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DNA sequencing

Index DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. [1]

204 relations: ABI Solid Sequencing, Adenine, Ageing Research Reviews, Agencourt, Allan Maxam, Anthropology, Anxiety, Applied Biosystems, Archon X Prize, Atomic force microscopy, Bacteriophage, Bacteriophage MS2, Belgium, BioCompute Object, Bioethics, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology, BMC Genomics, BMC Systems Biology, Caenorhabditis elegans, California Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Cancer genome sequencing, ChIP-sequencing, Chromosome, Colin Munro MacLeod, Complementarity (molecular biology), Complementary DNA, Complete Genomics, Cornell University, Coverage (genetics), Craig Venter, Cyclodextrin, Cytosine, David Klenerman, Dementia, DNA, DNA computing, DNA field-effect transistor, DNA ligase, DNA microarray, DNA nanoball sequencing, DNA paternity testing, DNA polymerase, DNA profiling, DNA sequencer, DNA sequencing theory, Ecology, Epidemiology, Epigenome, ..., Epstein–Barr virus, Escherichia coli, Evolutionary biology, Expressed sequence tag, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federation of European Microbiological Societies, Fluorescence, Fluorescent tag, Forensic biology, Forensic identification, Forensic science, Francis Crick, Frederick Sanger, Friedrich Miescher, GATC Biotech, Gene, Gene expression, Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, Genetic testing, Genome, Genome project, Genomics, George M. Church, Ghent, Ghent University, Guanine, Haemophilus influenzae, Hamilton O. Smith, Harvard University, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Helicos Biosciences, Hemolysin, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Human genome, Human Genome Project, Hydrogen ion, Illumina (company), Immortalised cell line, In vitro, Insulin, Interactome, International Journal of Cancer, IOS Press, J. Craig Venter Institute, James Watson, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Jumping library, Leroy Hood, Life Technologies (Thermo Fisher Scientific), Litre, Luciferase, Maclyn McCarty, Manteia Predictive Medicine, Mass spectrometry, Massively parallel signature sequencing, Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, Medical diagnosis, Medical Research Council (United Kingdom), Metagenomics, Methyl group, Microbiology, Microbiota, Microorganism, Microsatellite, Mitochondrial DNA, Molecular biology, Molecular cloning, Moore v. Regents of the University of California, Mostafa Ronaghi, MRNA display, Multiplex (assay), Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycoplasma capricolum, N50, L50, and related statistics, Nanopore sequencing, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Nature Biotechnology, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleotide, Open reading frame, Operon, Oswald Avery, Pacific Biosciences, Pål Nyrén, Personalized medicine, Phage display, Phi X 174, Phrap, Phred base calling, Phred quality score, Polony (biology), Polony sequencing, Polymer, Polymerase, Polymerase chain reaction, Polystyrene, Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, Primer walking, Protein, Protein sequencing, Pyrosequencing, Ray Wu, Read (biology), Reagent, Recombinant DNA, Reference genome, Repeated sequence (DNA), Restriction enzyme, RNA, RNA polymerase, RNA-Seq, Roche Diagnostics, Roger Y. Tsien, Rolling circle replication, Rosalind Franklin, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sanger sequencing, Scientific American, Sequence assembly, Sequence profiling tool, Sequencing by hybridization, Sequencing by ligation, Sequential pattern mining, Sewage, Shankar Balasubramanian, Shotgun sequencing, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Stephen Quake, Stockholm, Streptococcus, Sydney Brenner, Systematics, The Journal of Experimental Biology, The New England Journal of Medicine, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Third-generation sequencing, Thymine, Time (magazine), Transcriptome, Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing, Two-dimensional chromatography, Vector (molecular biology), Virology, Walter Fiers, Walter Gilbert, Whole genome sequencing, X Prize Foundation, X-ray crystallography, 23andMe, 454 Life Sciences, 5-Methylcytosine. Expand index (154 more) »

ABI Solid Sequencing

SOLiD (Sequencing by Oligonucleotide Ligation and Detection) is a next-generation DNA sequencing technology developed by Life Technologies and has been commercially available since 2006.

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Adenine

Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Ageing Research Reviews

Ageing Research Reviews is a scientific journal covering ageing published by Elsevier.

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Agencourt

Agencourt is a French commune in the Côte-d'Or department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France.

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Allan Maxam

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Anthropology

Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Anxiety

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Applied Biosystems

Applied Biosystems is one of the various brands under the Life Technologies brand of Thermo Fisher Scientific corporation.

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Archon X Prize

The Archon Genomics X PRIZE presented by Express Scripts for Genomics, the second X Prize offered by the X Prize Foundation, based in Playa Vista, California, was announced on October 4, 2006 stating that the prize of "$10 million will be awarded to the first team to rapidly, accurately and economically sequence 100 whole human genomes to an unprecedented level of accuracy." The 30 day evaluation phase of the competition to begin on September 5, 2013, was canceled August 22, 2013 and this cancellation was debated on March 27, 2014.

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Atomic force microscopy

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.

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Bacteriophage

A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.

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Bacteriophage MS2

The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.

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Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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BioCompute Object

The BioCompute Object (BCO) Project is a community-driven initiative to build a framework for standardizing and sharing computations and analyses generated from High-throughput sequencing (HTS), also referred to as next-generation sequencing (NGS) or massively parallel sequencing (MPS).

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Bioethics

Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.

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Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.

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Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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BMC Genomics

BMC Genomics is an open-access scientific journal covering all areas of genomics and proteomics.

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BMC Systems Biology

BMC Systems Biology is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research in systems biology.

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Caenorhabditis elegans

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.

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California Institute of Technology

The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.

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Cambridge

Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Cancer genome sequencing

Cancer genome sequencing is the whole genome sequencing of a single, homogeneous or heterogeneous group of cancer cells.

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ChIP-sequencing

ChIP-sequencing, also known as ChIP-seq, is a method used to analyze protein interactions with DNA.

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Chromosome

A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Colin Munro MacLeod

Colin Munro MacLeod (January 28, 1909 – February 11, 1972) was a Canadian-American geneticist.

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Complementarity (molecular biology)

In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.

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Complementary DNA

In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

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Complete Genomics

Complete Genomics is a life sciences company that has developed and commercialized a DNA sequencing platform for human genome sequencing and analysis.

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Cornell University

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.

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Coverage (genetics)

Coverage (or depth) in DNA sequencing is the number of unique reads that include a given nucleotide in the reconstructed sequence.

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Craig Venter

John Craig Venter (born October 14, 1946) is an American biotechnologist, biochemist, geneticist, and businessman.

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Cyclodextrin

Cyclodextrins (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are a family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound together in a ring (cyclic oligosaccharides).

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Cytosine

Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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David Klenerman

David Klenerman is a British biophysical chemist and a professor of biophysical chemistry at the Department of Chemistry at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge.

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Dementia

Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA computing

DNA computing is a branch of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry, and molecular biology hardware, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies.

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DNA field-effect transistor

A DNA field-effect transistor (DNAFET) is a field-effect transistor which uses the field-effect due to the partial charges of DNA molecules to function as a biosensor.

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DNA ligase

DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.

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DNA microarray

A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.

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DNA nanoball sequencing

DNA nanoball sequencing is a high throughput sequencing technology that is used to determine the entire genomic sequence of an organism.

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DNA paternity testing

DNA paternity testing is the use of DNA profiling (known as genetic fingerprinting) to determine whether two individuals are biologically parent and child.

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DNA polymerase

DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.

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DNA profiling

DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.

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DNA sequencer

A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process.

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DNA sequencing theory

DNA sequencing theory is the broad body of work that attempts to lay analytical foundations for determining the order of specific nucleotides in a sequence of DNA, otherwise known as DNA sequencing.

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Ecology

Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Epigenome

An epigenome consists of a record of the chemical changes to the DNA and histone proteins of an organism; these changes can be passed down to an organism's offspring via transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.

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Epstein–Barr virus

The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is one of eight known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Expressed sequence tag

In genetics, an expressed sequence tag (EST) is a short sub-sequence of a cDNA sequence.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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Federation of European Microbiological Societies

Federation of European Microbiological Societies (FEMS) is an international European scientific organization, formed by the union of a number of national organizations; there are now 52 members from 37 European countries, regular and provisional.

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Fluorescence

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Fluorescent tag

In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a label or probe, is a molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the labeling and detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid.

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Forensic biology

Forensic biology is the application of biology to law enforcement.

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Forensic identification

Forensic identification is the application of forensic science, or "forensics", and technology to identify specific objects from the trace evidence they leave, often at a crime scene or the scene of an accident.

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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Francis Crick

Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.

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Frederick Sanger

Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.

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Friedrich Miescher

Johannes Friedrich Miescher (13 August 1844 – 26 August 1895) was a Swiss physician and biologist.

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GATC Biotech

GATC Biotech is a German company specialist in DNA and RNA sequencing for academic and industrial partners worldwide.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA, pronounced Jee-na), is an Act of Congress in the United States designed to prohibit some types of genetic discrimination.

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Genetic testing

Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genome project

Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus) and to annotate protein-coding genes and other important genome-encoded features.

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Genomics

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.

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George M. Church

George McDonald Church (born August 28, 1954) is an American geneticist, molecular engineer, and chemist.

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Ghent

Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.

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Ghent University

Ghent University (Universiteit Gent, abbreviated as UGent) is a public research university located in Ghent, Belgium.

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Guanine

Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.

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Hamilton O. Smith

Hamilton Othanel Smith (born August 23, 1931) is an American microbiologist and Nobel laureate.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) was enacted by the United States Congress and signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996.

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Helicos Biosciences

Helicos BioSciences Corporation, was a publicly traded life science company headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts focused on genetic analysis technologies for the research, drug discovery and diagnostic markets.

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Hemolysin

Hemolysins or haemolysins are lipids and proteins that cause lysis of red blood cells by destroying their cell membrane.

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Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Hindawi Publishing Corporation is a commercial publisher of scientific, technical, and medical (STM) literature.

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Human genome

The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.

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Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.

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Hydrogen ion

A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron.

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Illumina (company)

Illumina, Inc. is an American company incorporated in April 1998 that develops, manufactures and markets integrated systems for the analysis of genetic variation and biological function.

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Immortalised cell line

An immortalized cell line is a population of cells from a multicellular organism which would normally not proliferate indefinitely but, due to mutation, have evaded normal cellular senescence and instead can keep undergoing division.

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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Insulin

Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Interactome

In molecular biology, an interactome is the whole set of molecular interactions in a particular cell.

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International Journal of Cancer

The International Journal of Cancer is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering experimental and clinical cancer research.

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IOS Press

IOS Press is a publishing house headquartered in Amsterdam, specialising in the publication of journals and books related to fields of scientific, technical, and medical research.

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J. Craig Venter Institute

The J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) is a non-profit genomics research institute founded by J. Craig Venter, Ph.D. in October 2006.

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James Watson

James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.

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Journal of Clinical Microbiology

The Journal of Clinical Microbiology is a monthly medical journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.

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Jumping library

Jumping libraries or junction-fragment libraries are collections of genomic DNA fragments generated by chromosome jumping.

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Leroy Hood

Leroy "Lee" Edward Hood (born October 10, 1938) is an American biologist who has served on the faculties at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the University of Washington.

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Life Technologies (Thermo Fisher Scientific)

Life Technologies Corporation was a biotech company founded in November 2008 through a US$6.7 billion merger of Invitrogen Corporation and Applied Biosystems Inc.

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Litre

The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.

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Luciferase

Luciferase is a generic term for the class of oxidative enzymes that produce bioluminescence, and is usually distinguished from a photoprotein.

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Maclyn McCarty

Maclyn McCarty (June 9, 1911 – January 2, 2005) was an American geneticist.

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Manteia Predictive Medicine

Manteia Predictive Medicine S.A. (initially incorporated under the name "GenInEx S.A.") was a start-up company created in November 2000 as a spin-off of Serono, a Swiss-based biotechnology company, now part of Merck-Serono, by private founders.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Massively parallel signature sequencing

Massive parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) is a procedure that is used to identify and quantify mRNA transcripts, resulting in data similar to serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), although it employs a series of biochemical and sequencing steps that are substantially different.

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Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization

In mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is an ionization technique that uses a laser energy absorbing matrix to create ions from large molecules with minimal fragmentation.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical Research Council (United Kingdom)

The Medical Research Council (MRC) is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom.

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Metagenomics

Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples.

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Methyl group

A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.

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Microbiology

Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

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Microbiota

A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.

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Microorganism

A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Microsatellite

A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular cloning

Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.

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Moore v. Regents of the University of California

Moore v. Regents of the University of California was a landmark Supreme Court of California decision.

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Mostafa Ronaghi

Mostafa Ronaghi (مصطفی رونقی) (born 1968) is an Iranian molecular biologist, specializing in DNA sequencing methodology.

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MRNA display

mRNA display is a display technique used for in vitro protein, and/or peptide evolution to create molecules that can bind to a desired target.

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Multiplex (assay)

A multiplex assay is a type of assay used in research to simultaneously measure multiple analytes (dozens or more) in a single run/cycle of the assay.

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Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a variation of the multiplex polymerase chain reaction that permits amplification of multiple targets with only a single primer pair.

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Mycobacterium smegmatis

Mycobacterium smegmatis is an acid-fast bacterial species in the phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Mycobacterium.

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Mycoplasma capricolum

Mycoplasma capricolum is a species of Mycoplasma bacteria.

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N50, L50, and related statistics

In computational biology, N50 and L50 are statistics of a set of contig or scaffold lengths.

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Nanopore sequencing

Nanopore sequencing is a third generation approach used in the sequencing of biopolymers- specifically, polynucleotides in the form of DNA or RNA.

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National Human Genome Research Institute

NHGRI began as the Office of Human Genome Research in The Office of the Director in 1988.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Nature Biotechnology

Nature Biotechnology is a peer reviewed scientific journal published monthly by the Nature Publishing Group.

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Nucleic acid double helix

In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Open reading frame

In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.

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Operon

In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.

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Oswald Avery

Oswald Theodore Avery Jr. (October 21, 1877 – February 20, 1955) was a Canadian-American physician and medical researcher.

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Pacific Biosciences

Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc. is a biotechnology company founded in 2004 that develops and manufactures systems for gene sequencing and some novel real time biological observation.

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Pål Nyrén

Pål Nyrén (born 1955) is a biochemistry professor at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.

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Personalized medicine

Personalized medicine, also termed precision medicine, is a medical procedure that separates patients into different groups—with medical decisions, practices, interventions and/or products being tailored to the individual patient based on their predicted response or risk of disease.

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Phage display

Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein–protein, protein–peptide, and protein–DNA interactions that uses bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to connect proteins with the genetic information that encodes them.

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Phi X 174

The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus and the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced.

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Phrap

Phrap is a widely used program for DNA sequence assembly.

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Phred base calling

Phred base-calling is a computer program for identifying a base (nucleobase) sequence from a fluorescence "trace" data generated by an automated DNA sequencer that uses electrophoresis and 4-fluorescent dye method.

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Phred quality score

A Phred quality score is a measure of the quality of the identification of the nucleobases generated by automated DNA sequencing.

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Polony (biology)

Polony is a contraction of "polymerase colony," a small colony of DNA.

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Polony sequencing

Polony sequencing is an inexpensive but highly accurate multiplex sequencing technique that can be used to “read” millions of immobilized DNA sequences in parallel.

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polymerase

A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.7.6/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains of polymers or nucleic acids.

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

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Polystyrene

Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.

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Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues

The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (the Bioethics Commission) was created by on November 24, 2009.

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Primer walking

Primer walking is a sequencing method of choice for sequencing DNA fragments between 1.3 and 7 kilobases.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein sequencing

Protein sequencing is the practical process of determining the amino acid sequence of all or part of a protein or peptide.

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Pyrosequencing

Pyrosequencing is a method of DNA sequencing (determining the order of nucleotides in DNA) based on the "sequencing by synthesis" principle, in which the sequencing is performed by detecting the nucleotide incorporated by a DNA polymerase.

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Ray Wu

Ray Jui Wu (14 August 1928 – 10 February 2008) was a Chinese-born American biologist and educator.

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Read (biology)

In DNA sequencing, a read is an inferred sequence of base pairs (or base pair probabilities) corresponding to all or part of a single DNA fragment.

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Reagent

A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.

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Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

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Reference genome

A reference genome (also known as a reference assembly) is a digital nucleic acid sequence database, assembled by scientists as a representative example of a species' set of genes.

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Repeated sequence (DNA)

Repeated sequences (also known as repetitive elements, or repeats) are patterns of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that occur in multiple copies throughout the genome.

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Restriction enzyme

A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA polymerase

RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.

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RNA-Seq

RNA-Seq (RNA sequencing), also called whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (WTSS), uses next-generation sequencing (NGS) to reveal the presence and quantity of RNA in a biological sample at a given moment.

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Roche Diagnostics

Roche Diagnostics is a diagnostic division of Hoffmann-La Roche which manufactures equipment and reagents for research and medical diagnostic applications.

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Roger Y. Tsien

Roger Yonchien Tsien (February 1, 1952 – August 24, 2016) was a Han Chinese/Taiwanese-American biochemist.

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Rolling circle replication

Rolling circle replication describes a process of unidirectional nucleic acid replication that can rapidly synthesize multiple copies of circular molecules of DNA or RNA, such as plasmids, the genomes of bacteriophages, and the circular RNA genome of viroids.

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Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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Sanger sequencing

Sanger sequencing is a method of DNA sequencing first commercialized by Applied Biosystems, based on the selective incorporation of chain-terminating dideoxynucleotides by DNA polymerase during in vitro DNA replication.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Sequence assembly

In bioinformatics, sequence assembly refers to aligning and merging fragments from a longer DNA sequence in order to reconstruct the original sequence.

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Sequence profiling tool

A sequence profiling tool in bioinformatics is a type of software that presents information related to a genetic sequence, gene name, or keyword input.

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Sequencing by hybridization

Sequencing by hybridization is a class of methods for determining the order in which nucleotides occur on a strand of DNA.

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Sequencing by ligation

Sequencing by ligation is a DNA sequencing method that uses the enzyme DNA ligase to identify the nucleotide present at a given position in a DNA sequence.

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Sequential pattern mining

Sequential pattern mining is a topic of data mining concerned with finding statistically relevant patterns between data examples where the values are delivered in a sequence.

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Sewage

Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.

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Shankar Balasubramanian

Sir Shankar Balasubramanian (born 30 September 1966) is an Indian-born British chemist and Herchel Smith Professor of Medicinal Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry the University of Cambridge,.

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Shotgun sequencing

In genetics, shotgun sequencing is a method used for sequencing long DNA strands.

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).

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Stephen Quake

Stephen Ronald Quake (born 1969) is an American scientist, inventor and entrepreneur.

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Stockholm

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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Streptococcus

Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).

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Sydney Brenner

Sydney Brenner (born 13 January 1927) is a South African biologist and a 2002 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate, shared with Bob Horvitz and John Sulston.

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Systematics

Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.

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The Journal of Experimental Biology

The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.

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The New England Journal of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.

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Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific is an American multinational biotechnology product development company, created in 2006 by the merger of Thermo Electron and Fisher Scientific.

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Third-generation sequencing

Third-generation sequencing (also known as long-read sequencing) is a class of DNA sequencing methods currently under active development.

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Thymine

---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Transcriptome

The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells.

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Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing

Transmission electron microscopy DNA sequencing is a single-molecule sequencing technology that uses transmission electron microscopy techniques.

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Two-dimensional chromatography

Two-dimensional chromatography is a type of chromatographic technique in which the injected sample is separated by passing through two different separation stages.

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Vector (molecular biology)

In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g.- plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages).

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Virology

Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.

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Walter Fiers

Walter Fiers (born 1931 in Ypres, West Flanders) is a Belgian molecular biologist.

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Walter Gilbert

Walter Gilbert (born March 21, 1932) is an American biochemist, physicist, molecular biology pioneer, and Nobel laureate.

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Whole genome sequencing

Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.

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X Prize Foundation

XPRIZE is a nonprofit organization that designs and manages public competitions intended to encourage technological development that could benefit humanity.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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23andMe

23andMe is a privately held personal genomics and biotechnology company based in Mountain View, California.

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454 Life Sciences

454 Life Sciences was a biotechnology company based in Branford, Connecticut that specialized in high-throughput DNA sequencing.

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5-Methylcytosine

5-Methylcytosine is a methylated form of the DNA base cytosine that may be involved in the regulation of gene transcription.

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Automated DNA sequencing, Base sequence analysis, Big Dye Terminator, DNA Sequencing, DNA sampling, Dideoxy sequencing, Dna sequencing, Dye terminator sequencing, Finished dna sequence, Gene sequencer, Genome Sequencer, Genomic sequencing, High throughput sequencing, High-throughput sequencing, Next Generation Sequencing, Next gen sequencing, Next generation sequencing, Next-Generation Sequencing, Next-gen sequencing, Next-generation sequencing, Sanger DNA Sequencing, Sanger's method, Sequencing DNA, Sequencing Technologies, Sequencing technology, Single-molecule sequencing, Working draft dna sequence.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_sequencing

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