249 relations: Absorption spectroscopy, Activation, Adipose tissue, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal ferredoxin, Adrenal gland, Adrenodoxin reductase, Adverse effect, Aldosterone synthase, Allele, Amino acid, Amiodarone, Amphimedon queenslandica, Androgen, Animal, Anopheles gambiae, Antibiotic, Anticonvulsant, Antifungal, Arachidonic acid, Archaea, Aromatase, Aspergillus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacteria, Benzo(a)pyrene, Berberine, Bergamottin, Bile acid, Bilirubin, Bioavailability, Biochemistry, Blood plasma, Brain, Branchiostoma floridae, Candida (fungus), Carambola, Carbamazepine, Carbon monoxide, Cell signaling, Chlorzoxazone, Cholesterol, Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, Clearance (pharmacology), Clozapine, Cofactor (biochemistry), Concentration, Congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, Cunninghamella elegans, ..., CYP17A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP20A1, CYP24A1, CYP26A1, CYP26B1, CYP26C1, CYP27A1, CYP27C1, CYP2A13, CYP2A6, CYP2A7, CYP2B6, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP2F1, CYP2J2, CYP2R1, CYP2S1, CYP2U1, CYP2W1, CYP39A1, CYP3A4, CYP3A43, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP46A1, CYP4A11, CYP4A22, CYP4B1, CYP4F11, CYP4F12, CYP4F2, CYP4F22, CYP4F3, CYP4F8, CYP4V2, CYP4X1, CYP4Z1, CYP7B1, CYP8B1, Cysteine, Cytochrome b5, Cytochrome b5 reductase, Cytochrome P450 omega hydroxylase, Cytochrome P450 reductase, Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1, DDT, Delocalized electron, Developmental biology, Docosahexaenoic acid, Dog, Drosophila melanogaster, Drug, Drug discovery, Drug interaction, Drug metabolism, Drug overdose, Eicosanoid, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Electron, Electron transfer, Endogeny (biology), Endoplasmic reticulum, Enzyme, Enzyme catalysis, Enzyme inhibitor, Epoxydocosapentaenoic acid, Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, Epoxygenase, Ergosterol, Erythromycin, Escherichia coli, Estrogen, Excretion, Exogeny, Fatty acid, Ferredoxin, Ferredoxin reductase, Flavin mononucleotide, Fluvoxamine, Fungus, Gene, Gene family, Goldenseal, Gonad, Grapefruit juice, Grapefruit–drug interactions, Harry Gelboin, Heme, Hemeprotein, Herbalism, Heterocyclic amine, High-valent iron, Homology (biology), Hormone, Human Genome Project, Hydrastine, Hydroxy group, Hydroxylation, Hypericum perforatum, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis, Inner mitochondrial membrane, Insect, Institut national de la recherche agronomique, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, InterPro, Iron, Italic type, Karolinska Institute, Kingdom (biology), Lamellar ichthyosis, Lanosterol, Lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase, Leukotriene B4, Ligand, Lignin, Lipoxin, Liver, Malaria, Medicine, Mitochondrion, Model organism, Molecule, Monooxygenase, Mouse, Nanometre, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Olanzapine, Oxygen, P450-containing systems, Paracetamol, Pathogenic fungus, Pesticide resistance, Phenytoin, Phytochemistry, Plant, Plant hormone, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyunsaturated fatty acid, Porphyrin, PROSITE, Prostacyclin, Prostacyclin synthase, Protein, Protein superfamily, Protist, Pseudogene, Pseudomonas putida, Rat, Redox, Reductase, Regulation of gene expression, Retinoic acid, Rhodococcus, Saccharopolyspora erythraea, Sea urchin, Secondary metabolite, Side chain, Spectrophotometry, Steroid, Steroid 11β-hydroxylase, Steroid hormone, Steroidogenic enzyme, Substrate (chemistry), Sulfolobus, Testosterone, Therapeutic index, Thermophile, Thiol, Thromboxane, Thromboxane-A synthase, Tobacco smoking, Toxicology, Transition metal dioxygen complex, Transition metal oxo complex, Tributyltin, Very long chain fatty acid, Virus, Vitamin D, Watercress, Wavelength, Whole genome sequencing, Yeast, Zebrafish, Zona glomerulosa, (+)-Benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide, 12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 21-Hydroxylase, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase, 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, 6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin. Expand index (199 more) » « Shrink index
Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.
Activation in (bio-)chemical sciences generally refers to the process whereby something is prepared or excited for a subsequent reaction.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
Adrenal ferredoxin (also adrenodoxin (ADX), adrenodoxin, mitochondrial, hepatoredoxin, ferredoxin-1 (FDX1)) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FDX1 gene.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenodoxin reductase (Enzyme Nomenclature name: adrenodoxin-NADP+ reductase, EC 22.214.171.124), was first isolated from bovine adrenal cortex where it functions as the first enzyme in the mitochondrial P450 systems that catalyze essential steps in steroid hormone biosynthesis.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Aldosterone synthase is a steroid hydroxylase cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent a number of types of irregular heartbeats.
Amphimedon queenslandica (formerly known as Reniera sp.) is a sponge native to the Great Barrier Reef.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The Anopheles gambiae complex consists of at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species of mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.
Arachidonic acid (AA, sometimes ARA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid 20:4(ω-6).
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide.
Bacillus megaterium is a rod-like, Gram-positive, mainly aerobic spore forming bacterium found in widely diverse habitats.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Benzopyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures between and.
Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids found in such plants as Berberis (e.g. Berberis vulgaris – barberry, Berberis aristata – tree turmeric, Mahonia aquifolium – Oregon-grape, Hydrastis canadensis – goldenseal, Xanthorhiza simplicissima – yellowroot, Phellodendron amurense – Amur cork tree, Coptis chinensis – Chinese goldthread, Tinospora cordifolia, Argemone mexicana – prickly poppy, and Eschscholzia californica – Californian poppy. Berberine is usually found in the roots, rhizomes, stems, and bark. Due to berberine's strong yellow color, Berberis species were used to dye wool, leather, and wood. Wool is still dyed with berberine today in northern India. Under ultraviolet light, berberine shows a strong yellow fluorescence, so it is used in histology for staining heparin in mast cells. As a natural dye, berberine has a color index of 75160.
Bergamottin is a natural furanocoumarin found principally in grapefruit juice.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Branchiostoma floridae (the Florida lancelet) is a lancelet of the genus Branchiostoma.
Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide.
Carambola, or starfruit, is the fruit of Averrhoa carambola, a species of tree native to Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, and Seychelles.
Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Chlorzoxazone (INN) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant used to treat muscle spasm and the resulting pain or discomfort. It acts on the spinal cord by depressing reflexes. It is sold under the trade names "'Lorzone'", Paraflex and Muscol and in combination form as Parafon Forte, a combination of chlorzoxazone and acetaminophen (paracetamol). Possible side effects include dizziness, lightheadedness, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and liver dysfunction. Used with acetaminophen it has added risk of hepatoxicity, which is why the combination is not recommended. It can also be administered for acute pain in general and for tension headache (muscle contraction headache). Like metaxalone, no specific mechanism of action has been identified for chlorzoxazone, with general central nervous system depression being the only currently accepted aspect to its medical benefits. Search for the exact mechanism of action is ongoing but limited due to the existence of more-effective safe muscle relaxers (ex. diazepam, cyclobenzaprine, tizanidine) greatly limiting the potential benefit of identifying novel compounds which share chlozoxazone's mechanism of action. As of 2015 the cost for a typical course of medication in the United States is less than 25 USD.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase also known as cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP7A1 gene which has an important role in cholesterol metabolism.
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage.
In pharmacology, the clearance is a pharmacokinetic measurement of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed per unit time; the usual units are mL/min.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythroderma (CIE), also known as Nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythrodermaFreedberg, et al.
Cunninghamella elegans is a species of fungus in the genus Cunninghamella found in soil.
Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 1B1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP1B1 gene.
CYP20A1 (cytochrome P450, family 20, subfamily A, polypeptide 1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CYP20A1 gene.
Cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1 (abbreviated CYP24A1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes encoded by the CYP24A1 gene.
Cytochrome P450 26A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP26A1 gene.
Cytochrome P450 26B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP26B1 gene.
CYP26C1 (cytochrome P450, family 26, subfamily c, polypeptide 1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CYP26C1 gene.
CYP27A1 is a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 oxidase, and is commonly known as sterol 27-hydroxylase.
CYP27C1 (cytochrome P450, family 27, subfamily C, polypeptide 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP27C1 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2A13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP2A13 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (abbreviated CYP2A6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
CYP2A7 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 7) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP2A7 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2B6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2B6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2C18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C18 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19) is an enzyme.
Cytochrome P4502C8 (abbreviated CYP2C8), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (abbreviated CYP2E1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2F1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP2F1 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP2J2 gene.
Vitamin D 25-hydroxylase also known as cytochrome P450 2R1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2R1 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2S1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP2S1 gene.
CYP2U1 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily U, polypeptide 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP2U1 gene.
CYP2W1 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily W, polypeptide 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP2W1 gene.
CYP39A1 (cytochrome P450, family 39, subfamily A, polypeptide 1) also known as oxysterol 7-α-hydroxylase 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP39A1 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochrome P450 3A43 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP3A43 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP3A5 gene.
CYP3A7 is an enzyme belonging to the cytochrome P450 family.
Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP46A1 gene.
Cytochrome P450 4A11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP4A11 gene.
CYP4A22 (cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily A, polypeptide 22) also known as fatty acid omega-hydroxylase is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CYP4A22 gene.
Cytochrome P450 4B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP4B1 gene.
CYP4F11 (cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP4F11 gene.
Cytochrome P450 4F12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP4F12 gene.
Leukotriene-B(4) omega-hydroxylase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP4F2 gene.
CYP4F22 (cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 22) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP4F22 gene.
Leukotriene-B(4) omega-hydroxylase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP4F3 gene.
Cytochrome P450 4F8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP4F8 gene.
Cytochrome P450 4V2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP4V2 gene.
CYP4X1 (cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily X, polypeptide 1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CYP4X1 gene.
CYP4Z1 (cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily Z, polypeptide 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP4Z1 gene.
25-hydroxycholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase also known as oxysterol and steroid 7-alpha-hydroxylase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP7B1 gene.
CYP8B1 (cytochrome P450, family 8, subfamily B, polypeptide 1) also known as sterol 12-alpha-hydroxylase is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CYP8B1 gene.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Cytochromes b5 are ubiquitous electron transport hemoproteins found in animals, plants, fungi and purple phototrophic bacteria.
Cytochrome-b5 reductase (also known as methemoglobin reductase) is a NADH-dependent enzyme that converts methemoglobin to hemoglobin.
Cytochrome P450 omega hydroxylases, also termed cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylases, CYP450 omega hydroxylases, CYP450 ω-hydroxylases, CYP omega hydroxylase, CYP ω-hydroxylases, fatty acid omega hydroxylases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and fatty acid monooxygenases, are a set of cytochrome P450-containing enzymes that catalyze the addition of a hydroxyl residue to a fatty acid Substrate (chemistry).
Cytochrome P450 reductase (also known as NADPH:ferrihemoprotein oxidoreductase, NADPH:hemoprotein oxidoreductase, NADPH:P450 oxidoreductase, P450 reductase, POR, CPR, CYPOR) is a membrane-bound enzyme required for electron transfer from NADPH to cytochrome P450 in the endoplasmic reticulum of the eukaryotic cell.
Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP1A1 gene.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Epoxide docosapentaenoic acids (epoxydocosapentaenoic acids, EDPs, or EpDPEs) are metabolites of the 22-carbon straight-chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EEQs or EpETEs) are a set of biologically active epoxides that various cell types make by metabolizing the omega 3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with certain cytochrome P450 epoxygenases.
Epoxygenases are a set of membrane-bound, heme-containing cytochrome P450 (CYP P450 or just CYP) enzymes that metabolize polyunsaturated fatty acids to epoxide products that have a range of biological activities.
Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Ferredoxins (from Latin ferrum: iron + redox, often abbreviated "fd") are iron-sulfur proteins that mediate electron transfer in a range of metabolic reactions.
Ferredoxin reductase may refer to.
Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), or riboflavin-5′-phosphate, is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors.
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A gene family is a set of several similar genes, formed by duplication of a single original gene, and generally with similar biochemical functions.
Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), also called orangeroot or yellow puccoon, is a perennial herb in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to southeastern Canada and the eastern United States.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Grapefruit juice is the juice from grapefruits.
Some fruit juices and fruits can interact with numerous drugs, in many cases causing adverse effects.
Harry V. Gelboin (1929–2010) was an American cancer research scientist, particularly in chemical carcinogenesis.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
A hemeprotein (or haemprotein; also hemoprotein or haemoprotein), or heme protein, is a protein that contains a heme prosthetic group.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
Heterocyclic amines, also sometime referred to as HCAs, are chemical compounds containing at least one heterocyclic ring, which by definition has atoms of at least two different elements, as well as at least one amine (nitrogen-containing) group.
High-valent iron commonly denotes compounds and intermediates in which iron is found in a formal oxidation state > 3 that show a number of bonds > 6 with a coordination number ≤ 6.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
Hydrastine is an alkaloid which was discovered in 1851 by Alfred P. Durand.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) is a public research university located in Indianapolis, Indiana.
The inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) is the mitochondrial membrane which separates the mitochondrial matrix from the intermembrane space.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
The Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA, pronounced; English: National Institute of Agricultural Research) is a French public research institute dedicated to agricultural science.
The International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) - was promoted by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) as a centre of excellence for research and training in genetic engineering and biotechnology for the benefit of developing countries.
InterPro is a database of protein families, domains and functional sites in which identifiable features found in known proteins can be applied to new protein sequences in order to functionally characterise them.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
The Karolinska Institute (KI; Karolinska Institutet; sometimes known as the (Royal) Caroline Institute in English) is a medical university in Solna within the Stockholm urban area of Sweden.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Lamellar ichthyosis, also known as ichthyosis lamellaris and nonbullous congenital ichthyosis, is a rare inherited skin disorder, affecting around 1 in 600,000 people.
Lanosterol is a tetracyclic triterpenoid and is the compound from which all animal and fungal steroids are derived.
Lanosterol 14α-demethylase (or CYP51A1) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved in the conversion of lanosterol to 4,4-dimethylcholesta-8(9),14,24-trien-3β-ol.
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a leukotriene involved in inflammation.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Lipoxins (LXs or Lxs), an acronym for lipoxygenase interaction products, are bioactive autacoid metabolites of arachidonic acid made by various cell types.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monooxygenases are enzymes that incorporate one hydroxyl group into substrates in many metabolic pathways.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Any enzyme system that includes cytochrome P450 protein or domain can be called a P450-containing system.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Pathogenic fungi are fungi that cause disease in humans or other organisms.
Pesticide resistance describes the decreased susceptibility of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective at controlling the pest.
Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.
Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone.
Porphyrins (/phɔɹfɚɪn/ ''POUR-fer-in'') are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (.
PROSITE is a protein database.
Prostacyclin (also called prostaglandin I2 or PGI2) is a prostaglandin member of the eicosanoid family of lipid molecules.
Prostaglandin-I synthase also known as prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin) synthase (PTGIS) or CYP8A1 is an enzyme involved in prostanoid biosynthesis that in humans is encoded by the PTGIS gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein superfamily is the largest grouping (clade) of proteins for which common ancestry can be inferred (see homology).
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, saprotrophic soil bacterium.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes a reduction reaction.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development.
Rhodococcus is a genus of aerobic, nonsporulating, nonmotile Gram-positive bacteria closely related to Mycobacterium and Corynebacterium.
Saccharopolyspora erythraea, formerly known as Streptomyces erythraeus, is a species of actinomycete bacteria within the genus Saccharopolyspora.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Steroid 11β-hydroxylase is a steroid hydroxylase found in the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Steroidogenic enzymes, or steroid-metabolizing enzymes, are enzymes that are involved in steroidogenesis and steroid metabolism.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Sulfolobus is a genus of microorganism in the family Sulfolobaceae.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.
A thermophile is an organism—a type of extremophile—that thrives at relatively high temperatures, between.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids.
Thromboxane A synthase 1 (platelet, cytochrome P450, family 5, subfamily A), also known as TBXAS1, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the TBXAS1 gene.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
Dioxygen complexes are coordination compounds that contain O2 as a ligand.
A transition metal oxo complex is a coordination complex containing an oxo ligand.
Tributyltin (TBT) is an umbrella term for a class of organotin compounds which contain the (C4H9)3Sn group, with a prominent example being tributyltin oxide.
A very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) is a fatty acid with 22 or more carbons.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Watercress is an aquatic plant species with the botanical name Nasturtium officinale. This should not be confused with the profoundly different and unrelated group of plants with the common name of nasturtium, within the genus Tropaeolum.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule.
(+)-Benzopyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide is an organic compound with molecular formula C20H14O3.
12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) is a derivative of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, containing a Hydroxyl residue at carbon 12 and a 5Z,8Z,10E,14Z Cis–trans isomerism configuration (Z.
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, also known as 20-HETE or 20-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid, is an eicosanoid metabolite of arachidonic acid that has a wide range of effects on the vascular system including the regulation of vascular tone, blood flow to specific organs, sodium and fluid transport in the kidney, and vascular pathway remodeling.
Steroid 21-hydroxylase, also called steroid 21-monooxygenase, 21α-Hydroxylase, P450 21A2, and, less commonly 21β-Hydroxylase, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved with the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones aldosterone and cortisol.
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (VD3 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP27B1 gene.
5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE, 5(S)-HETE, or 5S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid.
5-Oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5-oxo-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid; also termed 5-oxo-ETE and 5-oxoETE) is a Nonclassic eicosanoid metabolite of arachidonic acid and the most potent naturally occurring member of the 5-HETE family of cell signaling agents.
6',7'-Dihydroxybergamottin is a natural furanocoumarin found principally in grapefruit juice.
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