118 relations: Adenine, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adenoviridae, Archaea, Autopoiesis, Bacteria, Bacteriophage, Base pair, Biological process, BIOS Scientific Publishers, Cancer, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cell cycle checkpoint, Cell division, Circovirus, Cohesin, Complementary DNA, Continuation, Cyclin, Cyclin-dependent kinase, Cytosine, D-loop replication, Data storage, Deoxyribose, Directionality (molecular biology), DNA, DNA clamp, DNA gyrase, DNA ligase, DNA methylation, DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase I, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, DNA replication, DNA supercoil, DNA synthesis, DnaA, DnaG, Energetics, Enzyme, Error detection and correction, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Eukaryotic chromosome fine structure, Exonuclease, Exponential growth, Fidelity, Geminiviridae, ..., Genome, Germ cell, Green fluorescent protein, Guanine, Hayflick limit, Helicase, Heredity, High-energy phosphate, Hydrogen bond, Hydroxy group, In vitro, Initiation, Initiator protein, Interphase, Lamin, Life, Ligase, Ligase chain reaction, Molecular biology, Molecular dynamics, Mutation, Nick translation, Nuclear matrix, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleobase, Nucleoside triphosphate, Nucleotide, Okazaki fragments, Origin of replication, Origin recognition complex, Parvovirus, Phosphate, Phosphodiester bond, Plasmid, Polymerase chain reaction, Pre-replication complex, Primase, Primer (molecular biology), Processivity, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Proofreading (biology), Protein, Purine, Pyrimidine, Pyrophosphate, Replisome, Retrovirus, Reverse transcriptase, Ribonuclease, RNA, RNA recognition motif, Rossmann fold, Self-replication, Semiconservative replication, SeqA protein domain, Single-strand DNA-binding protein, Somatic cell, Telomerase, Telomere, Ter protein, Theta structure, Thymine, Topoisomerase, Transcription-mediated amplification, Tus (biology), Tyrosine, Virus, Yeast. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
The term autopoiesis refers to a system capable of reproducing and maintaining itself.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Biological processes are the processes vital for a living organism to live.
BIOS Scientific Publishers was an English publisher.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms in eukaryotic cells which ensure proper division of the cell.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
Circovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Circoviridae.
Cohesin is a protein complex that regulates the separation of sister chromatids during cell division, either mitosis or meiosis.
In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
In computer science and computer programming, a continuation is an abstract representation of the control state of a computer program.
Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) enzymes.
Gap phase 2. The duration of mitosis in relation to the other phases has been exaggerated in this diagram Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of sugar kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
D-loop replication is a proposed process by which circular DNA like chloroplasts and mitochondria replicate their genetic material.
Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.
Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A DNA clamp, also known as a sliding clamp, is a protein fold that serves as a processivity-promoting factor in DNA replication.
DNA gyrase, or simply gyrase, is an enzyme within the class of topoisomerase (Type II topoisomerase) that relieves strain while double-stranded DNA is being unwound by helicase.
DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
DNA polymerase I (or Pol I) is an enzyme that participates in the process of prokaryotic DNA replication.
DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is the primary enzyme complex involved in prokaryotic DNA replication.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand.
DNA synthesis is the natural or artificial creation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules.
DnaA is a protein that activates initiation of DNA replication in bacteria.
DnaG is a bacterial DNA primase and is encoded by the dnaG gene.
Energetics (also called energy economics) is the study of energy under transformation.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eukaryotic chromosome fine structure refers to the structure of sequences for eukaryotic chromosomes.
Exonucleases are enzymes that work by cleaving nucleotides one at a time from the end (exo) of a polynucleotide chain.
Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.
Fidelity is the quality of faithfulness or loyalty.
Geminiviridae is a family of plant viruses.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
The Hayflick limit or Hayflick phenomenon is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide before cell division stops.
Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
High-energy phosphate can mean one of two things.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Initiation is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society.
The initiator proteins are the protein that recognize a specific DNA sequence within the origin of replication.
Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life.
Nuclear lamins, also known as Class V intermediate filaments, are fibrous proteins providing structural function and transcriptional regulation in the cell nucleus.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
In biochemistry, a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc.
The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a method of DNA amplification.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for studying the physical movements of atoms and molecules.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Nick translation (or head translation), developed in 1977 by Rigby and Paul Berg, is a tagging technique in molecular biology in which DNA Polymerase I is used to replace some of the nucleotides of a DNA sequence with their labeled analogues, creating a tagged DNA sequence which can be used as a probe in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) or blotting techniques.
In biology, the nuclear matrix is the network of fibres found throughout the inside of a cell nucleus and is somewhat analogous to the cell cytoskeleton.
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Okazaki fragments are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication.
The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.
In molecular biology, origin recognition complex (ORC) is a multi-subunit DNA binding complex (6 subunits) that binds in all eukaryotes in an ATP-dependent manner to origins of replication.
Parvovirus is the common name applied to all the viruses in the Parvoviridae taxonomic family.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
A pre-replication complex (pre-RC) is a protein complex that forms at the origin of replication during the initiation step of DNA replication.
DNA primase is an enzyme involved in the replication of DNA and is a type of RNA polymerase.
A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
In molecular biology and biochemistry, processivity is an enzyme's ability to catalyze "consecutive reactions without releasing its substrate".
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA clamp that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic cells and is essential for replication.
The term proofreading is used in genetics to refer to the error-correcting processes, first proposed by John Hopfield and Jacques Ninio, involved in DNA replication, immune system specificity, enzyme-substrate recognition among many other processes that require enhanced specificity.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
The replisome is a complex molecular machine that carries out replication of DNA.
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Ribonuclease (commonly abbreviated RNase) is a type of nuclease that catalyzes the degradation of RNA into smaller components.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA recognition motif, RNP-1 is a putative RNA-binding domain of about 90 amino acids that are known to bind single-stranded RNAs.
The Rossmann fold is a structural motif found in proteins that bind nucleotides, such as enzyme cofactors FAD, NAD+, and NADP+.
Self-replication is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of itself.
Semiconservative replication describes the mechanism by which DNA is replicated in all known cells.
In molecular biology the protein domain SeqA is one found in bacteria and archaea.
Single-strand DNA-binding protein (SSB) is a protein found in Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, that binds to single-stranded regions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.
Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
In molecular biology, the Ter protein, also known as, DNA replication terminus site-binding protein, refers to a protein domain which binds to the DNA replication terminus site.
A Theta structure is an intermediate structure formed during the replication of a circular DNA molecule (prokaryote DNA).
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Topoisomerases are enzymes that participate in the overwinding or underwinding of DNA.
Transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) is an isothermal, single-tube nucleic acid amplification system utilizing two enzymes, RNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase, to rapidly amplify the target RNA/DNA, enabling the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogenic organisms in a single tube.
Tus, also known as terminus utilization substance, is a protein that binds to terminator sequences and acts as a counter-helicase when it comes in contact with an advancing helicase.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Amplification of DNA, Cellular replication, DNA Replication, DNA amplification technology, DNA replication protein, Dioxyribonucleic acid replication, Discontinuous DNA replication, Dna Replication, Dna replication, Gene replication, Initiation of DNA replication, Lagging chain, Lagging strand, Leading and lagging strand, Leading chain, Leading strand, Replicating molecule, Replication Fork, Replication bubble, Replication eye, Replication fork, Replication origin regions, Semi-conservative DNA replication, Template replication, Termination of DNA replication.