Barca), (Ζώπυρος) was a Bishop of the ancient Roman Town of Barca in Cyrenica, (Marj, Libya, North Africa. Zopyros is best known to history as an attendee present at the Council of Nicaea in 325. He was one of the Arian Bishops at that Council. Even though Arius (the founder of Arianism) and his bishop Secundus of Ptolemais were from the neighboring city (and Barca's port) of Ptolemais, Cyrenaica Zopyrus eventually signed the Nicean Creed with the other Arian supporters, Theognis of Nicaea, Eusebius of Nicomedia and Maris of Chalcedon. He (probably) did not sign the condemnation of Arius. It is unclear if he was exiled with the other three Arian bishops.
The 365 Crete earthquake occurred at about sunrise on 21 July 365 in the Eastern Mediterranean, with an assumed epicentre near Crete.
Ancient cyrenaica, Barqa, Barqah, British Cyrenaica, Cirenaica, Classical cyrenaica, Cyrenacia, Cyrenaican, Cyrenaika, Cyrenecia, Cyrenica, Eastern Libya, Eparchy of the Western Pentapolis, Hadrianopolis (Pentapolis), Kyrenaika, Kyrēnaïkḗ, Libya Pentapolitana, Libya Secunda, Libya Superior, Libya inferior, Ottoman Cyrenaica, Pentapolis (North Africa).