108 relations: Adenine, Antiparallel (biochemistry), AP site, Arthur Kornberg, ATPase, Base excision repair, Base pair, Catalysis, Cell division, Chemical reaction, Cytosine, Deoxyribonucleoside, Deoxyribonucleotide, Directionality (molecular biology), DNA, DNA clamp, DNA polymerase alpha, DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit, DNA polymerase alpha subunit 2, DNA polymerase beta, DNA polymerase delta, DNA polymerase epsilon, DNA polymerase eta, DNA polymerase I, DNA polymerase II, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, DNA polymerase IV, DNA polymerase lambda, DNA polymerase mu, DNA polymerase V, DNA repair, DNA replication, DNA sequencing, Enzyme, Enzyme catalysis, Escherichia coli, Euryarchaeota, Exonuclease, Gene, Genetic recombination, Guanine, Helicase, Helix-turn-helix, Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase, HIV, Hydrogen bond, Hydrolysis, Hydroxide, Mitochondrial DNA, Molecular cloning, ..., Molecule, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-homologous end joining, Nucleoprotein, Nucleoside triphosphate, Nucleotide, Ohio State University, Okazaki fragments, Origin of replication, Phosphine oxide, POLD1, POLD2, POLD3, POLD4, POLE (gene), POLE2, POLE3, POLG, POLI, POLK, POLQ, Polymerase chain reaction, PRIM1, PRIM2, Primase, Primer (molecular biology), Processivity, Prokaryote, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Proofreading (biology), Protein, Protein subunit, Protein–protein interaction, Pyrophosphate, Replication factor C, Retrovirus, REV1, REV3L, Reverse transcriptase, Ribonucleotide, RNA, RNA polymerase, Semiconservative replication, Skin cancer, SOS response, Taq polymerase, Telomerase, Telomere, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, Thomas B. Kornberg, Thymine, Type II topoisomerase, Ultraviolet, V(D)J recombination, Virus, Wikipedia, Xeroderma pigmentosum. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
In biochemistry, two biopolymers are antiparallel if they run parallel to each other but with opposite alignments.
In biochemistry and molecular genetics, an AP site (apurinic/apyrimidinic site), also known as an abasic site, is a location in DNA (also in RNA but much less likely) that has neither a purine nor a pyrimidine base, either spontaneously or due to DNA damage.
Arthur Kornberg (March 3, 1918 – October 26, 2007) was an American biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his discovery of "the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)" together with Dr.
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
In biochemistry and genetics, base excision repair (BER) is a cellular mechanism that repairs damaged DNA throughout the cell cycle.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
A deoxyribonucleoside is a type of nucleoside including deoxyribose as a component.
A deoxyribonucleotide is the monomer, or single unit, of DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid.
Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A DNA clamp, also known as a sliding clamp, is a protein fold that serves as a processivity-promoting factor in DNA replication.
DNA polymerase alpha also known as Pol α is an enzyme complex found in eukaryotes that is involved in initiation of DNA replication.
DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLA1 gene.
DNA polymerase alpha subunit 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLA2 gene.
DNA polymerase, beta, also known as POLB, is an enzyme present in eukaryotes.
DNA polymerase delta is an enzyme complex found in eukaryotes that is involved in DNA replication and repair.
DNA polymerase epsilon is a member of the DNA polymerase family of enzymes found in eukaryotes.
DNA polymerase eta (Pol η), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLH gene.
DNA polymerase I (or Pol I) is an enzyme that participates in the process of prokaryotic DNA replication.
DNA polymerase II (also known as DNA Pol II or Pol II) is a prokaryotic DNA-Dependent DNA polymerase encoded by the PolB gene.
DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is the primary enzyme complex involved in prokaryotic DNA replication.
DNA polymerase IV is a prokaryotic polymerase that is involved in mutagenesis.
DNA polymerase lambda, also known as POLL, is a protein found in eukaryotes.
DNA polymerase mu is a polymerase enzyme found in eukaryotes.
DNA Polymerase V (Pol V) is a polymerase enzyme involved in DNA repair mechanisms in prokaryotic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Euryarchaeota (Greek for "broad old quality") is a phylum of archaea.
Exonucleases are enzymes that work by cleaving nucleotides one at a time from the end (exo) of a polynucleotide chain.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms.
In proteins, the helix-turn-helix (HTH) is a major structural motif capable of binding DNA.
Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase is a hepatitis B viral protein.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway that repairs double-strand breaks in DNA.
Nucleoproteins are any proteins that are structurally associated with nucleic acids, either DNA or RNA.
A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio.
Okazaki fragments are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication.
The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.
Phosphine oxides are phosphorus compounds with the formula OPX3.
The gene polymerase delta 1 (POLD1) encodes the large, POLD1/p125, catalytic subunit of the DNA polymerase delta (Polδ) complex.
DNA polymerase delta subunit 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLD2 gene.
DNA polymerase delta subunit 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLD3 gene.
DNA polymerase delta subunit 4, also known as DNA polymerase delta subunit p12, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POLD4 gene.
DNA polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLE gene.
DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLE2 gene.
DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLE3 gene.
DNA polymerase subunit gamma is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLG gene.
DNA polymerase iota is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLI gene.
DNA polymerase kappa is an DNA polymerase that in humans is encoded by the POLK gene.
DNA polymerase theta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLQ gene.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
DNA primase small subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRIM1 gene.
DNA primase large subunit is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRIM2 gene.
DNA primase is an enzyme involved in the replication of DNA and is a type of RNA polymerase.
A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
In molecular biology and biochemistry, processivity is an enzyme's ability to catalyze "consecutive reactions without releasing its substrate".
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA clamp that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic cells and is essential for replication.
The term proofreading is used in genetics to refer to the error-correcting processes, first proposed by John Hopfield and Jacques Ninio, involved in DNA replication, immune system specificity, enzyme-substrate recognition among many other processes that require enhanced specificity.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
The replication factor C, or RFC, is a five-subunit protein complex that is required for DNA replication.
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
DNA repair protein REV1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the REV1 gene.
Protein reversionless 3-like (REV3L) also known as DNA polymerase zeta catalytic subunit (POLZ) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the REV3L gene.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
In biochemistry, a ribonucleotide or ribotide is a nucleotide containing ribose as its pentose component.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
Semiconservative replication describes the mechanism by which DNA is replicated in all known cells.
Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.
The SOS response is a global response to DNA damage in which the cell cycle is arrested and DNA repair and mutagenesis are induced.
Taq polymerase is a thermostable DNA polymerase named after the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus from which it was originally isolated by Chien et al.
Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), also known as DNA nucleotidylexotransferase (DNTT) or terminal transferase, is a specialized DNA polymerase expressed in immature, pre-B, pre-T lymphoid cells, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma cells.
Thomas Bill Kornberg is an American biochemist who was the first person to purify and characterise DNA polymerase II and DNA polymerase III.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Type II topoisomerases cut both strands of the DNA helix simultaneously in order to manage DNA tangles and supercoils.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
V(D)J recombination is the unique mechanism of genetic recombination that occurs only in developing lymphocytes during the early stages of T and B cell maturation.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic disorder in which there is a decreased ability to repair DNA damage such as that caused by ultraviolet (UV) light.
DNA Polymerase, DNA duplicase, DNA nucleotidyltransferase, DNA nucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed), DNA polymerase sigma, DNA polymerase zeta, DNA polymerase δ, DNA polymerases, DNA replicase, DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, DNA-directed DNA polymerase, DNAdependent DNA polymerase, Deoxynucleate polymerase, Deoxynucleoside-triphosphate:DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase, Deoxynucleoside-triphosphate:DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed), Deoxyribonucleate nucleotidyltransferase, Deoxyribonucleic acid duplicase, Deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase, Deoxyribonucleic duplicase, Deoxyribonucleic polymerase, Deoxyribonucleic polymerase I, Dna Polymerase, Dna polymerase, Dna polymerase alpha, Dna-directed dna polymerase, EC 126.96.36.199, Eukaryotic DNA polymerase, Pol gene, Pol ε, Prokaryotic DNA polymerase, Taq Pol I, Tca DNA polymerase.