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DNA profiling

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DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints. [1]

191 relations: Alameda County, California, Alec Jeffreys, Allan Legere, Allele, Allele-specific oligonucleotide, Amy Harmon, Anna Anderson, Anthony Curcio, Anticoagulant, Assay, Associated Press, Australia, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Baron Moynihan, Bayes' theorem, BBC News, Biopsy, Blood, Bob McDonnell, Bow Street Magistrates' Court, Brazil, Brembate di Sopra, Buccal swab, California Department of Justice, California v. Greenwood, Canadians, Capillary electrophoresis, Capital punishment, Chicago, Chimera (genetics), Civil liberties, Colin Pitchfork, Colorado Department of Corrections, Combined DNA Index System, Corte d'Assise, Cotton swab, Court of Appeal (England and Wales), CpG site, Criminal investigation, Curtilage, Darryl Hunt, Denaturation (biochemistry), Denver, Denver District Attorney's Office, Differential extraction, Disappearance of Bobby Dunbar, DNA, DNA barcoding, DNA database, DNA methylation, ..., DNA paternity testing, DNA replication, Dot blot, Douglas Echols, Downing Street, Cambridge, Earl Washington Jr., East Coast Rapist, Electrophoresis, Epigenetics, Expectation of privacy, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Fingerprint, Florida, Forensic identification, Forensic science, Forensic Science Service, Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Gary Dotson, Gel electrophoresis, Gene mapping, Genealogical DNA test, Genome, Golden State Killer, Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, Grim Sleeper, Harvey v. Horan, Heteroplasmy, HIV, Home, House of Romanov, Houston Police Department, Human leukocyte antigen, Human Tissue Act 2004, Identification (biology), In vitro, Innocence Project, International Society for Forensic Genetics, International Society of Genetic Genealogy, Israel, Italy, James Hanratty, Jerry Brown, John Schneeberger, Josef Mengele, Kary Mullis, Kinship, Kirk Bloodsworth, Leicester, Lisburn, Locus (genetics), London, Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1, Maryland v. King, Mendelian inheritance, Merseyside, Methyl group, Mia Zapata, Microsatellite, Minisatellite, Mitchell R. Morrissey, Mitochondrial DNA, Molecular biology, Murder, Murder of Celia Douty, Murder of Lynette White, Murder of Marcia King, Murder of Naomi Smith, Murder of Shirley Duguay, Murder of Teresa De Simone, Murder of Yara Gambirasio, National Conference of State Legislatures, Nazism, New Scientist, Nitrocellulose, O. J. Simpson, O. J. Simpson murder case, Oligonucleotide, Pantyhose, Patriot Act, Penrose drain, Phantom of Heilbronn, Phylogenetics, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Polymerase chain reaction, Polynucleotide, Primer (molecular biology), Pringle baronets, Prosecutor's fallacy, Protection of Freedoms Act 2012, Public records, Radioactive tracer, Restriction enzyme, Restriction fragment length polymorphism, Ribotyping, Richard J. Schmidt, Robert Pickton, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saliva, Sally Hemings, Santa Cruz, California, Search warrant, Second Generation Multiplex Plus, Semen, Sexual assault, Silver stain, Southampton, Southern blot, Spermatozoon, Sterilization (microbiology), STR analysis, Supreme Court of the United States, Swindon, Taq polymerase, The Daily Telegraph, The Gits, The New York Times, The Observer, Thomas Jefferson, Timothy Wilson Spencer, Tuscany, Twin, U.S. state, United Kingdom, United Kingdom National DNA Database, United States, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, United States Department of Justice, University of Cambridge, University of Leicester, University of Michigan, Urban Institute, USA Today, Vaginal lubrication, Variable number tandem repeat, Virginia, Waste, Whole genome sequencing, Witness, Y-STR, Zygote. Expand index (141 more) »

Alameda County, California

Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States.

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Alec Jeffreys

Sir Alec John Jeffreys, (born 9 January 1950) is a British geneticist, who developed techniques for genetic fingerprinting and DNA profiling which are now used worldwide in forensic science to assist police detective work and to resolve paternity and immigration disputes.

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Allan Legere

Allan Joseph Legere (born February 13, 1948) is a Canadian serial killer and arsonist, also known as the Monster of the Miramichi, in reference to a reign of terror he inflicted upon residents of the Miramichi River valley of New Brunswick in 1989.

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An allele is a variant form of a given gene.

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Allele-specific oligonucleotide

An allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) is a short piece of synthetic DNA complementary to the sequence of a variable target DNA.

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Amy Harmon

Amy Harmon (born September 17, 1968) is an American journalist.

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Anna Anderson

Anna Anderson (16 December 1896 – 12 February 1984) was the best known of several impostors who claimed to be Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia.

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Anthony Curcio

Anthony J. Curcio (born September 1, 1980) is an American former criminal turned author and speaker.

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Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.

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An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian Broadcasting Corporation

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.

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Baron Moynihan

Baron Moynihan, of Leeds in the County of York, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

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Bayes' theorem

In probability theory and statistics, Bayes’ theorem (alternatively Bayes’ law or Bayes' rule, also written as Bayes’s theorem) describes the probability of an event, based on prior knowledge of conditions that might be related to the event.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Bob McDonnell

Robert Francis McDonnell (born June 15, 1954) is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 71st Governor of Virginia, from 2010 to 2014.

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Bow Street Magistrates' Court

Bow Street Magistrates' Court became the most famous magistrates' court in England in the latter part of its 266-year existence, on the specialisation of the Old Bailey to a Crown Court.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Brembate di Sopra

Brembate di Sopra is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Bergamo in the Italian region of Lombardy, located about northeast of Milan and about northwest of Bergamo.

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Buccal swab

A buccal swab, also known as buccal smear, is a way to collect DNA from the cells on the inside of a person's cheek.

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California Department of Justice

The California Department of Justice (CA DOJ/CDJ) is both a law enforcement agency and state legal department in the California executive branch under the elected leadership of the California Attorney General which carries out complex criminal & civil investigations, prosecutions, and other legal services throughout the state.

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California v. Greenwood

California v. Greenwood,, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Fourth Amendment does not prohibit the warrantless search and seizure of garbage left for collection outside the curtilage of a home.

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Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.

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Capillary electrophoresis

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a family of electrokinetic separation methods performed in submillimeter diameter capillaries and in micro- and nanofluidic channels.

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Capital punishment

Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.

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Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Chimera (genetics)

A genetic chimerism or chimera (also spelled chimaera) is a single organism composed of cells with distinct genotypes.

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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Civil liberties

Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

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Colin Pitchfork

Colin Pitchfork (born 23 March 1960) is a British convicted murderer and rapist.

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Colorado Department of Corrections

The Colorado Department of Corrections is the principal department of the Colorado state government that operates the state prisons.

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Combined DNA Index System

The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) is the United States national DNA database created and maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

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Corte d'Assise

The Corte d'Assise (EN Court of Assizes) is an Italian court composed of two professional, stipendiary judges (giudici togati) and six lay judges (giudici popolari), who are selected from the people.

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Cotton swab

Cotton swabs (American English) or cotton buds (British English) consist of one or two small wad(s) of cotton wrapped around one or both end(s) of a short rod made of wood, rolled paper or plastic. They are commonly used in a variety of applications including first aid, cosmetics application, cleaning, and arts and crafts. The tool was invented in the 1920s by Polish-American Leo Gerstenzang after he watched his wife attach wads of cotton to toothpicks. His product, named "Baby Gays", went on to become the most widely sold brand name: Q-tips, meaning "quality tips". The term "Q-tips" is often used as a genericized trademark for cotton swabs in the US and Canada. The Q-tips brand is owned by Unilever and had over $200 million in US sales in 2014. Although doctors have said for years that it is not safe to use cotton swabs for ear cleaning, it remains the most common use.

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Court of Appeal (England and Wales)

The Court of Appeal (COA, formally "Her Majesty's Court of Appeal in England") is the highest court within the Senior Courts of England and Wales, and second only to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.

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CpG site

The CpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence of bases along its 5' → 3' direction.

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Criminal investigation

Criminal investigation is an applied science that involves the study of facts, used to identify, locate and prove the guilt of an accused criminal.

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In law, the curtilage of a house or dwelling is the land immediately surrounding it, including any closely associated buildings and structures, but excluding any associated "open fields beyond", and also excluding any closely associated buildings, structures, or divisions that contain the separate intimate activities of their own respective occupants with those occupying residents being persons other than those residents of the house or dwelling of which the building is associated.

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Darryl Hunt

Darryl Hunt (February 24, 1965 – March 13, 2016) was an African-American man from Winston-Salem, North Carolina, who, in 1984, was wrongfully convicted for the rape and the murder of Deborah Sykes, a young white newspaper copy editor, and sentenced to life in prison.

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Denaturation (biochemistry)

Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.

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Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.

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Denver District Attorney's Office

The Denver District Attorney's Office is responsible for the prosecution of state criminal violations in the Second Judicial District.

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Differential extraction

Differential extraction (also known as differential lysis) refers to the process by which the DNA from two different types of cells can be extracted without mixing their contents.

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Disappearance of Bobby Dunbar

Bobby Dunbar was an American boy whose disappearance at the age of four and apparent return was widely reported in newspapers across the United States in 1912 and 1913.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA barcoding

DNA barcoding is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species.

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DNA database

A DNA database or DNA databank is a database of DNA profiles which can be used in the analysis of genetic diseases, genetic fingerprinting for criminology, or genetic genealogy.

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DNA methylation

DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.

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DNA paternity testing

DNA paternity testing is the use of DNA profiling (known as genetic fingerprinting) to determine whether two individuals are biologically parent and child.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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Dot blot

A dot blot (or slot blot) is a technique in molecular biology used to detect proteins.

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Douglas Echols

Douglas Echols was convicted in a 1986 rape case.

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Downing Street, Cambridge

Downing Street is a street in central Cambridge, England.

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Earl Washington Jr.

Earl Washington Jr. (born May 3, 1960) is a former Virginia death-row inmate, who was fully exonerated of murder charges against him in 2000.

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East Coast Rapist

The East Coast Rapist is a black male who has committed a number of rapes in Maryland, Virginia, Connecticut and Rhode Island since 1997.

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Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.

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Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.

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Expectation of privacy

Expectation of privacy is a legal test which is crucial in defining the scope of the applicability of the privacy protections of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.

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Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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Forensic identification

Forensic identification is the application of forensic science, or "forensics", and technology to identify specific objects from the trace evidence they leave, often at a crime scene or the scene of an accident.

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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Forensic Science Service

The Forensic Science Service (FSS) was a government-owned company in the United Kingdom which provided forensic science services to the police forces and government agencies of England and Wales, as well as other countries.

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Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights that prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.

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Gary Dotson

Gary Dotson Litke, James.

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Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.

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Gene mapping

Gene mapping describes the methods used to identify the locus of a gene and the distances between genes.

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Genealogical DNA test

A genealogical DNA test is a DNA-based test which looks at specific locations of a person's genome in order to determine ancestral ethnicity and genealogical relationships.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Golden State Killer

The Golden State Killer is a serial killer, rapist, and burglar who committed at least 12 murders, more than 50 rapes, and over 100 burglaries in California from 1974 to 1986.

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Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia

Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (– 17 July 1918) was the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, and his wife, Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna.

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Grim Sleeper

Grim Sleeper is the nicknameChristine Pelisek,, LA Weekly, August 28, 2008, SkyNews Report for convicted serial killer Lonnie David Franklin Jr., responsible for at least ten murders and one attempted murder in Los Angeles, California.

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Harvey v. Horan

Harvey v. Horan, 278 F. 3d 370 (4th Cir. 2002) is a federal court case dealing with felons' rights of access to DNA testing.

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Heteroplasmy is the presence of more than one type of organellar genome (mitochondrial DNA or plastid DNA) within a cell or individual.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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A home, or domicile, is a dwelling-place used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual, family, household or several families in a tribe.

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House of Romanov

The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.

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Houston Police Department

The Houston Police Department (HPD) is the primary law enforcement agency serving the City of Houston, Texas, United States and some surrounding areas.

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Human leukocyte antigen

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.

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Human Tissue Act 2004

The Human Tissue Act 2004 (c 30) was an act of the UK parliament applying to England, Northern Ireland and Wales.

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Identification (biology)

Identification in biology is the process of assigning a pre-existing taxon name to an individual organism.

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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Innocence Project

The Innocence Project is a non-profit legal organization that is committed to exonerating wrongly convicted people through the use of DNA testing and to reforming the criminal justice system to prevent future injustice.

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International Society for Forensic Genetics

The International Society for Forensic Genetics - ISFG is an international non-profit scientific society founded in 1968.

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International Society of Genetic Genealogy

The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) is an independent non-commercial nonprofit organization of genetic genealogists run by volunteers.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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James Hanratty

James Hanratty (4 October 1936 – 4 April 1962), also known as the A6 Murderer, was a British criminal who was one of the final eight people in the UK to be executed before capital punishment was effectively abolished.

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Jerry Brown

Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr. (born April 7, 1938) is an American politician, author and lawyer serving as the 39th and current Governor of California since 2011, previously holding the position from 1975 to 1983, making him the state's longest-serving Governor.

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John Schneeberger

John Schneeberger (born 1961) is a North Rhodesian-born former physician who drugged and raped one of his female patients and his stepdaughter while a physician in Canada.

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Josef Mengele

Josef Mengele (16 March 19117 February 1979) was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and physician in Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.

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Kary Mullis

Kary Banks Mullis (born December 28, 1944) is a Nobel Prize-winning American biochemist.

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In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.

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Kirk Bloodsworth

Kirk Noble Bloodsworth (born October 31, 1960) is a former Maryland waterman and the first American sentenced to death to be exonerated post-conviction by DNA testing.

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Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.

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Lisburn (or; meaning "fort of the stream", probably) is a city in Northern Ireland.

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Locus (genetics)

A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1

Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1, also known as HLA-DQA1, is a human gene present on short arm of chromosome 6 (6p21.3) and also denotes the genetic locus which contains this gene.

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Maryland v. King

In Maryland v. King,, the United States Supreme Court decided that "when officers make an arrest supported by probable cause to hold for a serious offense and bring the suspect to the station to be detained in custody, taking and analyzing a cheek swab of the arrestee's DNA is, like fingerprinting and photographing, a legitimate police booking procedure that is reasonable under the Fourth Amendment." The majority opinion, written by Justice Anthony Kennedy, described Maryland's law as follows: The Act authorizes Maryland law enforcement authorities to collect DNA samples from "an individual who is charged with...

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Mendelian inheritance

Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.

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Merseyside is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 1.38 million.

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Methyl group

A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.

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Mia Zapata

Mia Katherine Zapata (August 25, 1965 – July 7, 1993) was the lead singer for the Seattle punk band The Gits.

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A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.

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A minisatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 10–60 base pairs) are typically repeated 5-50 times.

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Mitchell R. Morrissey

Mitchell R. "Mitch" Morrissey (born 1957) is a former District Attorney of Colorado's Second Judicial District in Denver, Colorado.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.

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Murder of Celia Douty

Celia Natasha "Tasha" Douty (11 February 1943 – 1 September 1983) was a British resort worker who was murdered on Brampton Island in Queensland, Australia.

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Murder of Lynette White

Lynette Deborah White (5 July 1967 – 14 February 1988) was murdered on 14 February 1988 in Cardiff, Wales.

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Murder of Marcia King

Marcia Lenore King was a previously unidentified murder victim discovered in 1981 in Miami County, Ohio, near the city of Troy.

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Murder of Naomi Smith

Naomi Louise Smith (4 March 1980 – 14 September 1995) was a 15-year-old schoolgirl from Ansley Common near Nuneaton in England.

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Murder of Shirley Duguay

In 1994, Shirley Duguay of Prince Edward Island, Duguay went missing and was later found dead in a shallow grave.

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Murder of Teresa De Simone

Teresa Elena De Simone (24 June 19575 December 1979) was murdered in Southampton, England, in 1979.

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Murder of Yara Gambirasio

Yara Gambirasio (21 May 1997 – 26 November 2010) was a 13-year-old Italian girl killed on the evening of 26 November 2010.

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National Conference of State Legislatures

The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) is a bipartisan non-governmental organization (NGO) established in 1975 to serve the members and staff of state legislatures of the United States (states, commonwealths, and territories).

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National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.

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O. J. Simpson

Orenthal James "O.

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O. J. Simpson murder case

The O. J. Simpson murder case (officially titled People of the State of California v. Orenthal James Simpson) was a criminal trial held at the Los Angeles County Superior Court in which former National Football League (NFL) player, broadcaster, and actor Orenthal James "O. J." Simpson was tried on two counts of murder for the June 12, 1994, deaths of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ron Goldman.

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Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.

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Pantyhose, called sheer tights in the United Kingdom and a few other countries, are close-fitting legwear covering the wearer's body from the waist to the toes.

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Patriot Act

The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress signed into law by US President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001.

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Penrose drain

A Penrose drain is a soft, flexible rubber tube used as a surgical drain, to prevent the buildup of fluid in a surgical site.

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Phantom of Heilbronn

The Phantom of Heilbronn, often alternatively referred to as the "Woman Without a Face", was a hypothesized unknown female serial killer whose existence was inferred from DNA evidence found at numerous crime scenes in Austria, France and Germany from 1993 to 2009.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is a technique widely used in biochemistry, forensic chemistry, genetics, molecular biology and biotechnology to separate biological macromolecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, according to their electrophoretic mobility.

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

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A polynucleotide molecule is a biopolymer composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain.

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Primer (molecular biology)

A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.

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Pringle baronets

There have been two baronetcies created for members of the Scottish '''Pringle''' family, one in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia and one in the Baronetage of Great Britain.

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Prosecutor's fallacy

The prosecutor's fallacy is a fallacy of statistical reasoning, typically used by the prosecution to argue for the guilt of a defendant during a criminal trial.

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Protection of Freedoms Act 2012

The Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Public records

Public records are documents or pieces of information that are not considered confidential and generally pertain to the conduct of government.

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Radioactive tracer

A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

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Restriction enzyme

A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.

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Restriction fragment length polymorphism

In molecular biology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a technique that exploits variations in homologous DNA sequences.

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Ribotyping is a molecular technique for bacterial identification and characterization that uses information from rRNA-based phylogenetic analyses.

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Richard J. Schmidt

Richard J. Schmidt is an American former physician who was convicted by a Louisiana court in 1998 of attempted murder.

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Robert Pickton

Robert William "Willy" Pickton (born October 24, 1949) of Port Coquitlam, British Columbia, Canada, is a Canadian serial killer convicted in 2007 of the second-degree murders of six women.

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Royal Canadian Mounted Police

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC), "Royal Gendarmerie of Canada"; colloquially known as The Mounties, and internally as "the Force") is the federal and national police force of Canada.

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Russian Academy of Sciences

The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

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Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.

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Sally Hemings

Sarah "Sally" Hemings (1773 – 1835) was an enslaved woman of mixed race owned by President Thomas Jefferson of the United States.

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Santa Cruz, California

Santa Cruz (Holy Cross) is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California.

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Search warrant

A search warrant is a court order that a magistrate or judge issues to authorize law enforcement officers to conduct a search of a person, location, or vehicle for evidence of a crime and to confiscate any evidence they find.

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Second Generation Multiplex Plus

Second Generation Multiplex Plus (SGM Plus), is a DNA profiling system developed by Applied Biosystems.

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Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.

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Sexual assault

Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.

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Silver stain

Silver staining is the use of silver to selectively alter the appearance of a target in microscopy of histological sections; in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis; and in polyacrylamide gels.

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Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.

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Southern blot

A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.

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A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.

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Sterilization (microbiology)

Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.

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STR analysis

A Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis is one of the most useful methods in molecular biology which is used to compare specific loci on DNA from two or more samples.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Swindon is a large town in Wiltshire, South West England, between Bristol, to the west, and Reading, the same distance east.

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Taq polymerase

Taq polymerase is a thermostable DNA polymerase named after the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus from which it was originally isolated by Chien et al.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Gits

The Gits were an American grunge rock band, formed in Yellow Springs, Ohio in 1986.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Observer

The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.

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Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

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Timothy Wilson Spencer

Timothy Wilson Spencer (March 17, 1962 – April 27, 1994), also known as the "Southside Strangler", was a serial killer who committed three rapes and murders in Richmond, Virginia and one in Arlington, Virginia in the fall of 1987.

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Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).

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Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.

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U.S. state

A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom National DNA Database

The United Kingdom National DNA Database (NDNAD; officially the UK National Criminal Intelligence DNA Database) is a national DNA Database that was set up in 1995.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a U.S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.

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United States Department of Justice

The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Leicester

The University of Leicester is a public research university based in Leicester, England.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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Urban Institute

The Urban Institute is a Washington D.C.-based think tank that carries out economic and social policy research to "open minds, shape decisions, and offer solutions".

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USA Today

USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.

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Vaginal lubrication

Vaginal lubrication is a naturally produced fluid that lubricates a woman's vagina.

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Variable number tandem repeat

A variable number tandem repeat (or VNTR) is a location in a genome where a short nucleotide sequence is organized as a tandem repeat.

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Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.

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Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.

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Whole genome sequencing

Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.

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A witness is someone who has, who claims to have, or is thought, by someone with authority to compel testimony, to have knowledge relevant to an event or other matter of interest.

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A Y-STR is a short tandem repeat (STR) on the Y-chromosome.

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A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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DNA Analysis, DNA Fingerprinting, DNA Profiling, DNA evidence, DNA fingerprint, DNA fingerprinting, DNA fingerprints, DNA identification, DNA profile, DNA recognition, DNA siblingship testing, Dna Fingerprinting, Dna fingerprinting, Dna matching, Fake DNA evidence, Familial DNA, Familial searching, Fingerprinting DNA, Fingerprinting dna, Forensic DNA, Forensic genetics, Genetic Fingerprinting, Genetic fingerprint, Genetic fingerprinting, Tommie Lee Andrews.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_profiling

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