156 relations: Acute stress reaction, Adjustment disorder, Advanced sleep phase disorder, Agoraphobia, Alan Schatzberg, Allen Frances, Amenorrhea, American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, Amnesia, Anorexia nervosa, Antisocial personality disorder, Anxiety, Anxiolytic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic numerals, Asperger syndrome, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism spectrum, Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, Binge eating disorder, Bipolar disorder not otherwise specified, Bipolar I disorder, Bipolar II disorder, Body dysmorphic disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Brent Robbins, British Psychological Society, Bulimia nervosa, Caffeine, Callous and unemotional traits, Cannabis (drug), Catatonia, Central sleep apnea, Childhood disintegrative disorder, Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, Cognitive disorder, Communication disorder, Compulsive hoarding, Conduct disorder, Conversion disorder, Cure, Delusional disorder, Dementia, Depersonalization disorder, Depression (mood), Derealization, Developmental coordination disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Disinhibited social engagement disorder, ..., Disorganized schizophrenia, Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, Dissociative identity disorder, Dyspareunia, Dysthymia, Enuresis, Excoriation disorder, False pregnancy, Female sexual arousal disorder, Fugue state, Gender dysphoria, Gender identity, Grief, Hallucinogen, Health professional, Hypersomnia, Hypnotic, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Hypopnea, Hypoventilation, ICD-10, Impulse control disorder, Inhalant, Intellectual disability, Inter-rater reliability, Intermittent explosive disorder, Irregular sleep–wake rhythm, Jeffrey Lieberman, Jet lag, Journal of Traumatic Stress, Kenneth Zucker, Kleptomania, Language disorder, Living document, Lou Chibbaro Jr., Major depressive disorder, Mental health, Motor disorder, Narcolepsy, National Institute of Mental Health, Nicotine dependence, Non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder, Non-disclosure agreement, Normality (behavior), Nosology, Not Otherwise Specified, Obsessional jealousy, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Oppositional defiant disorder, Panic attack, Panic disorder, Paranoid schizophrenia, Paraphilia, PBS NewsHour, Pedophilia, Personality disorder, Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, Pharmaceutical industry, Phencyclidine, Phobia, Pica (disorder), Posttraumatic stress disorder, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, Problem gambling, Psychiatric Times, Psychogenic amnesia, Psychopathology (journal), Psychosomatic Medicine (journal), Pyromania, Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, Ray Blanchard, Reactive attachment disorder, Relational disorder, Repeatability, Research Domain Criteria, Restless legs syndrome, Robert Spitzer (psychiatrist), Roman numerals, Rumination syndrome, San Francisco Chronicle, Schizoaffective disorder, Schizophrenia, Scientific American, Sedative, Selective mutism, Self-harm, Sensationalism, Separation anxiety disorder, Shared delusional disorder, Social anxiety disorder, Social stigma, Somatic symptom disorder, Somatization disorder, Speech disorder, Speech sound disorder, Stereotypic movement disorder, Stuttering, Substance abuse, Substance dependence, The New York Times, Tic disorder, Tourette syndrome, Trichotillomania, Vaginismus, Video game addiction, Washington Blade. Expand index (106 more) » « Shrink index
Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event, or witnessing a traumatic event that induces a strong emotional response within the individual.
An adjustment disorder (AD)—sometimes called exogenous, reactive, or situational depression—occurs when an individual is unable to adjust to or cope with a particular stress or a major life event.
Advanced sleep phase disorder (ASPD), also known as the advanced sleep-phase type (ASPT) of circadian rhythm sleep disorder or advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS), is a condition in which patients feel very sleepy and go to bed early in the evening (e.g. 6:00–8:00 p.m.) and wake up very early in the morning (e.g. around 3:00 a.m.).
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives the environment to be unsafe with no easy way to get away.
Alan F. Schatzberg is an American psychiatrist.
Allen J. Frances (born 1942 in New York City, New York) is an American psychiatrist.
Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger's, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), previously known as selective eating disorder (SED), is a type of eating disorder, as well as feeding disorder, where the consumption of certain foods is limited based on the food's appearance, smell, taste, texture, brand, presentation, or a past negative experience with the food.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is an eating disorder characterized by frequent and recurrent binge eating episodes with associated negative psychological and social problems, but without subsequent purging episodes (e.g. vomiting).
Bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BD-NOS) is a diagnosis for bipolar disorder (BD) when it does not fall within the other established sub-types.
Bipolar I disorder (BD-I; pronounced "type one bipolar disorder") is a bipolar spectrum disorder characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, with or without mixed or psychotic features.
Bipolar II disorder (BP-II; pronounced "type two bipolar" or "bipolar type two" disorder) is a bipolar spectrum disorder (see also Bipolar disorder) characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and at least one episode of major depression.
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), occasionally still called dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix their dysmorphic part on their person.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Brent Dean Robbins is Associate Professor of psychology at Point Park University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The British Psychological Society (BPS) is a representative body for psychologists and psychology in the United Kingdom.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Callous and unemotional traits (CU) are distinguished by a persistent pattern of behavior that reflects a disregard for others, and also a lack of empathy and generally deficient affect.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Catatonia is a state of psycho-motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor.
Central sleep apnea (CSA) or central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) is a sleep-related disorder in which the effort to breathe is diminished or absent, typically for 10 to 30 seconds either intermittently or in cycles, and is usually associated with a reduction in blood oxygen saturation.
The childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as Heller's syndrome and disintegrative psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset of developmental delays—or severe and sudden reversals—in language, social function, and motor skills.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) are a family of sleep disorders affecting (among other bodily processes) the timing of sleep.
Cognitive disorders (CDs), also known as neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem solving.
A communication disorder is any disorder that affects an individual's ability to comprehend, detect, or apply language and speech to engage in discourse effectively with others.
Compulsive hoarding, also known as hoarding disorder, is a pattern of behavior that is characterized by excessive acquisition and an inability or unwillingness to discard large quantities of objects that cover the living areas of the home and cause significant distress or impairment.
Conduct disorder (CD) is a mental disorder diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.
Conversion disorder (CD) is a diagnostic category used in some psychiatric classification systems.
A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.
Delusional disorder is a generally rare mental illness in which the patient presents delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Depersonalization disorder (DPD), also known as depersonalization/derealization disorder, is a mental disorder in which the person has persistent or recurrent feelings of depersonalization or derealization.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Derealization (sometimes abbreviated as DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD), also known as developmental dyspraxia or simply dyspraxia, is a chronic neurological disorder beginning in childhood.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder (DSED) or Disinhibited Attachment Disorder of Childhood is an attachment disorder that consists of "a pattern of behavior in which a child actively approaches and interacts with unfamiliar adults." and which "...significantly impairs young children’s abilities to relate interpersonally to adults and peers."Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing quoted in For example, sitting on the lap of a stranger or peer, or leaving with a stranger.
Disorganized schizophrenia, also known as hebephrenia or hebephrenic schizophrenia, is a subtype of schizophrenia, although it is not recognized in the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a mental disorder in children and adolescents characterized by a persistently irritable or angry mood and frequent temper outbursts that are disproportionate to the situation and significantly more severe than the typical reaction of same-aged peers.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID), also known as multiple personality disorder, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring personality states.
Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes.
Dysthymia, now known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.
Enuresis (from the Ancient Greek ἐνούρησις enoúrēsis) is a repeated inability to control urination.
Excoriation disorder is a mental disorder characterized by the repeated urge to pick at one's own skin, often to the extent that damage is caused.
False pregnancy, also known as phantom, hysterical pregnancy, pregnancy scares or pseudocyesis, is the appearance of clinical or subclinical signs and symptoms associated with pregnancy when the person is not actually pregnant.
Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a disorder characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain sexual arousal or to maintain arousal until the completion of a sexual activity.
Dissociative fugue, formerly fugue state or psychogenic fugue, is a dissociative disorderDissociative Fugue (formerly Psychogenic Fugue) and a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by reversible amnesia for personal identity, including the memories, personality, and other identifying characteristics of individuality.
Gender dysphoria (GD), or gender identity disorder (GID), is the distress a person experiences as a result of the sex and gender they were assigned at birth.
Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.
Grief is a multifaceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something that has died, to which a bond or affection was formed.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
Hypersomnia, or hypersomnolence, is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) or inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is considered a sexual dysfunction and is characterized as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity, as judged by a clinician.
hypopnoea is overly shallow breathing or an abnormally low respiratory rate.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Impulse-control disorder (ICD) is a class of psychiatric disorders characterized by impulsivity – failure to resist a temptation, an urge, an impulse, or the inability to not speak on a thought.
Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce intoxication (called "getting high" in slang), in a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
In statistics, inter-rater reliability, inter-rater agreement, or concordance, is the degree of agreement among raters.
Intermittent explosive disorder (sometimes abbreviated as IED) is a behavioral disorder characterized by explosive outbursts of anger and violence, often to the point of rage, that are disproportionate to the situation at hand (e.g., impulsive screaming triggered by relatively inconsequential events).
Irregular sleep–wake rhythm is a rare form of circadian rhythm sleep disorder.
Jeffrey Alan Lieberman (born 1948) is an American psychiatrist who specializes in schizophrenia and related psychoses and their associated neuroscience (biology) and drugs.
Jet lag is a physiological condition which results from alterations to the body's circadian rhythms caused by rapid long-distance trans-meridian (east–west or west–east) travel.
The Journal of Traumatic Stress is a peer-reviewed academic journal published bimonthly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Kenneth J. Zucker (born 1950) is an American-Canadian psychologist and sexologist.
Kleptomania or klopemania is the inability to refrain from the urge for stealing items and is usually done for reasons other than personal use or financial gain.
Language disorders or language impairments are disorders that involve the processing of linguistic information.
A living document, also known as an evergreen document or dynamic document, is a document that is continually edited and updated.
Lou Chibbaro Jr. is an award-winning journalist best known for his efforts as senior news writer for the Washington Blade to chronicle the gay rights movement in the Washington, D.C. area and nationwide in the United States.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
Motor disorders are disorders of the nervous system that cause abnormal and involuntary movements.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Nicotine dependence, or tobacco use disorder, is a state of dependence upon nicotine.
Non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (non-24), is one of several chronic circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs).
A non-disclosure agreement (NDA), also known as a confidentiality agreement (CA), confidential disclosure agreement (CDA), proprietary information agreement (PIA) or secrecy agreement (SA), is a legal contract between at least two parties that outlines confidential material, knowledge, or information that the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes, but wish to restrict access to or by third parties.
Normality is a behavior that can be normal for an individual (intrapersonal normality) when it is consistent with the most common behaviour for that person.
Nosology is a classification scheme used in medicine to classify diseases.
Not Otherwise Specified (or NOS) is a subcategory in systems of disease/disorder classification such as ICD-9, ICD-10, DSM-IV, and many others.
Obsessional jealousy is jealousy that is characterized by intrusive and excessive thoughts, and may be accompanied by compulsive checking of the partner.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is defined by the DSM-5 as "a pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness" in children and adolescents.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common type of schizophrenia.
Paraphilia (previously known as sexual perversion and sexual deviation) is the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals.
The PBS NewsHour is an American daily evening television news program that is broadcast on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), airing seven nights a week on more than 350 of the public broadcaster's member stations.
Pedophilia, or paedophilia, is a psychiatric disorder in which an adult or older adolescent experiences a primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
A pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is one of the four autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and also one of the five disorders classified as a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD).
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.
Pica is a psychological disorder characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive, such as ice (pagophagia); hair (trichophagia); paper (xylophagia); drywall or paint; metal (metallophagia); stones (lithophagia) or soil (geophagia); glass (hyalophagia); or feces (coprophagia); and chalk.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and disabling form of premenstrual syndrome affecting 3–8% of menstruating women.
Problem gambling (or ludomania, but usually referred to as "gambling addiction" or "compulsive gambling") is an urge to gamble continuously despite harmful negative consequences or a desire to stop.
Psychiatric Times is a medical trade publication written for an audience involved in the profession of psychiatry.
Psychogenic amnesia or dissociative amnesia, is a memory disorder characterized by sudden retrograde episodic memory loss, said to occur for a period of time ranging from hours to years.
Psychopathology is a peer-reviewed medical journal that research on and classification of mental illness in clinical psychiatry, the field of psychopathology.
Psychosomatic Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal published nine times per year by the American Psychosomatic Society.
Pyromania is an impulse control disorder in which individuals repeatedly fail to resist impulses to deliberately start fires, in order to relieve tension or for instant gratification.
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder (more specifically a parasomnia) in which people act out their dreams.
Ray Milton Blanchard (born October 9, 1945) is an American-Canadian sexologist, best known for his research studies on pedophilia, transsexualism, and sexual orientation.
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is described in clinical literature as a severe and relatively uncommon disorder that can affect children.
According to Michael First of the DSM-5 working committee the focus of a relational disorder, in contrast to other DSM-IV disorders, "is on the relationship rather than on any one individual in the relationship".
Repeatability or test–retest reliability is the closeness of the agreement between the results of successive measurements of the same measurand carried out under the same conditions of measurement.
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project is an initiative being developed by US National Institute of Mental Health.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.
Robert Leopold Spitzer (May 22, 1932 – December 25, 2015) was a psychiatrist and professor of psychiatry at Columbia University in New York City.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
Rumination syndrome, or Merycism, is an under-diagnosed chronic motility disorder characterized by effortless regurgitation of most meals following consumption, due to the involuntary contraction of the muscles around the abdomen.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Selective mutism (SM) is an anxiety disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech cannot speak in specific situations or to specific people.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
Sensationalism is a type of editorial bias in mass media in which events and topics in news stories and pieces are overhyped to present biased impressions on events, which may cause a manipulation to the truth of a story.
Separation anxiety disorder (SAD), is an anxiety disorder in which an individual experiences excessive anxiety regarding separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (e.g., a parent, caregiver, significant other or siblings).
Shared delusional disorder is a delusion that develops in someone who has a close relationship with a person with a preexisting psychological condition (called the primary case or inducer).
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
A somatic symptom disorder, formerly known as a somatoform disorder,(2013) " " dsm5.org.
Somatization disorder (also Briquet's syndrome) is a mental disorder characterized by recurring, multiple, and current, clinically significant complaints about somatic symptoms, although it is no longer considered a clinical diagnosis.
Speech disorders or speech impediments are a type of communication disorder where 'normal' speech is disrupted.
A speech sound disorder (SSD) is a speech disorder in which some speech sounds (called phonemes) in a child's (or, sometimes, an adult's) language are either not produced, not produced correctly, or are not used correctly.
Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) is a motor disorder with onset in childhood involving repetitive, nonfunctional motor behavior (e.g., hand waving or head banging), that markedly interferes with normal activities or results in bodily injury.
Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels. According to Watkins et al., stuttering is a disorder of "selection, initiation, and execution of motor sequences necessary for fluent speech production." For many people who stutter, repetition is the primary problem. The term "stuttering" covers a wide range of severity, encompassing barely perceptible impediments that are largely cosmetic to severe symptoms that effectively prevent oral communication. In the world, approximately four times as many men as women stutter, encompassing 70 million people worldwide, or about 1% of the world's population. The impact of stuttering on a person's functioning and emotional state can be severe. This may include fears of having to enunciate specific vowels or consonants, fears of being caught stuttering in social situations, self-imposed isolation, anxiety, stress, shame, being a possible target of bullying having to use word substitution and rearrange words in a sentence to hide stuttering, or a feeling of "loss of control" during speech. Stuttering is sometimes popularly seen as a symptom of anxiety, but there is actually no direct correlation in that direction (though as mentioned the inverse can be true, as social anxiety may actually develop in individuals as a result of their stuttering). Stuttering is generally not a problem with the physical production of speech sounds or putting thoughts into words. Acute nervousness and stress do not cause stuttering, but they can trigger stuttering in people who have the speech disorder, and living with a stigmatized disability can result in anxiety and high allostatic stress load (chronic nervousness and stress) that reduce the amount of acute stress necessary to trigger stuttering in any given person who stutters, exacerbating the problem in the manner of a positive feedback system; the name 'stuttered speech syndrome' has been proposed for this condition. Neither acute nor chronic stress, however, itself creates any predisposition to stuttering. The disorder is also variable, which means that in certain situations, such as talking on the telephone or in a large group, the stuttering might be more severe or less, depending on whether or not the stutterer is self-conscious about their stuttering. Stutterers often find that their stuttering fluctuates and that they have "good" days, "bad" days and "stutter-free" days. The times in which their stuttering fluctuates can be random. Although the exact etiology, or cause, of stuttering is unknown, both genetics and neurophysiology are thought to contribute. There are many treatments and speech therapy techniques available that may help decrease speech disfluency in some people who stutter to the point where an untrained ear cannot identify a problem; however, there is essentially no cure for the disorder at present. The severity of the person's stuttering would correspond to the amount of speech therapy needed to decrease disfluency. For severe stuttering, long-term therapy and hard work is required to decrease disfluency.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Tic disorders is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements).
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
Trichotillomania (TTM), also known as hair pulling disorder, is an impulse control disorder characterised by a long term urge that results in the pulling out of one's hair.
Vaginismus, sometimes called vaginism, is a condition that affects a woman's ability to engage in vaginal penetration, including sexual intercourse, manual penetration, insertion of tampons or menstrual cups, and the penetration involved in gynecological examinations (pap tests).
Video game addiction (VGA) has been suggested by some in the medical community as a distinct behavioral addiction characterized by excessive or compulsive use of computer games or video games that interferes with a person's everyday life.
The Washington Blade is a lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) newspaper in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.