55 relations: Abbreviation, Affricate consonant, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Aspirated consonant, Back vowel, Bilabial consonant, Central vowel, Chain shift, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Consonant, Dash, Dental consonant, Diacritic, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, English language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, International Phonetic Alphabet, Japan, Lateral consonant, Latin alphabet, Legge romanization, Letter case, Mid vowel, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Orthography, Pinyin, Pitch-accent language, Scientific American, Stop consonant, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwanese Hokkien, Tenuis consonant, Tokyo, Tone (linguistics), Tone contour, Tone number, Tone sandhi, Tongyong Pinyin, Triphthong, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, ..., Unreleased stop, Velar consonant, Voice (phonetics), Vowel, Voyager Golden Record. Expand index (5 more) » « Shrink index
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In historical linguistics, a chain shift is a set of sound changes in which the change in pronunciation of one speech sound (typically, a phoneme) is linked to, and presumably causes, the change in pronunciation of other sounds as well.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The dash is a punctuation mark that is similar in appearance to and, but differs from these symbols in both length and height.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Legge romanization is a transcription system for Mandarin Chinese, used by the prolific 19th century sinologist James Legge.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
In linguistics, a tenuis consonant is an obstruent that is unvoiced, unaspirated, unpalatalized, and unglottalized.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
A tone contour, or contour tone, is a tone in a tonal language which shifts from one pitch to another over the course of the syllable or word.
Tone numbers are numerical digits used like letters to mark the tones of a language.
Tone sandhi is a phonological change occurring in tonal languages, in which the tones assigned to individual words or morphemes change based on the pronunciation of adjacent words or morphemes.
Tongyong Pinyin was the official romanization of Mandarin Chinese in Taiwan between 2002 and 2008.
In phonetics, a triphthong (from Greek τρίφθογγος, "triphthongos", literally "with three sounds," or "with three tones") is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement of the articulator from one vowel quality to another that passes over a third.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
A stop with no audible release, also known as an unreleased stop or an applosive, is a stop consonant with no release burst: no audible indication of the end of its occlusion (hold).
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
The Voyager Golden Records are two phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977.