94 relations: Acute accent, Affricate consonant, All caps, Alphabet, Apophony, Apostrophe, Bible, Bible of Kralice, Capitalization, Caron, Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Clause, Code page 852, Colon (punctuation), Comma, Computer, Conjunction (grammar), Czech conjugation, Czech declension, Czech language, Czech phonology, Czech word order, Dž, Declension, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Diacritic, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, DOS, Dz (digraph), English language, Exclamation mark, FidoNet, Full stop, Gaj's Latin alphabet, Geography, German language, Grammar, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grapheme, Great Vowel Shift, Homophone, International Phonetic Alphabet, ISO/IEC 8859-2, Jan Hus, Josef Dobrovský, ..., Kamenický encoding, Karlštejn, Kolín, Latin, Latin alphabet, Letter case, Long s, Moravian dialects, Nové Město nad Metují, Orthographia bohemica, Orthography, Palatalization (sound change), Participle, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonology, Polish language, Polish orthography, Predicate (grammar), Prefix, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Pronoun, Question mark, Quotation mark, Ring (diacritic), Root (linguistics), Russian language, Scribal abbreviation, Semicolon, Sentence (linguistics), Sentence clause structure, Slavic languages, Slovak orthography, Slovene alphabet, Small caps, Subject (grammar), Suffix, Unicode, Unity of the Brethren, Voice (grammar), Vowel, Vowel breaking, Windows-1250. Expand index (44 more) » « Shrink index
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
In typography, all caps (short for "all capitals") refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters, for example:.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Bible of Kralice, also called the Kralice Bible (Bible kralická), was the first complete translation of the Bible from the original languages into the Czech language.
Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.
A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.
Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.
In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.
Code page 852 (also known as CP 852, IBM 00852, OEM 852 (Latin II), MS-DOS Latin 2) is a code page used under DOS to write Central European languages that use Latin script (such as Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Serbian, Slovak or Slovene).
The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.
The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
Czech conjugation is a term denoting Czech language verb conjugation, or system of grammatically-determined modifications, in verbs in the Czech language.
Czech declension is a complex system of grammatically determined modifications of nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals in the Czech language.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
Czech word order is relatively free.
Dž (titlecase form; all-capitals form DŽ, lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Gaj's Latin alphabet for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian), after D and before Đ. It is pronounced.
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
Dz is a digraph of the Latin script, consisting of the consonants D and Z. It may represent,, or, depending on the language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The exclamation mark (British English) or exclamation point (some dialects of American English) is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), or show emphasis, and often marks the end of a sentence.
Traditional FidoNet logo by John Madil FidoNet is a worldwide computer network that is used for communication between bulletin board systems (BBSes).
The full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (gâj); abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin). It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is currently used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
ISO/IEC 8859-2:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 2: Latin alphabet No.
Jan Hus (– 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rectorhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics. After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars. Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Roman Catholicism.
Josef Dobrovský (17 August 1753 – 6 January 1829) was a Czech philologist and historian, one of the most important figures of the Czech National Revival along with Josef Jungmann.
The Kamenický encoding (Czech: kódování Kamenických), named for the brothers Jiří and Marian Kamenický, was a code page for personal computers running DOS, very popular in Czechoslovakia (since 1993, the Czech Republic and Slovakia) around 1985–1995.
Karlštejn Castle (hrad Karlštejn; Burg Karlstein) is a large Gothic castle founded 1348 CE by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor-elect and King of Bohemia.
Kolín (Kolin) is a town in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic some east from Prague, lying on the Elbe River.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").
Moravian dialects (moravská nářečí, moravština) are the varieties of Czech spoken in Moravia, a historical region in the southeast of the Czech Republic.
Nové Město nad Metují (Neustadt an der Mettau) is a town on the river Metuje in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic.
De orthographia bohemica (On Bohemian Orthography) is a Latin work published between 1406 and 1412.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
The question mark (also known as interrogation point, query, or eroteme in journalism) is a punctuation mark that indicates an interrogative clause or phrase in many languages.
Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
The semicolon or semi colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
In grammar, sentence clause structure is the classification of sentences based on the number and kind of clauses in their syntactic structure.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The first Slovak orthography was proposed by Anton Bernolák (1762–1813) in his Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum, used in the six-volume Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary (1825–1927) and used pmarily by Slovak Catholics.
The Slovene alphabet (slovenska abeceda, or slovenska gajica) is an extension of the Latin script and is used in the Slovene language.
In typography, small capitals (usually abbreviated small caps) are lowercase characters typeset with glyphs that resemble uppercase letters ("capitals") but reduced in height and weight, close to the surrounding lowercase (small) letters or text figures, for example:.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Unity of the Brethren (Jednota bratrská; Latin: Unitas Fratrum), also known as the Czech or Bohemian Brethren, is a Protestant movement founded in the middle 15th century, whose roots are in the pre-Reformation work of Petr Chelčický and Jan Hus.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
Windows-1250 is a code page used under Microsoft Windows to represent texts in Central European and Eastern European languages that use Latin script, such as Polish, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Slovene, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian (Latin script), Romanian (before 1993 spelling reform) and Albanian.