209 relations: Adam Roberts (scholar), Adolf Hitler, Aero Vodochody, Alexander Dubček, Allies of World War I, Antonín Panenka, Appeasement, Atheism, Austria-Hungary, Austro-Slavism, Avia, Škoda Auto, Škoda Works, Bata Shoes, Beneš decrees, Black market, Bohemia, Bratislava, Carpathian Mountains, Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine, Catholic Church, Censorship, Central Europe, Citizenship, Civil resistance, Coat of arms of Czechoslovakia, Cold War, Comecon, Communism, Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, Constitution of Czechoslovakia, Constitutional Act on the Czechoslovak Federation, Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, Czech lands, Czech language, Czech Realist Party, Czech Socialist Republic, Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920, Czechoslovak government-in-exile, Czechoslovak Legion, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Czechoslovakia, Czechoslovakia men's national ice hockey team, Czechoslovakia national football team, Czechoslovakism, Czechs, Daniela Hantuchová, Danube, Declaration by United Nations, ..., Democratic Party (Slovakia), Democratic republic, Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Dominik Hašek, Eastern Bloc, Edvard Beneš, Effects on the environment in Czechoslovakia from Soviet influence during the Cold War, Emil Zátopek, Ethnic origin, Federation, FIFA World Cup, First Czechoslovak Republic, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), Football at the 1980 Summer Olympics, Football at the Summer Olympics, Former countries in Europe after 1815, František Palacký, Generalplan Ost, German occupation of Czechoslovakia, Germanisation, Germans, Guilt (emotion), Gustáv Husák, Hana Mandlíková, Helsinki Accords, History of Czechoslovakia (1918–38), Hungarian language, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarians, Hydroelectricity, Imperial Council (Austria), International Olympic Committee, International Women's Day, Interwar period, ISO 3166-3, Ivan Lendl, Jan Kodeš, Jana Novotná, Jaromír Jágr, Jazz in Czechoslovakia, Jews, Josef Kaizl, Karel Kramář, Karl Hermann Frank, Kde domov můj, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kurt Daluege, Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, Latin, Ležáky, Leninism, Leonid Brezhnev, Liberal democracy, Lidice, Lignite, List of Czechs, List of people on the postage stamps of Czechoslovakia, List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia, List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia, List of Slovaks, Little Entente, Lutheranism, Marián Gáborík, Marián Hossa, Martina Hingis, Martina Navratilova, Marxism, Marxism–Leninism, Milan Baroš, Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Miloslav Mečíř, Miroslav Šatan, Moravia, Munich Agreement, Nad Tatrou sa blýska, National Front (Czechoslovakia), Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, Niall Ferguson, Ninth-of-May Constitution, Nuclear power, Okres, Operation Anthropoid, Pavel Nedvěd, Pavol Demitra, Peter Šťastný, Peter Bondra, Petr Čech, Petr Klíma, Petra Kvitová, Petroleum, Planned economy, Poles, Polish People's Republic, Potsdam Agreement, Prague, Prague Spring, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Reinhard Heydrich, Resistance movement, Revolutions of 1989, Romanians, Romanticism, Rusyn language, Rusyns, Ruthenia, Ruthenians, Second Czechoslovak Republic, Siberia, Silesia, Slovak language, Slovak Republic (1939–1945), Slovak Socialist Republic, Slovaks, Socialist Republic of Romania, Socialist state, Sovereign state, Soviet Union, Sport of athletics, Sudetenland, Tatra (company), Telephone numbers in Slovakia, Telephone numbers in the Czech Republic, Tennis, The Prague Post, Theresienstadt concentration camp, Third Czechoslovak Republic, Timothy Garton Ash, Tomáš Baťa, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Tomáš Rosický, Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919), Truth prevails, Turnover tax, UEFA Euro 1976, UEFA Euro 1980, UEFA European Championship, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Universal health care, Universal Newsreel, Untermensch, Václav Havel, Věra Čáslavská, Velvet Revolution, Vladimír Šmicer, Warsaw Pact, Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, World War I, World War II, Yiddish, Young Czech Party, Zaolzie, Zbrojovka Brno, .cs, 1934 FIFA World Cup, 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état, 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia, 1962 FIFA World Cup, 1968 Red Square demonstration. Expand index (159 more) » « Shrink index
Sir Adam Roberts (born 29 August 1940) is Emeritus Professor of International Relations at Oxford University, a senior research fellow in Oxford University's Department of Politics and International Relations, and an emeritus fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Aero Vodochody (commonly referred to as Aero; Vodochody is a location) is a Czech (previous Czechoslovak) aircraft company, active from 1919, notable for producing the L-29 Delfin, L-39 Albatros, L-59 Super Albatros, and the L-159 Alca military light combat jet.
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Antonín Panenka (born 2 December 1948 in Prague) is a Czech former footballer who played as an attacking midfielder.
Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Austro-Slavism was a political concept and program aimed to solve problems of Slavic peoples in the Austrian Empire.
Avia is a Czech automotive manufacturer.
Škoda Auto, more commonly known as Škoda, is a Czech automobile manufacturer founded in 1895 as Laurin & Klement.
The Škoda Works (Škodovy závody) was one of the largest European industrial conglomerates of the 20th century, founded by Czech engineer Emil Škoda in 1859 in Plzeň, then in the Kingdom of Bohemia, Austrian Empire.
Bata Brands is a multinational shoes maker based in Lausanne, Switzerland.
The Decrees of the President of the Republic (Dekrety presidenta republiky, Dekréty prezidenta republiky) and the Constitutional Decrees of the President of the Republic (Ústavní dekrety presidenta republiky, Ústavné dekréty prezidenta republiky), commonly known as the Beneš decrees, were a series of laws drafted by the Czechoslovak government-in-exile in the absence of the Czechoslovak parliament during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in World War II.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Rusyn and Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Podkarpatská Rus; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.
Carpatho-Ukraine (Карпа́тська Украї́на, Karpats’ka Ukrayina) was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime.
The coat of arms of Czechoslovakia were changed many times during Czechoslovakia’s history, some alongside each other.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (Czech and Slovak: Komunistická strana Československa, KSČ) was a Communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992.
The constitutions of Czechoslovakia were in use from 1918 to the dissolution of the state in 1992.
The Constitutional Act on the Czechoslovak Federation (Ústavní zákon o československé federaci, Ústavný zákon o česko-slovenskej federácii) was a constitutional law in Czechoslovakia adopted on 27 October 1968 and in force from 1969 to 1992, by which the unitary Czechoslovak state was turned into a federation.
After the fall of communism in 1989, Czechoslovakia adopted the official name Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (Czech/Slovak: Česká a Slovenská Federativní/Federatívna Republika, ČSFR) during the period from 23 April 1990 until 31 December 1992, when the country was dissolved into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands (České země) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
The Czech Realist Party officially Czech Progressive Party founded as Czech People's Party (also known as "Realists") was founded in 1900 by Tomáš Masaryk, Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl.
The Czech Socialist Republic (Česká socialistická republika in Czech; abbreviated ČSR) was was from 1969 to 1990 the official name of Czechia.
After World War I, Czechoslovakia established itself and as a republic and democracy with the establishment of the Constitution of 1920.
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition.
The Czechoslovak Legion (Československé legie in Czech and Slovak) were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small number of Slovaks (approximately 8 percent) fighting together with the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the Allied Powers' support for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Czechoslovakia men's national ice hockey team was one of the world's premiere teams for the duration of its existence.
The Czechoslovakia national football team (Československá fotbalová reprezentace, Československé národné futbalové mužstvo) was the national association football team of Czechoslovakia from 1920 to 1992.
Czechoslovakism (Čechoslovakismus, Čechoslovakizmus) is the nationalism of Czechoslovaks and Czechoslovak culture either for which Czechs and Slovaks embrace a Pan-Slavic state in which they function as constituent nations (political form), or for which the two nations form a single West Slavic ethnic group (ethnic form of Czechoslovakism).
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Daniela Hantuchová (born 23 April 1983) is a retired tennis player from Slovakia.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed on 1 January 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments: the Allied "Big Four" (the US, the UK, the USSR, and China), nine other American countries in North and Central America and the Caribbean, the four British Dominions, British India, and eight Allied governments-in-exile, for a total of twenty-six nations.
The Democratic Party (Demokratická strana) was the name of two political parties in Slovakia, one active between 1944 and 1948, and the other between 1989 and 2006.
A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy.
The Dissolution of Czechoslovakia (Rozdělení Československa, Rozdelenie Česko-Slovenska), which took effect on 1 January 1993, was an event that saw the self-determined split of the federal state of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, entities that had arisen before as the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic in 1969 within the framework of Czechoslovak federalisation.
Dominik Hašek (born January 29, 1965) is a retired Czech ice hockey goaltender.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Edvard Beneš, sometimes anglicised to Edward Benesh (28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948), was a Czech politician and statesman who was President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948.
After World War II, the Soviet Union put in place five-year plans in the East European countries imitating their own five-year plans in order to recover from the war.
Emil Zátopek (19 September 1922 – 22 November 2000) was a Czechoslovak long-distance runner best known for winning three gold medals at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki.
The concept of ethnic origin is an attempt to classify people, not according to their current nationality, but according to commonalities in their social background.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
The first Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Československá republika) was the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938.
During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period, German citizens and people of German ancestry fled or were expelled from various Eastern and Central European countries and sent to the remaining territory of Germany and Austria.
The football tournament at the 1980 Summer Olympics started on July 20 and ended on August 2.
Association football has been included in every Summer Olympic Games as a men's competition sport, except 1896 and 1932.
This article gives a detailed listing of all the countries, including puppet states, that have existed in Europe since the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the present day.
František Palacký (14 June 1798 – 26 May 1876) was a Czech historian and politician, the most influential person of the Czech National Revival, called "Father of the Nation".
The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that he or she has compromised his or her own standards of conduct or has violated a universal moral standard and bears significant responsibility for that violation.
Gustáv Husák (10 January 1913 – 18 November 1991) was a Slovak politician, president of Czechoslovakia and a long-term Secretary General of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1969–1987).
Hana Mandlíková (born 19 February 1962) is a former professional tennis player from Czechoslovakia who later obtained Australian citizenship.
The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland, during July and August 1, 1975.
The Czechoslovak First Republic emerged from the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in October 1918.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
The Imperial Council (Reichsrat, Říšská rada, Rada Państwa, Consiglio Imperiale, Državni zbor) was the legislature of the Austrian Empire from 1861, and from 1867 the legislature of Cisleithania within Austria-Hungary.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
International Women's Day (IWD) is celebrated on March 8 every year.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
ISO 3166-3 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for country names which have been deleted from ISO 3166-1 since its first publication in 1974.
Ivan Lendl (born March 7, 1960) is a retired Czech-American professional tennis player.
Jan Kodeš (born 1 March 1946) is a Czech former tennis player who won three Grand Slam singles events in the early 1970s.
Jana Novotná (2 October 1968 – 19 November 2017) was a professional tennis player from the Czech Republic.
Jaromír Jágr (born 15 February 1972) is a Czech professional ice hockey right winger who is currently playing for HC Kladno in the 1st Czech Republic Hockey League.
Czechoslovakia’s jazz roots were established by Jaroslav Ježek and Rudolf Antonín Dvorský in the 1920s and 1930s.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Josef Kaizl (10 June 1854, Volyně – 19 August 1901, Myslkovice) was a well known Czech professor, economist, and politician in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Karel Kramář (27 December 1860 – 26 May 1937) was a Czech politician.
Karl Hermann Frank (24 January 1898 – 22 May 1946) was a prominent Sudeten German Nazi official in Czechoslovakia prior to and during World War II and an SS-Obergruppenführer.
Kde domov můj (English: "Where my home is") is the national anthem of the Czech Republic, written by the composer František Škroup and the playwright Josef Kajetán Tyl.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
Kurt Max Franz Daluege (15 September 1897 – 24 October 1946) was the chief of the national uniformed Ordnungspolizei (Order Police) of Nazi Germany.
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ("a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918).
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Ležáky (Ležak, from 1939: Lezaky), in the Miřetice municipality, was a village in Czechoslovakia.
Leninism is the political theory for the organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party and the achievement of a dictatorship of the proletariat as political prelude to the establishment of socialism.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Lidice (Liditz) is a village in the Kladno District of the Czech Republic, northwest of Prague.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
This is a partial list of famous Czech people. This list includes people of the Czech nationality as well as people having some significant Czech ancestry or association with Czech culture.
This list of people of stamps of Czechoslovakia is intended to end with the division into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The President of Czechoslovakia was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
The Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia was the head of government of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
The Slovak people are an ethnic group mostly inhabiting the modern-day nation of Slovakia, as well as near surrounding areas.
The Little Entente was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of common defense against Hungarian revanchism and the prevention of a Habsburg restoration.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Marián Gáborík (born 14 February 1982) is a Slovak professional ice hockey right winger for the Ottawa Senators of the National Hockey League (NHL).
Marián Hossa (born 12 January 1979) is a Slovak professional ice hockey right winger currently under contract for the Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League (NHL).
Martina Hingis (born 30 September 1980) is a Swiss former professional tennis player who spent a total of 209 weeks as the singles world No.
Martina Navratilova (Martina Navrátilová; born Martina Šubertová; October 18, 1956) is a former Czechoslovak and later American professional tennis player and coach.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Milan Baroš (born 28 October 1981) is a Czech football striker who currently plays for Baník Ostrava in the Czech First League.
Milan Rastislav Štefánik (21 July 1880 – 4 May 1919) was a Slovak politician, diplomat and astronomer.
Miloslav Mečíř (born 19 May 1964) is a former professional tennis player from Slovakia.
Miroslav Šatan (born October 22, 1974) is a Slovak former professional ice hockey right winger who most recently played for Slovan Bratislava of the Kontinental Hockey League (KHL).
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
"Nad Tatrou sa blýska" is the national anthem of Slovakia.
The National Front (in Czech: Národní fronta, in Slovak: Národný front) was the coalition of parties which headed the re-established Czechoslovakian government from 1945 to 1948.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
Niall Campbell Ferguson (born 18 April 1964) Niall Ferguson is a conservative British historian and political commentator.
The Ninth-of-May (1948) Constitution was the second constitution of Czechoslovakia, in force from 1948 to 1960.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Okres (Czech and Slovak term meaning "district" in English; from German Kreis - circle (or perimeter)) refers to administrative entities in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Operation Anthropoid was the code name for the assassination during World War II of Schutzstaffel (SS)-Obergruppenführer and General der Polizei Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Main Security Office, RSHA), the combined security services of Nazi Germany, and acting Reichsprotektor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
Pavel Nedvěd (born 30 August 1972) is a Czech retired footballer who played as a midfielder.
Pavol Demitra (29 November 1974 – 7 September 2011) was a Slovak professional ice hockey player.
Peter Šťastný (born 18 September 1956), also known colloquially as "Peter the Great" and "Stosh", is a retired Slovak-Canadian professional ice hockey player who played in the National Hockey League (NHL) from 1980 to 1995.
Peter Bondra (born February 7, 1968) is a Ukrainian-born Slovak former professional ice hockey player.
Petr Čech (born 20 May 1982) is a Czech professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Premier League club Arsenal.
Petr Klíma (born December 23, 1964) is a Czech former professional ice hockey forward.
Petra Kvitová (born 8 March 1990) is a Czech professional tennis player.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.
The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Rusyns, also known as Ruthenes (Rusyn: Русины Rusynŷ; also sometimes referred to as Руснакы Rusnakŷ – Rusnaks), are a primarily diasporic ethnic group who speak an East Slavic language known as Rusyn.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
Ruthenians and Ruthenes are Latin exonyms which were used in Western Europe for the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples, Rus' people with Ruthenian Greek Catholic religious background and Orthodox believers which lived outside the Rus'.
The Second Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Česko-Slovenská republika), sometimes also called the Czech-Slovak Republic, existed for 169 days, between 30 September 1938 and 15 March 1939.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát), was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.
The Slovak Socialist Republic (Slovenská socialistická republika; abbreviated SSR) was from 1969 to 1990 the official name of Slovakia.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
Tatra is a Czech vehicle manufacturer in Kopřivnice.
This page details the format and usage of telephone numbers in Slovakia.
Following the break-up of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the successor states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, continued to share the 42 country code until 28 February 1997, with the Czech Republic then adopting 420 and Slovakia adopting 421.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The Prague Post was an English language newspaper covering the Czech Republic and Central and Eastern Europe which published its first weekly issue on October 1, 1991.
Theresienstadt concentration camp, also referred to as Theresienstadt ghetto, was a concentration camp established by the SS during World War II in the garrison city of Terezín (Theresienstadt), located in German-occupied Czechoslovakia.
During World War II, Czechoslovakia disappeared from the map of Europe.
Timothy Garton Ash CMG FRSA (born 12 July 1955) is a British historian, author and commentator.
Tomáš Baťa (3 April 1876 – 12 July 1932) was a Czech entrepreneur, founder of the Bata Shoes company, one of the world's biggest multinational retailers, manufacturers and distributors of footwear and accessories.
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, sometimes anglicised to Thomas Masaryk (7 March 1850 – 14 September 1937), was a Czech politician, statesman, sociologist and philosopher.
Tomáš Rosický (born 4 October 1980) is a Czech former professional footballer who was the captain of the Czech Republic national team for a ten-year period.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.
"Truth prevails" (Pravda vítězí, Pravda víťazí, Veritas vincit) is the national motto of the Czech Republic.
A turnover tax is similar to VAT, with the difference that it taxes intermediate and possibly capital goods.
The 1976 UEFA European Football Championship final tournament was held in Yugoslavia.
The 1980 UEFA European Football Championship final tournament was held in Italy.
The UEFA European Championship (known informally as the Euros) is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.
Untermensch (underman, sub-man, subhuman; plural: Untermenschen) is a term that became infamous when the Nazis used it to describe non-Aryan "inferior people" often referred to as "the masses from the East", that is Jews, Roma, and Slavs – mainly ethnic Poles, Serbs, and later also Russians.
Václav Havel (5 October 193618 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
Věra Čáslavská (3 May 1942 – 30 August 2016) was a Czechoslovak artistic gymnast and Czech sports official.
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.
Vladimír Šmicer (born 24 May 1973) is a Czech former footballer who played as a midfielder.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
The Young Czech Party (Mladočeši, officially National Liberal Party, Národní strana svobodomyslná) was formed in the Bohemian crown land of Austria-Hungary in 1874.
Zaolzie is the Polish name for an area now in the Czech Republic which was disputed between interwar Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Pre-war Československá zbrojovka, akc.spol. and post-war Zbrojovka Brno, n.p. was a maker of small arms, light artillery, and motor vehicles in Brno, Czechoslovakia.
.cs was for several years the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Czechoslovakia.
The 1934 FIFA World Cup was the second FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
The 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état (often simply the Czech coup) (Únor 1948, Február 1948, both meaning "February 1948") – in Marxist historiography known as "Victorious February" (Vítězný únor, Víťazný február) – was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, marking the onset of four decades of communist rule in the country.
The Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Ústava Československé socialistické / Československej socialistickej republiky in Czech / Slovak), promulgated on 11 July 1960 as the constitutional law 100/1960 Sb., was the third constitution of Czechoslovakia, and the second of the Communist era.
The 1962 FIFA World Cup was the seventh FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football championship for men's national teams.
The 1968 Red Square demonstration (Демонстра́ция 25 а́вгуста 1968 го́да) took place on 25 August 1968 at Red Square, Moscow, Soviet Union, to protest the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies, that occurred during the night of 20–21 August 1968, crushing the Prague spring, a set of de-centralization reforms promoted by Alexander Dubček.
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