54 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Antibody, Bacteria, Bacteriophage, Bloom syndrome, Complementarity (molecular biology), Covalent bond, Directionality (molecular biology), DNA, DNA polymerase, DNA repair, DNA repair protein XRCC4, DNA replication, Drug design, Enterobacteria phage T2, Enterobacteria phage T4, Enterobacteria phage T6, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Fanconi anemia, Gene, Homologous chromosome, Hydrogen bond, Immune system, Leukemia, LIG1, LIG3, LIG4, LIG4 syndrome, Ligase, Lysine, Lysogenic cycle, Lytic cycle, Molecular biology, NF-κB, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Non-homologous end joining, Nucleic acid thermodynamics, Nucleotide, Okazaki fragments, Phosphodiester bond, Plasmid, Polyethylene glycol, Protein, Protein complex, Pyrophosphate, Recombinant DNA, Restriction enzyme, Ribonuclease H, Sticky and blunt ends, ..., T-cell receptor, T-even bacteriophages, V(D)J recombination, XRCC1. Expand index (4 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
Bloom syndrome (often abbreviated as BS in literature), also known as Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, predisposition to the development of cancer and genomic instability.
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
DNA repair protein XRCC4 also known as X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 or XRCC4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the XRCC4 gene.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.
Enterobacteria phage T2 is a virus that infects and kills E. coli.
Enterobacteria phage T4 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria.
Enterobacteria phage T6 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease resulting in impaired response to DNA damage.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
DNA ligase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LIG1 gene.
DNA ligase 3 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the LIG3 gene.
DNA ligase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the LIG4 gene.
LIG4 syndrome (also known as Ligase IV syndrome) is an extremely rare condition caused by mutations in the DNA Ligase IV (LIG4) gene.
In biochemistry, a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other).
The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway that repairs double-strand breaks in DNA.
Nucleic acid thermodynamics is the study of how temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA).
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Okazaki fragments are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication.
A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.
In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
Ribonuclease H (abbreviated RNase H or RNH) is a family of non-sequence-specific endonuclease enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of RNA in an RNA/DNA substrate via a hydrolytic mechanism.
DNA ends refer to the properties of the end of DNA molecules, which may be sticky ends (cohesive ends), blunt ends or in other forms.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
T-even phages, also known as the E. coli phages, are a group of double-stranded DNA bacteriophages from the family Myoviridae.
V(D)J recombination is the unique mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs only in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation.
DNA repair protein XRCC1 also known as X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the XRCC1 gene.