27 relations: Base pair, Chromosome, DNA gyrase, DNA replication, Enzyme, Fluorescence, Genetic recombination, Gibbs free energy, Histone, Intercalation (biochemistry), Linking number, Meiosis, Mitosis, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleic acid structure, PH, Plasmid, Polymerase, Regulation of gene expression, Ribbon theory, RNA, Single-molecule experiment, Topoisomerase, Transcription (biology), Writhe, Z-DNA.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
DNA gyrase, or simply gyrase, is an enzyme within the class of topoisomerase (Type II topoisomerase) that relieves strain while double-stranded DNA is being unwound by helicase.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
In biochemistry, intercalation is the insertion of molecules between the planar bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
In mathematics, the linking number is a numerical invariant that describes the linking of two closed curves in three-dimensional space.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
A polymerase is an enzyme (EC 18.104.22.168/7/19/48/49) that synthesizes long chains of polymers or nucleic acids.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
Ribbon theory is a strand of mathematics within topology that has seen particular application as regards DNA.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
A single-molecule experiment is an experiment that investigates the properties of individual molecules.
Topoisomerases are enzymes that participate in the overwinding or underwinding of DNA.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In knot theory, there are several competing notions of the quantity writhe, or Wr.
Z-DNA is one of the many possible double helical structures of DNA.
Circular genome, DNA supercoiling, Dna, circular, Linking number of DNA, Negative supercoiling, Plectonemic supercoil, Positive supercoiling, Supercoil, Supercoiled, Supercoiled DNA, Supercoiling, Supercoiling of DNA, Superhelical DNA, Superhelical DNA energetics, Superhelical dna, Supertwisted DNA, Surface wrapping of DNA, Twist (DNA), Writhe (DNA).