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Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
Adalbert of Prague (Adalbertus / Wojciech Sławnikowic); 95623 April 997), known in Czech by his birth name Vojtěch (Voitecus), was a Bohemian missionary and Christian saint. He was the Bishop of Prague and a missionary to the Hungarians, Poles, and Prussians, who was martyred in his efforts to convert the Baltic Prussians to Christianity. He is said to be the composer of the oldest Czech hymn Hospodine, pomiluj ny and Bogurodzica, the oldest known Polish hymn, but the authorship has not confirmed. St. Adalbert (or St.
Adam Václav Michna z Otradovic – literally Adam Václav Michna of Otradovice – (1600 – 2 November 1676, Jindřichův Hradec) was a Czech Catholic poet, composer, hymn writer, organist and choir leader of the early Baroque era.
Adolf Born (12 June 1930 – 22 May 2016) was a Czech painter, illustrator, caricaturist, and filmmaker.
Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos (10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was an Austrian and Czech architect and influential European theorist of modern architecture.
Agnes of Bohemia, O.S.C., (Svatá Anežka Česká, 20 June 1211 – 2 March 1282), also known as Agnes of Prague, was a medieval Bohemian princess who opted for a life of charity, mortification of the flesh and piety over a life of luxury and comfort.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Alberto Vojtěch Frič (8 September 1882 Prague – 4 December 1944 Prague) was a famous Czech botanist, ethnographer, writer and explorer.
Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna; 24 September 158325 February 1634),Schiller, Friedrich.
Alois Ferdinand Hrdlička, after 1918 changed to Aleš Hrdlička (March 29, 1869 – September 5, 1943), was an Austro-Hungarian anthropologist who lived in the United States after his family had moved there in 1881.
Alice Herz-Sommer, also known as Alice Sommer (26 November 1903 – 23 February 2014), was a Prague-born Jewish pianist, music teacher, and supercentenarian who survived Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Alois Hába (21 June 1893 – 18 November 1973) was a Czech composer, music theorist and teacher.
Alois Jirásek (August 23, 1851, Hronov, Kingdom of Bohemia – March 12, 1930, Prague) was a Czech writer, author of historical novels and plays.
Alois Musil (30 June 1868, Rychtářov, now part of Vyškov, Moravia, Austria-Hungary – 12 April 1944, Otryby, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia) was a Czech theologist, orientalist, explorer and writer.
Johann Alois Senefelder (6 November 177126 February 1834) was a German actor and playwright who invented the printing technique of lithography in the 1790s.
Alfons Maria Mucha (24 July 1860 – 14 July 1939), known as Alphonse Mucha, was a Czech Art Nouveau painter and decorative artist, known best for his distinct style.
Anton Joseph Cermak (Antonín Josef Čermák,; May 9, 1873 – March 6, 1933) was an American politician who served as the 34th mayor of Chicago, Illinois from April 7, 1931 until his death on March 6, 1933 from complications of an assassination attempt 23 days earlier.
Anton Raphael Mengs (March 22, 1728 – June 29, 1779) was a German Bohemian painter, active in Rome, Madrid and Saxony, who became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting.
Anton (Antonín, Antoine) Reicha (Rejcha) (26 February 1770 – 28 May 1836) was a Czech-born, later naturalized French composer.
Antonín Bečvář (10 June 1901 – 10 January 1965) was a Czech astronomer who was active in Slovakia.
Antonín Leopold Dvořák (8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer.
Antonín Mrkos (27 January 1918 – 29 May 1996) was a Czech astronomer, born in Střemchoví, Czechoslovakia.
Antonín Josef Novotný (10 December 1904 – 28 January 1975) was General Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1953 to 1968, and also held the post of President of Czechoslovakia from 1957 to 1968.
Antonín Panenka (born 2 December 1948 in Prague) is a Czech former footballer who played as an attacking midfielder.
Antonín Puč (16 May 1907 in Jinonice – 18 April 1988 in Prague) was a Czech footballer who played as a forward; he is the all-time leading scorer for the Czechoslovak national team.
Antonín Zápotocký (19 December 1884 – 13 November 1957) was communist Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1948 to 1953 and President of Czechoslovakia from 1953 to 1957.
Arnošt Lustig (21 December 1926 – 26 February 2011) was a renowned Czech Jewish author of novels, short stories, plays, and screenplays whose works have often involved the Holocaust.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Christopher Ashton Kutcher (born February 7, 1978) is an American actor and investor.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
August Carl Joseph Corda (1809–1849) was a Czech physician and mycologist.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Říp Mountain (hora Říp,; Georgsberg or Raudnitzer Berg), also known as Říp Hill, is a 459 m solitary hill rising up from the central Bohemian flatland where, according to legend, the first Czechs settled.
Štěpánka Hilgertová (née Prošková, born 10 April 1968 in Prague) is a former Czechoslovak-Czech slalom canoeist who competed at the international level from 1988 to 2017.
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the Körös/Criș river, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part in northeastern Serbia (mostly included in Vojvodina, except a part included in the Belgrade Region); and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary (Csongrád county).
Barbora Špotáková (born 30 June 1981) is a Czech track and field athlete who competes in the javelin throw.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
The Battle of White Mountain (Czech: Bitva na Bílé hoře, German: Schlacht am Weißen Berg) was an important battle in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War.
Bedřich (Friedrich) Hrozný (May 6, 1879 – December 12, 1952) was a Czech orientalist and linguist.
Bedřich Smetana (2 March 1824 – 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer who pioneered the development of a musical style that became closely identified with his country's aspirations to independent statehood.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Bernard Bolzano (born Bernardus Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano; 5 October 1781 – 18 December 1848) was a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest of Italian extraction, also known for his antimilitarist views.
Bertha Felicitas Sophie Freifrau von Suttner (Baroness Bertha von Suttner, née Countess Kinsky, Gräfin Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau; 9 June 184321 June 1914) was an Austrian-Bohemian pacifist and novelist.
Bořivoj I (Borzivogius, c. 852 – c. 889) was the first historically documented Duke of Bohemia and progenitor of the Přemyslid dynasty.
Božena Němcová (4 February 1820 in Vienna – 21 January 1862 in Prague) was a Czech writer of the final phase of the Czech National Revival movement.
Robert Holík (born January 1, 1971) is a retired Czech-American professional ice hockey center who played 18 seasons in the National Hockey League (NHL).
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
A Bohemian is a resident of Bohemia, a region of the Czech Republic or the former Kingdom of Bohemia, a region of the former Crown of Bohemia (lands of the Bohemian Crown).
The Bohemian Reformation (also known as the Czech Reformation or Hussite Reformation), preceding the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, was a Christian movement in the late medieval and early modern Kingdom and Crown of Bohemia (present-day Czech Republic) striving for a reform of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Bohemians (Behemanni) or Bohemian Slavs (Bohemos Slavos, Boemanos Sclavos), were an early Slavic tribe in Bohemia (modern Czech Republic).
Bohumil Hrabal (28 March 1914 – 3 February 1997) was a Czech writer, often cited as one of the best Czech writers of the 20th century.
Bohuslav Balbín (3 December 1621 Hradec Králové – 29 November 1688 Prague) was a Czech writer, historian, geographer and Jesuit, called the "Czech Pliny".
Bohuslav Jan Martinů (December 8, 1890 – August 28, 1959) was a Czech composer of modern classical music.
Bohuslav Sobotka (born 23 October 1971) is a Czech politician who served as the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from January 2014 to December 2017 and Leader of the Czech Social Democratic Party (ČSSD) from 2010 until his resignation in June 2017.
The Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Βόιοι) were a Gallic tribe of the later Iron Age, attested at various times in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), Pannonia (Hungary and its western neighbours), parts of Bavaria, in and around Bohemia (after whom the region is named in most languages; comprising the bulk of the Czech Republic), and Gallia Narbonensis.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Karel Bořivoj Presl (17 February 1794 – 2 October 1852) was a Czech botanist.
Carl Ferdinand Cori, ForMemRS (December 5, 1896 – October 20, 1984) was a Czech-American biochemist and pharmacologist born in Prague (then in Austria-Hungary, now Czech Republic) who, together with his wife Gerty Cori and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, received a Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of how glycogen (animal starch) – a derivative of glucose – is broken down and resynthesized in the body, for use as a store and source of energy.
Baron Carl von Rokitansky (Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Karel Rokytanský) (19 February 1804 – 23 July 1878), was a Bohemian Physician, Pathologist, humanist philosopher and liberal politician.
Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006) was an American politician and businessman.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The Central Bohemian Region (Středočeský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the central part of its historical region of Bohemia.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.
The Chod dialect (Czech: chodské nářečí) is a dialect of the Czech language.
Chris Joseph Columbus (born September 10, 1958) is an American filmmaker.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Cieszyn Silesian dialect (gwara cieszyńska or dialekt cieszyński; těšínské nářečí, speakers of the language refer to it as "po naszymu") is one of the Silesian dialects.
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.
In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.
Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to the period that started in the mid-1970s to early 1990s, which includes modernist, postmodern, neoromantic, and pluralist music.
Cosmas of Prague (Kosmas Pražský; Cosmas Decanus; – October 21, 1125) was a priest, writer and historian born in a noble family in Bohemia.
This article is about the culture of the Czech Republic.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Czech Americans (Čechoameričané), known in the 19th and early 20th century as Bohemian Americans, are citizens of the United States who are of Czech descent.
Czech Australians are Australian citizens of Czech ancestry.
Czech Brazilians refer to Brazilians of Czech descent who were born in or who trace their ancestry to the territory of the historic Czech lands or succession states, now known as the Czech Republic, and are residents and/or citizens of Brazil.
Czech Canadians are Canadian citizens of Czech ancestry or Czech Republic-born people who reside in Canada.
The Czech diaspora refers to both historical and present emigration from the Czech Republic, as well as from the former Czechoslovakia and the Czech lands (including Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia).
In the 1940s and 1950s, Jewish immigrants from Czechoslovakia—many of them survivors of The Holocaust—took part in founding no less than twenty communities in Israel, including.
The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands (České země) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czech National Revival was a cultural movement, which took part in the Czech lands during the 18th and 19th century.
Czech nobility consists of the noble families of the Czech lands that include Bohemian nobility, Moravian nobility and Silesian nobility.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czech Silesia (České Slezsko; Czeski Ślůnsk; Tschechisch-Schlesien; Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region of Silesia presently located in the Czech Republic.
The Czech and Slovak languages form the Czech–Slovak (or Czecho–Slovak) subgroup within the West Slavic languages.
The Czechoslovak Legion (Československé legie in Czech and Slovak) were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small number of Slovaks (approximately 8 percent) fighting together with the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the Allied Powers' support for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Czechoslovak New Wave (also Czech New Wave) is a term used for the 1960s films of Czech directors Miloš Forman, František Vláčil, Věra Chytilová, Ivan Passer, Pavel Juráček, Jaroslav Papoušek, Jiří Menzel, Jan Němec, Jaromil Jireš, Vojtěch Jasný, Evald Schorm, Elmar Klos and Slovak directors Dušan Hanák, Juraj Herz, Juraj Jakubisko, Štefan Uher, Ján Kadár, Elo Havetta and others.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Czech immigration in Argentina began during the World War 1 and it was split in four periods.
Czechs in the United Kingdom refers to the phenomenon of Czech people migrating to the United Kingdom from the Czech Republic or from the political entities that preceded it, such as Czechoslovakia.
Dana Zátopková (née Ingrová, born 19 September 1922) is a Czech former javelin thrower.
Daniela Hodrová (born 5 July 1946) is a Czech writer and literary scholar.
Daniela Peštová (born 14 October 1970) is a Czech model.
David Krejčí (born 28 April 1986) is a Czech professional ice hockey center/right wing currently serving as an alternate captain for the Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League (NHL).
David Navara (born 27 March 1985) is a Czech chess grandmaster, the highest-ranked player of his country.
David Popper (June 16, 1843 – August 7, 1913) was a Bohemian cellist and composer.
David Výborný (born January 22, 1975) is a retired Czech professional ice hockey player who last played for BK Mladá Boleslav of the Czech Extraliga.
The Defenestrations of Prague (Pražská defenestrace, Prager Fenstersturz, Defenestratio Pragensis) were two incidents in the history of Bohemia in which multiple people were defenestrated (that is, thrown out of a window).
Dominik Hašek (born January 29, 1965) is a retired Czech ice hockey goaltender.
Donald John Trump Jr. (born December 31, 1977) is an American businessman and former reality television personality.
The Duchy of Bohemia, also referred to as the Czech Duchy, (České knížectví) was a monarchy and a principality in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages.
The Germanic tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who may have moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between the years 600 and 300 BC.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Eduard Čech (29 June 1893 – 15 March 1960) was a Czech mathematician born in Stračov (then Bohemia, Austria-Hungary, now Czech Republic).
Eduard Hanslick (11 September 18256 August 1904) was a German Bohemian music critic.
Edvard Beneš, sometimes anglicised to Edward Benesh (28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948), was a Czech politician and statesman who was President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948.
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended in both directions to capture long-term trends from the 1890s to the First World War.
Egon Bondy, born Zbyněk Fišer, (January 20, 1930 in Prague – April 9, 2007 in Bratislava) was a Czech philosopher, writer, and poet, one of the leading personalities of the Prague underground.
Egon Erwin Kisch (29 April 1885, Prague – 31 March 1948, Prague) was an Austrian and Czechoslovak writer and journalist, who wrote in German.
Egon Schiele (12 June 1890 – 31 October 1918) was an Austrian painter.
Elmar Klos (26 January 1910 – 31 July 1993) was a Czechoslovak film director of Czech origin who collaborated for 17 years with his Slovak colleague Ján Kadár and with him won the 1965 Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film with the film The Shop on Main Street.
Emil František Burian (11 June 1904 – 9 August 1959) was a Czech poet, journalist, singer, actor, musician, composer, dramatic adviser, playwright and director.
Emil Dominik Josef Hácha (12 July 1872 – 27 June 1945) was a Czech lawyer, the third President of Czechoslovakia from 1938 to 1939.
Emil Holub (7 October 1847 – 21 February 1902) was a Czech physician, explorer, cartographer, and ethnographer in Africa.
Emil Orlik (July 21, 1870 – September 28, 1932) was a painter, etcher and lithographer.
Emil Zátopek (19 September 1922 – 22 November 2000) was a Czechoslovak long-distance runner best known for winning three gold medals at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki.
Emmy Destinn (26 February 1878 – 28 January 1930) was a Czech operatic soprano with a strong and soaring lyric-dramatic voice.
Erich Wolfgang Korngold (May 29, 1897 – November 29, 1957) was an Austrian-born composer and conductor.
Ernest André Gellner (9 December 1925 – 5 November 1995) was a British-Czech philosopher and social anthropologist described by The Daily Telegraph, when he died, as one of the world's most vigorous intellectuals, and by The Independent as a "one-man crusader for critical rationalism".
Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.
Erwin Schulhoff (Ervín Šulhov; 8 June 189418 August 1942) was a Czech composer and pianist.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Eugen Böhm Ritter von Bawerk (born Eugen Böhm, 12 February 1851 – 27 August 1914) was an Austrian economist who made important contributions to the development of the Austrian School of Economics.
Eugene Andrew Cernan (March 14, 1934 – January 16, 2017) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, electrical engineer, aeronautical engineer, and fighter pilot.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2007 was the 52nd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
The Eurovision Song Contest 2016 was the 61st edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest.
Eva Herzigová (born 10 March 1973) is a Czech model and actress.
The expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II was part of a series of evacuations and expulsions of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe during and after World War II.
Ferdinand Peroutka (6 February 1895 – 20 April 1978) was a Czech journalist and writer.
Ferdinand Porsche (3 September 1875 – 30 January 1951) was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company.
Ferdinand Karl Franz Schwarzmann, Ritter von Hebra (7 September 1816, in Brno, Moravia – 5 August 1880 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary) was an Austrian physician and dermatologist known as the founder of the New Vienna School of Dermatology, an important group of physicians who established the foundations of modern dermatology.
Ferdinand Stoliczka (Czech written Stolička, June 7, 1838 – June 19, 1874) was a Moravian palaeontologist who worked in India on paleontology, geology and various aspects of zoology, including ornithology, malacology, and herpetology.
Filip Jícha (born 19 April 1982) is a former Czech handballer.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
František Ladislav Čelakovský (7 March 1799 in Strakonice – 5 August 1852 in Prague) was a Czech writer and translator.
František Běhounek (27 October 1898 Prague – 1 January 1973 Karlovy Vary) was a Czech scientist (radiologist), explorer and writer.
František Xaver Brixi (2 January 1732 – 14 October 1771) was a Czech classical composer of the 18th century.
František Drtikol (3 March 1883, Příbram – 13 January 1961, Prague) was a Czech photographer of international renown.
František Josef Gerstner (Franz Josef von Gerstner, František Josef Gerstner; 23 February 1756 – 25 July 1832) was a Bohemian physicist and engineer.
František "Frank" Kaberle (born November 8, 1973) is a Czech former professional ice hockey defenceman.
František Křižík (July 8, 1847 – January 22, 1941) was a Czech inventor, electrical engineer, and entrepreneur.
František Kupka (23 September 1871 – 24 June 1957), also known as Frank Kupka or François Kupka, was a Czech painter and graphic artist.
František Langer (3 March 1888 – 2 August 1965) was a Czech playwright, military physician, script writer, essayist, literary critic and publicist.
František Palacký (14 June 1798 – 26 May 1876) was a Czech historian and politician, the most influential person of the Czech National Revival, called "Father of the Nation".
František Plánička (2 June 1904 – 20 July 1996) was a Czech football goalkeeper and one of the most honoured players in the history of Czechoslovak football.
Franz Bardon (1 December 1909 – 10 July 1958) was a Czech occultist and student and teacher of Hermetics.
Franz Benda or František Benda (baptised 22 November 1709, Benátky nad Jizerou – 7 March 1786, Potsdam) was a Bohemian violinist and composer, who worked for much of his life at the court of Frederick the Great.
Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.
Franz Viktor Werfel (10 September 1890 – 26 August 1945) was an Austrian-Bohemian novelist, playwright, and poet whose career spanned World War I, the Interwar period, and World War II.
Franz (Czech: František) Xaver Richter, known as François Xavier Richter in France (December 1, 1709 – September 12, 1789) was an Austro-Moravian singer, violinist, composer, conductor and music theoretician who spent most of his life first in Austria and later in Mannheim and in Strasbourg, where he was music director of the cathedral.
Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.
Count Friedrich Carl Eugen Vsemir von Berchtold, baron von Ungarschitz (Bedřich Karel Eugen Všemír Berchtold hrabě z Uherčic) (25 October 1781 – 3 April 1876), was a German-speaking Bohemian physician and botanist from Austrian descent.
Gabriela Gunčíková (born 27 June 1993), also known as Gabriela Gun, is a Czech singer.
Georg Joseph Kamel (Georgius Josephus Camellus; Jiří Josef Kamel; Jorge Camel; 21 April 1661 – 2 May 1706) was a Jesuit missionary, pharmacist and naturalist known for producing the first comprehensive accounts of Philippine flora and fauna and for introducing Philippine nature to the European learned world.
Georg Trakl (3 February 1887 – 3 November 1914) was an Austrian poet and brother of the pianist Grete Trakl.
George of Kunštát and Poděbrady (23 April 1420 – 22 March 1471), also known as Poděbrad or Podiebrad (Jiří z Poděbrad; Georg von Podiebrad), was King of Bohemia (1458–1471).
Jiří Voskovec, born Jiří Wachsmann and known in the United States as George Voskovec (June 19, 1905 – July 1, 1981) was a Czech actor, writer, dramatist, and director who became an American citizen in 1955.
German diaspora (Deutschstämmige; also, under National Socialism: Volksdeutsche) are ethnic Germans and their descendants living outside Germany.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz; August 15, 1896 – October 26, 1957) was a Jewish Czech-American biochemist who became the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Great Moravia (Regnum Marahensium; Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megálī Moravía; Velká Morava; Veľká Morava; Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland (including Silesia), and Hungary.
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.
Guido Adler (1 November 1855, Ivančice (Eibenschütz), Moravia – 15 February 1941, Vienna) was a Bohemian-Austrian musicologist and writer.
Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement.
Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.
Gustáv Husák (10 January 1913 – 18 November 1991) was a Slovak politician, president of Czechoslovakia and a long-term Secretary General of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1969–1987).
Hana Mandlíková (born 19 February 1962) is a former professional tennis player from Czechoslovakia who later obtained Australian citizenship.
Hans Kelsen (October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian jurist, legal philosopher and political philosopher.
E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup G (M201) is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup I (M170) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup J-M304, also known as J, (2 February 2016).
Haplogroup N (M231) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup defined by the presence of the SNP marker M231.
Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup T-M184, also known as Haplogroup T is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber (12 August 1644 (baptised) – 3 May 1704) was a Bohemian-Austrian composer and violinist.
Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst (8 June 18128 October 1865) was a Moravian-Jewish violinist, violist and composer.
Heinrich Wilhelm Schott (7 January 1794 in Brünn (Brno), Moravia – 5 March 1865 at Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna) was an Austrian botanist well known for his extensive work on aroids (Family Araceae).
Helena Suková (born 23 February 1965) is a former professional tennis player from the Czech Republic.
Herbert Feigl (December 14, 1902 – June 1, 1988) was an Austrian philosopher and a member of the Vienna Circle.
Herbert Lom (11 September 1917 – 27 September 2012) was a Czech-born British film and television actor who moved to the United Kingdom in 1939.
The history of what are now known as the Czech lands (České země) is very diverse.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Luxembourg (Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Ignaz Edler von Born, also known as Ignatius von Born (Born Ignác, Ignațiu von Born, Ignác Born) (26 December 1742 in Alba Iulia, Grand Principality of Transylvania, Habsburg Monarchy – 24 July 1791 in Vienna), was a mineralogist and metallurgist.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivan Hlinka (January 26, 1950 – August 16, 2004) was a Czech professional ice hockey player and coach.
Ivan Klíma (born 14 September 1931 in Prague, as Ivan Kauders) is a Czech novelist and playwright.
Ivan Král (born May 12, 1948, in Prague) is a Czech-born American composer, filmmaker, record producer, bass guitar player, and singer-songwriter.
Ivan Lendl (born March 7, 1960) is a retired Czech-American professional tennis player.
Ivana Marie Trump (née Zelníčková;, born February 20, 1949) is a former model and businesswoman, who was the first wife of Donald Trump.
Ivana Marie "Ivanka" Trump (born October 30, 1981) is an American businesswoman, fashion designer, author and reality television personality.
Ivo Viktor (born 21 May 1942 in Křelov) is a Czech former football goalkeeper.
Jakob Hlasek (Jakub Hlásek; born 12 November 1964) is a former professional tennis player from Switzerland of Czech origin.
Jakub Voráček (born 15 August 1989) is a Czech professional ice hockey right winger currently playing for the Philadelphia Flyers of the National Hockey League (NHL).
Jan Švankmajer (born 4 September 1934) is a Czech filmmaker and artist whose work spans several media.
Jan Železný (born 16 June 1966) is a retired Czech track and field athlete who competed in the javelin throw.
Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha (Johann Ziska; John Zizka of Trocnov and the Chalice) was a Czech general, a contemporary and follower of Jan Hus, Hussite military leader, and later also a Radical Hussite who led the Taborites.
Jan Dismas Zelenka (baptised Jan Lukáš Zelenka 16 October 1679 – 23 December 1745), also known as Johann Dismas Zelenka, sometimes Johannes Lucas Ignatius Dismas Zelenka, was a Czech composer and musician of the Baroque period.
Jan Evangelista Purkyně (also written Johann Evangelist Purkinje) (17 or 18 December 1787 – 28 July 1869) was a Czech anatomist and physiologist.
Jan Hammer (born 17 April 1948) is a Czech-born American musician, composer and record producer.
Jan Hus (– 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rectorhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics. After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars. Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Roman Catholicism.
Jan Kodeš (born 1 March 1946) is a Czech former tennis player who won three Grand Slam singles events in the early 1970s.
Jan Koller (born 30 March 1973) is a former Czech footballer who played as a striker.
Jan Kotěra (18 December 1871 – 17 April 1923) was a Czech architect, artist and interior designer, and one of the key figures of modern architecture in Bohemia.
Jan Kubelík (5 July 18805 December 1940) was a Czech violinist and composer.
Jan Kupecký or Ján Kupecký (in German: Johann Kupetzky, in Hungarian: Kupecky János, or Kupeczky János, 1667, Bazin, Royal Hungary (today Pezinok, Slovakia) – 16 July 1740, Nürnberg) was a Czech portrait painter during the baroque.
Jan Ladislav Dussek (baptized Jan Václav Dusík,Černušák, p. 271 with surname also written as Duschek or Düssek; 12 February 176020 March 1812) was a Czech composer and pianist.
Jan Marek Marci FRS, Johannes Marcus Marci de Cronland (June 13, 1595, (Lanscron, Landeskrone, Cronland, Kronland, vertical-align|), Royal Bohemia, Bohemian Crownland, AustriaApril 10, 1667, Prague, R.Bohemia, Bohemian Crownland, Austria), or Johannes (Ioannes) Marcus Marci, was a Bohemian doctor and scientist, rector of the University of Prague, and official physician to the Holy Roman Emperors.
Jan Garrigue Masaryk (14 September 1886 – 10 March 1948) was a Czech diplomat and politician who served as the Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1940 to 1948.
Jan Alojzy Matejko (also known as Jan Mateyko; June 24, 1838 – November 1, 1893) was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events.
Jan Mukařovský (11 November 1891 – 8 February 1975) was a Czech literary, linguistic, and aesthetic theorist.
Jan Nepomuk Neruda (Czech: ˈjan ˈnɛpomuk ˈnɛruda; 9 July 1834 – 22 August 1891) was a Czech journalist, writer, poet, art critic, one of the most prominent representatives of Czech Realism and a member of the "May School".
Jan Palach (11 August 1948 – 19 January 1969) was a Czech student of history and political economy at Charles University in Prague.
Jan Patočka (1 June 1907 – 13 March 1977) was a Czech philosopher.
John of Rokycany, also known as Jan of Rokycany, in Czech language Jan Rokycana, and Jan z Rokycan (c. 1396 in Rokycany, Bohemia - 21 February 1471 in Prague) was a Czech Hussite theologian in the Kingdom of Bohemia and a key figure in Bohemian church history.
Jan Blažej Santini Aichel (3 February 1677 – 7 December 1723) was a Czech architect of Italian descent, whose major works represent the unique Baroque Gothic style - the special combination of the Baroque and Gothic styles.
Jan Saudek (born 13 May 1935 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech art photographer and painter.
Jan Svatopluk Presl (4 September 1791 – 6 April 1849) was a Bohemian natural scientist.
Jan Svěrák (born 6 February 1965 in Žatec) is a Czech film director.
Jan Veselý (born April 24, 1990) is a Czech professional basketball player for Fenerbahçe of the Turkish Basketball Super League and the EuroLeague.
Jan Werich (6 February 1905 – 31 October 1980) was a Czech actor, playwright and writer.
Jana Novotná (2 October 1968 – 19 November 2017) was a professional tennis player from the Czech Republic.
Jarmila Kratochvílová (born 26 January 1951, in Golčův Jeníkov) is a Czech former track and field athlete.
Jaromír Jágr (born 15 February 1972) is a Czech professional ice hockey right winger who is currently playing for HC Kladno in the 1st Czech Republic Hockey League.
Jaroslav Drobný (12 October 1921 - 13 September 2001) was a former World No. 1 amateur tennis champion as well as being an ice hockey player.
Jaroslav Hašek (30 April 1883 – 3 January 1923) was a Czech writer, humorist, satirist, journalist, bohemian and anarchist.
Jaroslav Heyrovský (December 20, 1890 – March 27, 1967) was a Czech chemist and inventor.
Jaroslav Pouzar (born January 23, 1952) is a Czech former professional ice hockey forward.
Jaroslav Seifert (23 September 1901 – 10 January 1986) was a Nobel Prize–winning Czechoslovak writer, poet and journalist.
Jaroslav Vrchlický (17 February 1853 – 9 September 1912) was one of the greatest Czech lyrical poets.
Jason Thomas Mraz (born June 23, 1977) is an American singer-songwriter who first came to prominence in the San Diego coffee shop scene in 2000.
Jáchym Topol (born 4 August 1962) is a Czech writer.
Ján Kollár (29 July 1793 in Mošovce (Mosóc), Kingdom of Hungary, Habsburg Monarchy, now Slovakia – 24 January 1852 in Vienna, Austrian Empire) was a Slovak writer (mainly poet), archaeologist, scientist, politician, and main ideologist of Pan-Slavism.
Jerome of Prague (Jeroným Pražský in Czech, 1379 in Prague, Kingdom of Bohemia in the Holy Roman Empire – 30 May 1416 in Konstanz, Bishopric of Constance in the Holy Roman Empire) was a Czech scholastic philosopher, theologian, reformer, and professor.
Jerzy Karol Buzek (born 3 July 1940) is a Polish politician and Member of the European Parliament from Poland.
Jiří Antonín Benda, also Georg Anton Benda (30 June 17226 November 1795), was a Czech composer, violinist and Kapellmeister of the classical period.
Jiří Šlégr (born 30 May 1971) is a former Czech professional ice hockey defenceman.
Jiří Bělohlávek CBE (24 February 1946 – 31 May 2017) was a Czech conductor.
Jiří Dienstbier (20 April 1937, in Kladno – 8 January 2011, in Prague) was a Czech politician and journalist.
Jiří Holeček (born March 18, 1944) is a Czech professional ice hockey coach and former player.
Jiří Hrdina (born January 5, 1958 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech former professional ice hockey player.
Jiří Kylián (born 21 March 1947) is a Czech former dancer and contemporary dance choreographer.
Jiří Menzel (born 23 February 1938, Prague) is a Czech film director, theatre director, actor, and screenwriter.
Jiří Paroubek (born 21 August 1952) is a Czech politician, who was the Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from April 2005 to August 2006.
Jiří Trnka (24 February 1912 – 30 December 1969) was a Czech puppet-maker, illustrator, motion-picture animator and film director.
Jiří Wolker (29 March 1900 – 3 January 1924) was a Czech poet, journalist and playwright.
Jiří Zídek Sr. (born February 8, 1944) is a retired Czech professional basketball player.
James Robert Jarmusch (born January 22, 1953) is an American film director, screenwriter, actor, producer, editor, and composer.
James Arthur Lovell Jr. (born March 25, 1928) is a former NASA astronaut, Naval Aviator, and retired Navy captain.
Johann Baptist Wanhal (May 12, 1739 – August 20, 1813), also spelled Waṅhal (the spelling the composer himself and at least one of his publishers used), Wanhall, Vanhal and Van Hall (the modern Czech form Jan Křtitel Vaňhal was introduced in the 20th century"He himself spelt his name Johann Baptist Waṅhal; his Viennese contemporaries and most scholars until World War II used the spelling Waṅhal, but later in the 20th century a modern Czech form, Jan Křtitel Vaňhal, was erroneously introduced." Paul Robey Bryan, "Vanhal, Johann Baptist " in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie (New York: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2001), 19:592.), was an important Czech classical music composer.
Johann Josef Loschmidt (15 March 1821 – 8 July 1895), who referred to himself mostly as Josef Loschmidt (omitting his first name), was a notable Austrian scientist who performed ground-breaking work in chemistry, physics (thermodynamics, optics, electrodynamics), and crystal forms.
Johann Palisa (December 6, 1848 – May 2, 1925) was an Austrian astronomer, born in Troppau in Austrian Silesia (now in the Czech Republic).
Jan Václav Antonín Stamic (later, during his life in Mannheim, Germanized as Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz; 18 June 1717, Deutschbrod, Bohemia – 27 March 1757, Mannheim, Electorate of the Palatinate) was a Czech composer and violinist.
John Amos Comenius (Jan Amos Komenský; Johann Amos Comenius; Latinized: Ioannes Amos Comenius; 28 March 1592 – 15 November 1670) was a Czech philosopher, pedagogue and theologian from the Margraviate of Moravia"Clamores Eliae" he dedicated "To my lovely mother, Moravia, one of her faithful son...". Clamores Eliae, p.69, Kastellaun/Hunsrück: A. Henn, 1977.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
Saint John of Nepomuk (or John Nepomucene) (Jan Nepomucký; Johannes Nepomuk; Ioannes Nepomucenus) (1345 – March 20, 1393) is the saint of Bohemia (Czech Republic), who was drowned in the Vltava river at the behest of Wenceslaus, King of the Romans and King of Bohemia.
Josef Čapek (23 March 1887 – April 1945) was a Czech artist who was best known as a painter, but who was also noted as a writer and a poet.
Josef Škvorecký, (September 27, 1924 – January 3, 2012) was a Czech-Canadian writer and publisher.
Josef "Pepi" Bican (25 September 1913 – 12 December 2001) was a Czech-Austrian football striker.
Josef Bohuslav Foerster (30 December 1859 – 29 May 1951) was a Czech composer of classical music.
Josef Dobrovský (17 August 1753 – 6 January 1829) was a Czech philologist and historian, one of the most important figures of the Czech National Revival along with Josef Jungmann.
Josef Gočár (13 March 1880 in Semín near Přelouč – 10 September 1945 in Jičín), was a Czech architect, one of the founders of modern architecture in Czechoslovakia.
Josef Hoffmann (15 December 1870 – 7 May 1956) was an Austrian architect and designer of consumer goods who co-established Wiener Werkstätte.
Josef Holeček (25 January 1921, Říčany – 20 February 2005) was a Czechoslovakian sprint canoeist who competed in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Josef Jungmann (16 July 1773 in Hudlice, near Beroun – 14 November 1847 in Prague) was a Czech poet and linguist, and a leading figure of the Czech National Revival.
Josef Kajetán Tyl (4 February 180811 July 1856) was a significant Czech dramatist, writer, and actor.
Josef Koudelka (born 10 January 1938) is a Czech–French photographer.
Josef Lada (born 17 December 1887 in Hrusice, Bohemia – 14 December 1957 in Prague, buried at Olšany Cemetery) was a Czech painter, illustrator and writer.
Josef Masopust (9 February 1931 – 29 June 2015) was a Czech football player and coach.
Josef Mánes (12 May 1820, Prague – 9 December 1871, Prague) was a Czech painter.
Josef Mysliveček (9 March 1737 – 4 February 1781) was a Czech composer who contributed to the formation of late eighteenth-century classicism in music.
Joseph Ludwig Franz Ressel (Josef Ludvík František Ressel; 29 June 1793 – 9 October 1857) was an Austrian forester and inventor of Czech-German descent, who designed one of the first working ship's propellers.
Josef Sudek (17 March 1896, Kolín, Bohemia – 15 September 1976, Prague) was a Czech photographer, best known for his photographs of Prague.
Josef Suk (4 January 1874 – 29 May 1935) was a Czech composer and violinist.
Josef Václav Myslbek (20 June 1848 – 2 June 1922) was a Czech sculptor and medalist credited with founding the modern Czech sculpting style.
Joseph Škoda (10 December 1805 – 13 June 1881) was a Czech physician, medical professor and dermatologist.
Johann Josef Wenzel Anton Franz Karl, Graf Radetzky von Radetz (John Joseph Wenceslaus Anthony Francis Charles, Count Radetzky of Radetz; Jan Josef Václav Antonín František Karel hrabě Radecký z Radče 2 November 1766 – 5 January 1858) was a Czech nobleman and field marshal, a member of House of Radetzky in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.
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Julius Fučík (18 July 1872 – 25 September 1916) was a Czech composer and conductor of military bands.
Julius Fučík (23 February 1903 – 8 September 1943) was a Czechoslovak journalist, an active member of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, and part of the forefront of the anti-Nazi resistance.
Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism.
Julius Zeyer (26 April 1841 – 29 January 1901) was a Czech prose writer, poet, and playwright.
Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (September 12, 1902 – August 22, 1976), known also by his initials JK, was a prominent Brazilian politician who served as the 21st President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961.
The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.
Karel Absolon (16 June 1877 – 6 October 1960) was a Czech archaeologist, geographer, paleontologist, and speleologist.
Karel Ančerl (11 April 1908 – 3 July 1973) was a Czechoslovak conductor, renowned especially for his performances of contemporary music and for his interpretations of music by Czech composers.
Karel Čapek (9 January 1890 – 25 December 1938) was a Czech writer of the early 20th century.
Karel Škréta Šotnovský ze Závořic (1610-1674) was a Czech portrait painter who worked in the Baroque style.
Karel Domin (4 May 1882, Kutná Hora, Kingdom of Bohemia – 10 June 1953, Prague) was a Czech botanist and politician.
Karel Gott (born 14 July 1939, Plzeň), is a Czech singer, and an amateur painter.
Karel Havlíček Borovský (Borová, today Havlíčkova Borová; 31 October 1821 – 29 July 1856) was a Czech writer, poet, critic, politician, journalist, and publisher.
Karel Hynek Mácha (16 November 1810 – 5 November 1836) was a Czech romantic poet.
Karel Jaromír Erben (7 November 1811 – 21 November 1870) was a Czech folklorist and poet of the mid-19th century, best known for his collection Kytice (Bouquet), which contains poems based on traditional and folkloric themes.
Karel Kosík (26 June 1926 – 21 February 2003) was a Czech Neomarxist philosopher.
Karel Kryl (April 12, 1944 Kroměříž – March 3, 1994 Munich) was an iconic Czechoslovak (Moravian born and Czech speaking) poet, singer-songwriter and performer of many hit protest songs in which he identified and attacked the hypocrisy, stupidity and inhumanity of the Communist and later also the post-communist regimes in his home country.
Karel Poborský (born 30 March 1972) is a retired Czech professional footballer who played as a right winger.
Karel Reisz (21 July 1926 – 25 November 2002) was a British filmmaker who was active in post–World War II Britain, and one of the pioneers of the new realist strain in British cinema during the 1950s and 1960s.
Karel Roden (born 18 May 1962) is a Czech actor, popularly known for his roles in Hellboy and The Bourne Supremacy, and his voice work in Grand Theft Auto IV.
Karel Slavíček,, (12 December 1678 – 24 September 1735) was a Jesuit missionary and scientist, the first Czech sinologist and author of the first precise map of Beijing.
Karel Svoboda (19 December 1938 – 28 January 2007) was a Czech composer of popular music.
Karel Teige (13 December 1900 – 1 October 1951) was a Czech modernist avant-garde artist, writer, critic and one of the most important figures of the 1920s and 1930s movement.
Karel Zeman (November 3, 1910 – April 5, 1989) was a Czech film director, artist, production designer and animator, best known for directing fantasy films combining live-action footage with animation.
Karl Guthe Jansky (October 22, 1905 – February 14, 1950) was an American physicist and radio engineer who in August 1931 first discovered radio waves emanating from the Milky Way.
Karl Johann Kautsky (16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician.
Karl Kraus (April 28, 1874 – June 12, 1936) was an Austrian writer and journalist, known as a satirist, essayist, aphorist, playwright and poet.
Karl Renner (14 December 1870 – 31 December 1950) was an Austrian politician of the Socialist Party.
Karl von Terzaghi (October 2, 1883 – October 25, 1963) was an Austrian civil engineer, geotechnical engineer and geologist known as the "father of soil mechanics".
Karolína Kurková (born 28 February 1984) is a Czech model and actress, best known as a former Victoria's Secret Angel and Vogue cover star.
Karolína Plíšková (born 21 March 1992) is a Czech professional tennis player.
Count Kaspar Maria von Sternberg (also: Caspar Maria, Count Sternberg, Kaspar Maria Graf Sternberg, hrabě Kašpar Maria Šternberk), 1761, Prague – 1838, Březina Castle, was a Bohemian theologian, mineralogist, geognost, entomologist and botanist.
Kateřina Neumannová (born 15 February 1973) is a retired Czech cross-country skier.
Kathleen Genevieve Ledecky (born March 17, 1997) is an American competitive swimmer.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer (Kilián Ignác Dientzenhofer) (1 September 1689, Prague – 18 December 1751) was a Bohemian architect of the Baroque era.
Marilyn Pauline "Kim" Novak (born February 13, 1933) is a retired American film and television actress.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
Klement Gottwald (23 November 1896 – 14 March 1953) was a Czechoslovak Communist politician, who was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1929 until 1945 and party chairman until his death in 1953.
Konstantin Josef Jireček (24 July 1854 10 January 1918) was an Austro-Hungarian Czech historian, politician, diplomat, and Slavist.
Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.
Kuusankoski is a neighborhood of city of Kouvola, former industrial town and municipality of Finland, located in the region of Kymenlaakso in the province of Southern Finland.
Ladislav Klíma (22 August 1878 – 19 April 1928), was a Czech philosopher and novelist influenced by George Berkeley, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche.
Ležáky (Ležak, from 1939: Lezaky), in the Miřetice municipality, was a village in Czechoslovakia.
Lech, Czech and Rus refers to a founding myth of three Slavic peoples: the Poles (or Lechites), the Czechs, and the Rus' people.
Leopold Perutz (2 November 1882, Prague – 25 August 1957, Bad Ischl) was an Austrian novelist and mathematician.
Leoš Janáček (baptised Leo Eugen Janáček; 3 July 1854 – 12 August 1928) was a Czech composer, musical theorist, folklorist, publicist and teacher.
Libuše Šafránková (born 7 June 1953 in Brno, Czechoslovakia) is a Czech actress.
Lidice (Liditz) is a village in the Kladno District of the Czech Republic, northwest of Prague.
This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia.
This is a partial list of famous Czech people. This list includes people of the Czech nationality as well as people having some significant Czech ancestry or association with Czech culture.
The President of Czechoslovakia was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
This is a list of Presidents of the Czech Republic, a political office that was created in 1993 following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia.
The Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia was the head of government of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
This is list of Prime Ministers of the Czech Republic.
Lubor Niederle (September 20, 1865 – June 14, 1944) was a Czech archeologist, anthropologist and ethnographer.
Ludvík Svoboda (25 November 1895 – 20 September 1979) was a Czechoslovak general and politician.
Luká is a village and municipality (obec) in Olomouc District in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright (born May 15, 1937) is an American politician and diplomat.
Magdalena Kožená (also Lady Rattle;; born 26 May 1973) is a Czech mezzo-soprano.
Mannheim school refers to both the orchestral techniques pioneered by the court orchestra of Mannheim in the latter half of the 18th century as well as the group of composers of the early classical period, who composed for the orchestra of Mannheim.
Marek Jankulovski (born 9 May 1977) is a retired Czech footballer who played as a defender.
Maria Jeritza (6 October 188710 July 1982) was a Czech soprano singer, long associated with the Vienna State Opera (1912–1935) and the Metropolitan Opera (1921–1932 and 1951).
Baroness Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach (Marie von Ebner-Eschenbachová, Marie Freifrau von Ebner-Eschenbach; September 13, 1830March 12, 1916) was an Austrian writer.
Martin Doktor (born 21 May 1974 in Polička, Czechoslovakia) is the Czech Republic's best-known sprint canoeist.
Martin Procházka (born March 3, 1972 in Slaný, Czechoslovakia) is a retired professional ice hockey player who played for HC Kladno in the Czech Extraliga.
Martin Straka (born September 3, 1972) is a retired Czech ice hockey centre who most recently played for HC Plzeň 1929 of the Czech Extraliga.
Martina Navratilova (Martina Navrátilová; born Martina Šubertová; October 18, 1956) is a former Czechoslovak and later American professional tennis player and coach.
Martina Sáblíková (born 27 May 1987) is a Czech speed skater, specializing in long distance races.
Matthias Bernard Braun (Czech: Matyáš Bernard Braun, 24 February 1684 in Sautens near Innsbruck – 15 February 1738 in Prague) was a sculptor and carver active in the Czech lands, one of the most prominent late baroque style sculptors in the area.
Max Švabinský (1873–1963) was a Czech painter, draughtsman, graphic artist, and professor in Academy of Graphic Arts in Prague.
Max Brod (Hebrew: מקס ברוד; May 27, 1884 – December 20, 1968) was a German-speaking Jewish Czech, later Israeli, author, composer, and journalist.
Max Dvořák (4 June 1874, Roudnice nad Labem, Bohemia – 8 February 1921, Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou, Czechoslovakia) was a Czech-born Austrian art historian.
Max Wertheimer (April 15, 1880 – October 12, 1943) was an Austro-Hungarian-born psychologist who was one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology, along with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler.
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.
Michal Rozsíval (born 3 September 1978) is a Czech professional ice hockey defenceman currently playing for the Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League (NHL).
Michal Viewegh (born 31 March 1962 in Prague) is a contemporary Czech writer.
Microtonal music or microtonality is the use in music of microtones—intervals smaller than a semitone, also called "microintervals".
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Mikoláš Aleš (18 November 1852 – 10 July 1913), was a Czech painter.
Milada Horáková (née Králová, 25 December 1901 – 27 June 1950) was a Czech politician.
Milan Baroš (born 28 October 1981) is a Czech football striker who currently plays for Baník Ostrava in the Czech First League.
Milan Hejduk (born February 14, 1976) is a retired Czech American professional ice hockey forward.
Milan Kundera (born 1 April 1929) is a Czech-born French writer who went into exile in France in 1975, and became a naturalised French citizen in 1981.
Milena Jesenská (10 August 1896 – 17 May 1944) was a Czech journalist, writer, editor and translator.
Jan Tomáš "Miloš" Forman (18 February 1932 – 13 April 2018) was a Czech American film director, screenwriter, actor and professor who, until 1968, lived and worked primarily in the former Czechoslovakia.
Miloš Zeman (born 28 September 1944) is a Czech politician serving as the third and current President of the Czech Republic since 8 March 2013.
Miloslav Kabeláč (1 August 1908 – 17 September 1979) was a prominent Czech composer and conductor.
Mirek Topolánek (born 15 May 1956) is a Czech politician and business manager who served as Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from 2006 to 2009 and Leader of the Civic Democratic Party (ODS) from November 2002 to April 2010.
Prof. Miroslav Hroch (born 14 June 1932 in Prague) is a Czech historian and political theorist and a professor at the Charles University in Prague.
Miroslav Katětov (March 17, 1918, Chembar, Russia – December 15, 1995) was a Czech mathematician, chess master, and psychologist.
Miroslav Verner (born October 31, 1941 in Brno) is a Czech egyptologist, who specializes in the history and archaeology of Ancient Egypt of the Old Kingdom and especially of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In music, modernism is a philosophical and aesthetic stance underlying the period of change and development in musical language that occurred around the turn of the 20th century, a period of diverse reactions in challenging and reinterpreting older categories of music, innovations that led to new ways of organizing and approaching harmonic, melodic, sonic, and rhythmic aspects of music, and changes in aesthetic worldviews in close relation to the larger identifiable period of modernism in the arts of the time.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
Moravians (Czech: Moravané or colloquially Moraváci) are a West Slavic ethnographic group from the Moravia region of the Czech Republic, who speak the Moravian dialects of the Czech language or Common Czech or a mixed form of both.
The Moymirid dynasty (Latin: Moimarii, Czech and Slovak: Mojmírovci) was a Moravian ruling dynasty that ruled over Moravia in the 9th and early 10th century.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
Music of the Czech Republic comprises the musical traditions of that state or the historical entities of which it is compound, i.e. the Czech lands (Bohemia, Moravia, Czech Silesia).
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Theatre (Národní divadlo) in Prague is known as the alma mater of Czech opera, and as the national monument of Czech history and art.
Nations and Nationalism is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research on nationalism and related issues.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Největší Čech (The Greatest Czech) is the Czech spin-off of the BBC ''Greatest Britons'' show; a television poll of the populace to name the greatest Czech in history.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
Oldřich Nejedlý (26 December 1909 — 11 June 1990) was a Czech footballer, who spent his entire career at Sparta Prague as an inside-forward.
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is a 1975 American comedy-drama film directed by Miloš Forman, based on the 1962 novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey.
Oskar Kokoschka (1 March 188622 February 1980) was an Austrian artist, poet and playwright best known for his intense expressionistic portraits and landscapes.
Oskar Nedbal (26 March 1874 – 24 December 1930) was a Czech violist, composer, and conductor of classical music.
Oskar Schindler (28 April 1908 – 9 October 1974) was a German industrialist and a member of the Nazi Party who is credited with saving the lives of 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust by employing them in his enamelware and ammunitions factories in occupied Poland and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
Otakar Borůvka (10 May 1899 in Uherský Ostroh – 22 July 1995 in Brno) was a Czech mathematician best known today for his work in graph theory, long before this was an established mathematical discipline.
Otto Wichterle (27 October 1913 in Prostějov in Austria-Hungary, now the Czech Republic – 18 August 1998) was a Czech chemist, best known for his invention of modern soft contact lenses.
Ottokar I (Přemysl I. Otakar; c. 1155 – 1230) was Duke of Bohemia periodically beginning in 1192, then acquired the title King of Bohemia, first in 1198 from Philip of Swabia, later in 1203 from Otto IV of Brunswick and in 1212 from Frederick.
Ottokar II (Přemysl Otakar II; c. 1233 – 26 August 1278), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278.
Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century, is the political ideology concerned with the advancement of integrity and unity for the Slavic-speaking peoples.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
Patrik Eliáš (born 13 April 1976) is a retired Czech professional hockey winger who played 20 seasons in the National Hockey League with the New Jersey Devils.
Patrik Ouředník (in French sometimes known as Patrick; born April 23, 1957 in Prague) is a Czech author and translator, living in France.
Paulina Porizkova (born Pavlína Pořízková;; 9 April 1965) is a Czech-born Swedish model, actress, author and feminist, who holds dual U.S. and Swedish citizenship.
Pavel Haas (21 June 189917 October 1944) was a Czech composer who was murdered during the Holocaust.
Pavel Janáček (born January 16, 1968 in Prague) is a Czech literary historian and critic.
Pavel Jozef Šafárik (13 May 1795 – 26 June 1861) was a Slovak philologist, poet, one of the first scientific Slavists; literary historian, historian and ethnographer.
Pavel Kohout (born 20 July 1928) is a Czech and Austrian novelist, playwright, and poet.
Pavel Nedvěd (born 30 August 1972) is a Czech retired footballer who played as a midfielder.
Pavel Patera (born September 6, 1971 in Kladno, Czechoslovakia, now the Czech Republic), is a former Czech professional ice hockey player.
Pavel Pavel (born March 11, 1957 in Strakonice) is a Czech engineer and experimental archaeologist best known for investigating how ancient civilizations transported heavy weights.
The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid (Přemyslovci, Premysliden, Przemyślidzi) was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia (9th century–1306), as well as in parts of Poland (including Silesia), Hungary, and Austria.
Peter Andreas Grünberg (18 May 1939 – 7 April 2018) was a German physicist, and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his discovery with Albert Fert of giant magnetoresistance which brought about a breakthrough in gigabyte hard disk drives.
Peter Parler (Peter von Gemünd, Petr Parléř, Petrus de Gemunden in Suevia; 1333 – 13 July 1399) was a German-Bohemian architect and sculptor from the Parler family of master builders.
Petr Čech (born 20 May 1982) is a Czech professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Premier League club Arsenal.
Petr Brandl (Peter Johannes Brandl or Jan Petr Brandl) (October 24, 1668 – September 24, 1735) was a Czech painter of the late Baroque, famous in his time but – due to isolation behind the Iron Curtain – rather forgotten until recently.
Petr Chelčický (c. 1390 – c. 1460) was a Czech Christian spiritual leader and author in the 15th century Bohemia (in what is now the Czech Republic).
Petr Eben (22 January 1929 – 24 October 2007) was a Czech composer of modern and contemporary classical music, organist and choirmaster.
Petr Korda (born 23 January 1968) is a Czech former professional tennis player.
Petr Nečas (born 19 November 1964) is a Czech former politician who served as 9th Prime Minister of the Czech Republic and Leader of the Civic Democratic Party from 2010 to 2013, and as Member of the Chamber of Deputies (MP) from 1993 to 2013.
Petr Nedvěd (born December 9, 1971) is a Czech Canadian former professional ice hockey player who spent 15 seasons in the National Hockey League (NHL).
Petr Sýkora (born November 19, 1976) is a Czech retired professional ice hockey right winger who played in the National Hockey League (NHL) for the New Jersey Devils, Mighty Ducks of Anaheim, New York Rangers, Edmonton Oilers, Pittsburgh Penguins, and Minnesota Wild.
Petr Vopěnka (16 May 1935 – 20 March 2015) was a Czech mathematician.
Petra Kvitová (born 8 March 1990) is a Czech professional tennis player.
Petra Němcová (born 24 June 1979) is a Czech model, television host and philanthropist who founded the Happy Hearts Fund.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Prague Castle (Pražský hrad) is a castle complex in Prague, Czech Republic, dating from the 9th century.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
Prague underground was an underground culture developed in Prague, Czechoslovakia in the late 1960s and 1970s during the Czechoslovak normalization.
The Prague uprising (Pražské povstání) was an attempt by the Czech resistance to liberate the city of Prague from German occupation during World War II.
Saint Procopius of Sázava (died March 25, 1053) was a Bohemian canon and hermit, canonized as a saint of the Roman Catholic church in 1204.
Dom Prokop Diviš, O.Praem. (26 March 1698 – 21 December 1765) was a Czech canon regular, theologian and natural scientist.
Prokop the Great (Prokop Veliký, Procopius Magnus) or Prokop the Bald or the Shaven (Czech: Prokop Holý, Latin: Procopius Rasus) (c. 1380 – 30 May 1434) was a Czech Hussite general and a prominent Taborite military leader during the Hussite Wars.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.
Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers, works and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Radio Prague (Český rozhlas 7 - Radio Praha) is the official international broadcasting station of the Czech Republic.
Rafael Jeroným Kubelík (29 June 191411 August 1996) was a Czech-born conductor and composer.
René Karl Wilhelm Johann Josef Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926), better known as Rainer Maria Rilke, was a Bohemian-Austrian poet and novelist.
Ralph Benatzky (5 June 1884 – 16 October 1957), born in Moravské Budějovice as Rudolf Josef František Benatzki, was an Austrian composer of Czech origin (when Benatzky was born Bohemia was part of the Austrian Empire; Benatzky mostly worked in Vienna).
Raymond Albert "Ray" Kroc (October 5, 1902 – January 14, 1984) was an American businessman.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
René Wellek (August 22, 1903 – November 11, 1995) was a Czech-American comparative literary critic.
Resistance to German Nazi occupation in Czechoslovakia during World War II is a scarcely documented subject, by and large a result of little formal resistance and an effective German policy that deterred acts of resistance or annihilated organizations of resistance.
Resttschechei or Rest-Tschechei (English: the rump Czech state, literally the rest of Czechia) was the Nazi designation used for the remaining Czech parts of Czecho-Slovakia that were de facto annexed by Nazi Germany on 15/16 March 1939 as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia with its military occupation.
Richard Felix Staar (born January 10, 1923) is an American political scientist and historian.
Richard Peter Stanislav Krajicek (Krajíček, born 6 December 1971) is a Dutch former professional tennis player.
Richard Selig Réti (28 May 1889, Bösing, now Pezinok – 6 June 1929, Prague) was an Austro-Hungarian, later Czechoslovak chess grandmaster, chess author, and composer of endgame studies.
Robert Musil (or; 6 November 1880 – 15 April 1942) was an Austrian philosophical writer.
Roman Šebrle (born 26 November 1974) is an athlete from the Czech Republic.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
Rudolf Serkin (28 March 1903 – 8 May 1991) was a Bohemian-born pianist.
Rudolf Slánský (31 July 1901 – 3 December 1952) was a Czech Communist politician.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Liberation Army (Русская освободительная армия, Russkaya osvoboditel'naya armiya, abbreviated as РОА, ROA, also known as the Vlasov army (Власовская армия, Vlasovskaya armiya)) was collaborationist armed forces, primarily Russian, that fought under German command during World War II.
Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
Salomon Mikhailovich Flohr (November 21, 1908 – July 18, 1983) was a leading Czech chess grandmaster of the mid-20th century, who became a national hero in Czechoslovakia during the 1930s.
Samo founded the first recorded political union of Slavic tribes, known as Samo's Empire (realm, kingdom, or tribal union), stretching from Silesia to present-day Slovenia, ruling from 623 until his death in 658.
Samo's Empire is the historiographical name for the West Slavic tribal union established by King ("Rex") Samo, which existed between 631 and 658.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Silvia Saint, born Silvie Tomčalová (born 12 February 1976) is a former Czech pornographic actress.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Mary Elizabeth "Sissy" Spacek (born December 25, 1949) is an American actress and singer.
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
The settlement of the Eastern Alps region by early Slavs took place during the 6th to 8th centuries.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
A spinet is a smaller type of harpsichord or other keyboard instrument, such as a piano or organ.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
Stanislas Wawrinka ((professionally known as Stan); born 28 March 1985) is a Swiss professional tennis player.
Stanislav "Stan" Grof (born July 1, 1931) is a Czech psychiatrist, one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology and a researcher into the use of non-ordinary states of consciousness for purposes of exploring, healing, and obtaining growth and insights into the human psyche.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
German Bohemians, later known as the Sudeten Germans, were ethnic Germans living in the lands of the Bohemian Crown, which later became an integral part of the state of Czechoslovakia.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Svatopluk Čech (February 21, 1846 in Ostředek near Benešov – February 23, 1908 in Prague) was a Czech writer, journalist and poet.
Svatopluk I or Svätopluk I, also known as Svatopluk the Great (Latin: Zuentepulc, Zuentibald, Sventopulch, Old Church Slavic Свѧтопълкъ and transliterated Svętopъłkъ, Polish: Świętopełk, Greek: Sphendoplokos) was a ruler of Great Moravia, which attained its maximum territorial expansion during his reign (870–871, 871–894).
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Taťána Kuchařová (born 23 December 1987) is a Czech actress, dancer, model and beauty queen who won the title of Miss Czech Republic and Miss World 2006.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The Grandma is a novella written by Czech writer Božena Němcová in 1855.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Plastic People of the Universe (PPU) is a Czech rock band from Prague.
Theodoric of Prague or Master Theoderic (in Latin Magister Theodoricus; working ca. 1360–1380) was a Bohemian Gothic painter who was court painter to Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and the first Bohemian painter whose name can be linked to a body of work.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Robert Cech (born December 8, 1947) is an American chemist who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Sidney Altman, for their discovery of the catalytic properties of RNA.
Sir Tom Stoppard (born Tomáš Straussler; 3 July 1937) is a Czech-born British playwright and screenwriter.
Tomáš Josef Špidlík, SJ (17 December 1919 – 16 April 2010) was a Czech prelate of the Catholic Church.
Tomáš Berdych (born 17 September 1985) is a Czech professional tennis player who is currently ranked No.
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, sometimes anglicised to Thomas Masaryk (7 March 1850 – 14 September 1937), was a Czech politician, statesman, sociologist and philosopher.
Tomáš Halík (born 1 June 1948) is a Czech Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, theologian and scholar.
Tomáš Plekanec (born 31 October 1982) is a Czech professional ice hockey centre for the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League (NHL).
Tomáš Rosický (born 4 October 1980) is a Czech former professional footballer who was the captain of the Czech Republic national team for a ten-year period.
Tomáš Skuhravý (born 7 September 1965 in Český Brod) is a Czech former footballer who played as a striker.
Marie Čermínová (21 September 1902, Prague – 9 November 1980, Paris), known as Toyen, was a Czech painter, drafter and illustrator and a member of the surrealist movement.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Václav Brožík (Vaclav de Brozik; 6 March 1851, Třemošná - 15 April 1901 Paris) was a Czech painter who worked in the academic style.
Václav (Vašek) Chvátal (is a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering at Concordia University in Montreal, Canada. He has published extensively on topics in graph theory, combinatorics, and combinatorial optimization.
Václav Havel (5 October 193618 December 2011) was a Czech statesman, writer and former dissident, who served as the last President of Czechoslovakia from 1989 until the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1992 and then as the first President of the Czech Republic from 1993 to 2003.
Václav Klaus (born 19 June 1941) is a Czech economist and politician who served as the second President of the Czech Republic from 2003 to 2013.
Václav Neumann (29 September 1920 – 2 September 1995) was a Czech conductor, violinist and viola player.
Václav "Vinny" Prospal (born February 17, 1975) is a Czech former professional ice hockey player.
Václav Talich (28 May 1883 – 16 March 1961) was a Czech conductor, violinist and pedagogue.
Vítězslav Nezval (26 May 1900 – 6 April 1958) was one of the most prolific avant-garde Czech writers in the first half of the twentieth century and a co-founder of the Surrealist movement in Czechoslovakia.
Vítězslav Novák (5 December 1870 – 18 July 1949) was a Czech composer and pedagogue.
Věra Čáslavská (3 May 1942 – 30 August 2016) was a Czechoslovak artistic gymnast and Czech sports official.
Věra Chytilová (2 February 1929 – 12 March 2014) was an avant-garde Czech film director and pioneer of Czech cinema.
Vera Frantsevna Menchik (Вера Францевна Менчик; Věra Menčíková; 16 February 1906 – 27 June 1944) was a British-Czechoslovak-Russian chess player who gained renown as the world's first women's chess champion.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Viktor Dyk (31 December 1877 – 14 May 1931) was a nationalist Czech poet, prose writer, playwright, politician and political writer.
Viktor Kaplan (November 27, 1876 – August 23, 1934) was an Austrian engineer and the inventor of the Kaplan turbine.
Viktor Ullmann (1 January 1898, in Teschen – 18 October 1944, in KZ Auschwitz-Birkenau) was a Silesia-born Austrian composer, conductor and pianist.
Vilém Flusser (May 12, 1920 – November 27, 1991) was a Czech-born philosopher, writer and journalist.
Vilém Mathesius (3 August 1882, Pardubice – 12 April 1945, Prague) was a Czech linguist, literary historian and co-founder of the Prague Linguistic Circle.
Vincenc Strouhal (Čeněk Strouhal) (April 10, 1850 – January 26, 1922) was a Czech physicist specializing in experimental physics.
Vladimír Šmicer (born 24 May 1973) is a Czech former footballer who played as a midfielder.
Vladimír Špidla (born 22 April 1951) is a Czech politician who served as Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from July 2002 to June 2004 and as European Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities from November 2004 to February 2010.
Vladimír Holan (September 16, 1905 – March 31, 1980) was a Czech poet famous for employing obscure language, dark topics and pessimist views in his poems.
Vladimír Menšík (9 October 1929 – 29 May 1988) was a popular Czech actor and entertainer, born in Ivančice, Moravia, Czechoslovakia.
Vladimír Růžička (born 6 June 1963) is a Czech ice hockey coach and former professional player.
Vladimír Remek (born 26 September 1948) is a Czech politician and diplomat as well as a former cosmonaut and military pilot.
Vladimír Vašíček (29 September 1919 – 29 August 2003) was a Czech painter, and one of the pioneers of Czech modern and abstract painting after the Second World War.
Vlastimil Brodský (15 December 1920 in Hrušov – 20 April 2002 in Slunečná) was a respected Czech actor.
Vojtěch Jarník (1897–1970) was a Czech mathematician who worked for many years as a professor and administrator at Charles University, and helped found the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences.
Volhynia, also Volynia or Volyn (Wołyń, Volýn) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling between south-eastern Poland, parts of south-western Belarus, and western Ukraine.
Vratislaus (or Wratislaus) II (Vratislav II.) (d. 14 January 1092), the son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt, was the first King of Bohemia as of 15 June 1085, his royal title granted as a lifetime honorific from Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV that did not establish a hereditary monarchy.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
Wenceslas (Václav, or Wenzel) Bojer (23 September 1795 in Řesanice, Bohemia, now Czech Republic – 4 June 1856 in Port Louis, Mauritius) was a notable naturalist and botanist.
Václav Hollar (13 July 160725 March 1677), was a Bohemian etcher, known in England as Wenceslaus or Wenceslas and by speakers of German as Wenzel Hollar.
Wenceslaus I (Václav I. Přemyslovec; c. 1205 – 23 September 1253), called One-Eyed, was King of Bohemia from 1230 to 1253.
(Saint) Wenceslaus I (Václav; c. 907 – September 28, 935), Wenceslas I or Václav the Good was the duke (kníže) of Bohemia from 921 until his assassination in 935.
Wenceslaus II Přemyslid (Václav II.; Wacław II Czeski; 27 SeptemberK. Charvátová, Václav II. Král český a polský, Prague 2007, p. 18. 1271 – 21 June 1305) was King of Bohemia (1278–1305), Duke of Cracow (1291–1305), and King of Poland (1300–1305).
Wenceslaus III (Václav III., Vencel, Wacław, Václav; 6 October 12894 August 1306) was King of Hungary between 1301 and 1305, and King of Bohemia and Poland from 1305.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836 – August 12, 1900) was an Austrian and later American chess master, and the first undisputed World Chess Champion, from 1886 to 1894.
Wojciech Żywny (Vojtěch Živný; May 13, 1756February 21, 1842) was a Czech-born Polish pianist, violinist, teacher and composer.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Zdeněk Michael František Burian (February 11, 1905, Kopřivnice, Moravia, Austria-Hungary – July 1, 1981 Prague, Czechoslovakia) was a Czech painter and book illustrator whose work played a central role in the development of palaeontological reconstruction.
Zdeněk Fibich (21 December 1850 – 15 October 1900) was a Czech composer of classical music.
Zdeněk Miler (21 February 1921 – 30 November 2011) was a Czech animator and illustrator best known for his Mole (Krtek or Krteček in original) character and its adventures.
Zdeněk Nehoda (born 9 May 1952 in Hulín) is a former Czech football forward.
Zdeněk Svěrák (born 28 March 1936 in Prague) is a Czech actor, humorist and scriptwriter, and one of the most well-known and popular Czech cultural personalities.
Zdenko Hans Skraup (March 3, 1850 – September 10, 1910) was a Czech-Austrian chemist who discovered the Skraup reaction, the first quinoline synthesis.