335 relations: Abutment, Agriculture, Ahvaz, Aix-en-Provence, Al-Maqdisi, Albania, Alternative energy, Amenemhat III, Amenemhat IV, Amman, Amstel, Amsterdam, Ancient Egypt, Anhui, Aquaculture, Aqueduct (water supply), Aquifer, Arab Agricultural Revolution, Aral Sea, Arch dam, Arch-gravity dam, Archaeology, Arizona, Asphalt, Asphalt concrete, Aswan Low Dam, Attabad Lake, Australia, Band-e Kaisar, Barge, Barrage (dam), Basalt, Battle of Tell El Kebir, Beaver, Benjamin Baker (engineer), Black Canyon of the Colorado, Braddock Locks & Dam, Brazil, British Empire, Buffalo Creek flood, Bunding, Buttress, Buttress dam, Cairo, California, California Gold Rush, Canada, Cantilever, Canyon, Causeway, ..., Cavitation, Cement, Chester, China, Chu (state), Claerwen, Clark Fork River, Clay, Climate, Cofferdam, Colorado River, Columbia River, Common good, Concrete, Concrete slab, Cordilleran Ice Sheet, Cubit, Dale Dike Reservoir, Dam Square, Daniel-Johnson Dam, Deep foundation, Deformation monitoring, Delta Works, Dezful, Dholavira, Dinorwig Power Station, Diversion dam, Donald Hill, Dujiangyan, Earthquake, Ecology, Eder, Eflatun Pınar, Electric generator, Embankment dam, Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Endangered species, Engineering, Engineering geology, Environmental Health Perspectives, Environmental impact assessment, Environmental impact of reservoirs, Ernest Cassel, Erosion, Euphrates, Evaporation, Faiyum Oasis, Fierzë Hydroelectric Power Station, Fish ladder, Flathead Lake, Flood, Floodgate, Fossil fuel, Foundation (engineering), France, Fukuzato Underground Dam, Fuse plug, Germany, Glacier, Glen Canyon Dam, Global warming, Government, Grand Coulee Dam, Great Depression, Gros Ventre landslide, Groundwater, Grout, Grout curtain, Harbaqa Dam, Henry Charles Stanley, Himyarite Kingdom, Hittites, Hoover Dam, Horn of Africa, Hunza River, Hyderabad, Hydraulic fill, Hydroelectricity, Hydrology, Hydropower, Hydrostatics, Ice jam, IJkdijk, Indus River, Industrial Revolution, Inflatable rubber dam, International Commission on Large Dams, International humanitarian law, Iran, Irrigation, Islamabad, Itaipu Dam, Jawa Dam (Jordan), Jewish Encyclopedia, John Aird & Co., John By, John Redpath, Johnstown Flood, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, Jones Falls Dam, Jordan, Kallanai Dam, Karun, Kaveri, Keenleyside Dam, Kelly, Wyoming, Konya, Lake Homs Dam, Lake Missoula, Lake Moeris, Land reclamation, Landslide, Landslide dam, Lawn Lake Dam, Levee, List of dams and reservoirs, List of largest dams, List of Roman dams and reservoirs, List of tallest dams, List of tidal barrages, Lock (water navigation), Log house, Logging, London, Louis Philippe I, Lumber, Malpasset Dam, Marib Dam, Masonry, Masonry dam, Mesopotamia, Methane, Middle Dutch, Middle East, Middle English, Mill (grinding), Mining, Mir Alam Tank, Moglicë Hydro Power Plant, Montana, Moraine, Moraine-dammed lake, Morarji Desai, Mortar (masonry), Mountain City, Nevada, Murghab River, Muslim world, Navigability, Netherlands, Nevada, New Melones Dam, Nick Cullather, Nieuwe Maas, Nile, No. 617 Squadron RAF, Normal (geometry), North America, Nurek Dam, Obdam, Ogee, Okinawa Prefecture, Open innovation, Operation Chastise, Ore, Ottawa, Pakistan, Paraguay, Parallelogram law, Paraná River, Parker Dam, Parramatta, Penstock, Permafrost, Permeability (earth sciences), Plastic, Pong Dam, Portland cement, Potential energy, Power transmission, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Pressure, Pressure grouting, Prime minister, Protective sign, Pumped-storage hydroelectricity, Rain, Rankine theory, Reaction (physics), Red Bluff Diversion Dam, Red Bluff, California, REN21, Renewable energy, Reservoir, Retaining wall, Rideau Canal, River Dee, Wales, River Thames, Rock (geology), Roman concrete, Roman Syria, Rome, Rotte (river), Rotterdam, Routledge, Royal Air Force, Royal Engineers, Ruhr (river), Sabaeans, Sacramento River, Sadd el-Kafara, Sarez Lake, Shadi Kaur Dam, Shoal, Shuibuya Dam, Sir John Aird, 1st Baronet, Six Companies, Inc., Slope stability, Sluice, Slurry, Soil compaction, Soil liquefaction, South America, South Fork Dam, South India, Southwestern United States, Spawn (biology), Splash dam, Statkraft, Steel, Steel dam, Stiffness, Subiaco Dams, Sunshu Ao, Surface water, Tailings, Taipei, Tajikistan, Tamil Nadu, Tap water, Tarbela Dam, Taum Sauk Hydroelectric Power Station, Testalinda Creek, The Century Magazine, The Times of India, The World's Work, Three Gorges Dam, Tidal barrage, Tidal power, Tide, Tigris, Topography, Trapezoid, Turbine, Turbulence, Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt, Uinkaret volcanic field, United States, University of Glasgow, University of Oxford, Usoi Dam, Vajont Dam, Val di Stava dam collapse, Viscoelasticity, Volcanic dam, Wadi, Warwick, Queensland, Water level, Water resources, Water supply, Water turbine, Water wheel, Watermill, Watt, Weir, Wild Horse Reservoir, William John Macquorn Rankine, William Willcocks, Wind power, Wing dam, World 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In engineering, abutment refers to the substructure at the ends of a bridge span or dam whereon the structure's superstructure rests or contacts.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ahvaz (or Ahwaz; translit) is a city in the southwest of Iran and the capital of Khuzestan province.
Aix-en-Provence (Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm, or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm,, Aquae Sextiae), or simply Aix (medieval Occitan Aics), is a city-commune in the south of France, about north of Marseille.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel.
Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III, was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt.
Amenemhat IV (also Amenemhet IV) was the seventh and penultimateJürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz: Philip von Zabern, 1999,, see pp.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
The Amstel is a river in the Netherlands which flows from Nieuwveen, South Holland to Amsterdam, North Holland.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
The Arab Agricultural Revolution is the transformation in agriculture from the 8th to the 13th century in the Islamic region of the Old World.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
An arch dam is a concrete dam that is curved upstream in plan.
An arch-gravity dam or arched dam is a dam with the characteristics of both an arch dam and a gravity dam.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Asphalt concrete (commonly called asphalt, blacktop, or pavement in North America, and tarmac, bitumen macadam or rolled asphalt in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland) is a composite material commonly used to surface roads, parking lots, airports, as well as the core of embankment dams.
The Aswan Low Dam or Old Aswan Dam is a gravity masonry buttress dam on the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt.
Attabad Lake also known as Gojal lake(عطا آباد جھیل), is a lake in Gojal Valley, Hunza, Pakistan that was created in January 2010 by a landslide dam.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Band-e Kaisar, Pol-e Kaisar ("Caesar's bridge"), Bridge of Valerian or Shadirwan was an ancient arch bridge in Shushtar, Iran, and the first in the country to combine it with a dam.
A barge is a flat-bottomed ship, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.
A barrage is a type of low-head, diversion dam which consists of a number of large gates that can be opened or closed to control the amount of water passing through.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
The Battle of Tel El Kebir was fought between the Egyptian army led by Ahmed Urabi and the British military near Tell El Kebir.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
Sir Benjamin Baker (31 March 1840 – 19 May 1907) was an eminent English civil engineer who worked in mid to late Victorian era.
The Black Canyon of the Colorado is the canyon on the Colorado River where Hoover Dam was built.
Braddock Locks & Dam (previously named Monongahela Locks and Dam No. 2) is one of nine navigational structures on the Monongahela River between Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Fairmont, West Virginia.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Buffalo Creek flood was a disaster that occurred on February 26, 1972, when the Pittston Coal Company's coal slurry impoundment dam #3, located on a hillside in Logan County, West Virginia, burst, four days after having been declared "satisfactory" by a federal mine inspector.
Bunding, also called a bund wall, is a constructed retaining wall around storage "where potentially polluting substances are handled, processed or stored, for the purposes of containing any unintended escape of material from that area until such time as a remedial action can be taken." Guidance Note on Storage and Transfer of Materials for Scheduled Activities page 7.
A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall.
A buttress dam or hollow dam is a dam with a solid, water-tight upstream side that is supported at intervals on the downstream side by a series of buttresses or supports.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A cantilever is a rigid structural element, such as a beam or a plate, anchored at one end to a (usually vertical) support from which it protrudes; this connection could also be perpendicular to a flat, vertical surface such as a wall.
A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.
In modern usage, a causeway is a road or railway on top of an embankment usually across a broad body of water or wetland.
Cavitation is the formation of vapour cavities in a liquid, small liquid-free zones ("bubbles" or "voids"), that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
Chester (Caer) is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
The Claerwen reservoir and dam in Powys, Wales, were the last additions to the Elan Valley Reservoirs system built to provide water for the increasingly demanding city of Birmingham, in neighbouring England.
The Clark Fork, or the Clark Fork of the Columbia River, is a river in the U.S. states of Montana and Idaho, approximately long.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
A cofferdam (also called a coffer) is an enclosure built within, or in pairs across, a body of water and constructed to allow the enclosed area to be pumped out.
The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers of the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Rio Grande).
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
In philosophy, economics, and political science, the common good (also commonwealth, common weal or general welfare) refers to either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the realm of politics and public service.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings.
The Cordilleran ice sheet was a major ice sheet that periodically covered large parts of North America during glacial periods over the last ~2.6 million years.
The cubit is an ancient unit of length that had several definitions according to each of the various different cultures that used the unit.
Dale Dike Reservoir or Dale Dyke Reservoir is a reservoir in the north-east Peak District, in the City of Sheffield South Yorkshire, England, a mile (1.6 km) west of Bradfield and eight miles (13 km) from the centre of Sheffield, on the Dale Dike, a tributary of the River Loxley.
Dam Square or Dam is a town square in Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands.
The Daniel-Johnson Dam (Barrage Daniel-Johnson), formerly known as Manic-5, is a multiple-arch buttress dam on the Manicouagan River that creates the annular Manicouagan Reservoir.
A deep foundation is a type of foundation that transfers building loads to the earth farther down from the surface than a shallow foundation does to a subsurface layer or a range of depths.
Deformation monitoring (also referred to as deformation survey) is the systematic measurement and tracking of the alteration in the shape or dimensions of an object as a result of stresses induced by applied loads.
The Delta Works (Deltawerken) is a series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta from the sea.
Dezful (دزفول, pronounced, in local dialect دسفیل, also Romanized as Dezfūl and Dezfool; also known as Dīzfūl) is a city and capital of Dezful County, Khuzestan Province, Iran.
Dholavira (ધોળાવીરા) is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern-day village south of it.
The Dinorwig Power Station is a pumped-storage hydroelectric scheme, near Dinorwig, Llanberis in Snowdonia national park in Gwynedd, north Wales.
A diversion dam is a dam that diverts all or a portion of the flow of a river from its natural course.
Donald Routledge Hill (August 6, 1922 – May 30, 1994)D.
The Dujiangyan is an ancient irrigation system in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan, China.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
The Eder is a long major river in Germany that begins in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia and passes in to Hesse, where it confluences with the River Fulda.
Eflatun Pınar (Eflatunpınar, "Plato's Spring") is the name given to a spring, which rises up from the ground, and the stone-built pool monument built at the time of the Hittite Empire.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.
An embankment dam is a large artificial dam.
The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science is a three-volume encyclopedia covering the history of Arabic contributions to science, mathematics and technology which had a marked influence on the Middle Ages in Europe.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Engineering geology is the application of the geology to engineering study for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and accounted for.
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
Environmental assessment (EA) is the assessment of the environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action.
The environmental impact of reservoirs comes under ever-increasing scrutiny as the global demand for water and energy increases and the number and size of reservoirs increases.
Sir Ernest Joseph Cassel, (3 March 1852 – 21 September 1921) was a British merchant banker and capitalist.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
The Faiyum Oasis (واحة الفيوم Waḥet El Fayyum) is a depression or basin in the desert immediately to the west of the Nile south of Cairo.
The Fierza Hydroelectric Power Station (Hidrocentrali i Fierzës) is a large hydroelectric power station on the Drin River, in Albania.
A fish ladder, also known as a fishway, fish pass or fish steps, is a structure on or around artificial and natural barriers (such as dams, locks and waterfalls) to facilitate diadromous fishes' natural migration.
Flathead Lake (Salish: člq̓etkʷ) is a large natural lake in northwest Montana, and is the largest natural freshwater lake by surface area that is west of the source of the Mississippi River in the contiguous United States.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
Floodgates, also called stop gates, are adjustable gates used to control water flow in flood barriers, reservoir, river, stream, or levee systems.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
A foundation (or, more commonly, base) is the element of an architectural structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fukuzato Dam is an underground dam constructed in Miyakojima, Okinawa Prefecture.
A fuse plug is a collapsible dam installed on spillways in dams to increase the dam's capacity.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glen Canyon Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam on the Colorado River in northern Arizona, United States, near the town of Page.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Grand Coulee Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington, built to produce hydroelectric power and provide irrigation water.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Gros Ventre landslide is located in the Gros Ventre Wilderness of Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming, United States.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Grout is a fluid form of concrete used to fill gaps.
A grout curtain is a barrier that protects the foundation of a dam from seepage and can be made during initial construction or during repair.
The Harbaqa Dam or Kharbaqa Dam (سد خربقة) was a Roman era Palmyrene gravity dam in the Syrian desert about southwest from Palmyra on the road to Damascus.
Henry Charles Stanley (1840–1921) was the chief engineer of the railways in Queensland, Australia.
The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, ממלכת חִמְיָר) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Hoover Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River, on the border between the U.S. states of Nevada and Arizona.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Hunza River (دریائے ہنزہ) is the principal river of Hunza in Gilgit–Baltistan,Pakistan.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
A hydraulic fill is an embankment or other fill in which the materials are deposited in place by a flowing stream of water, with the deposition being selective.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
Ice jams occur on rivers when floating ice accumulates at a natural or man-made feature that impedes its progress downstream.
The IJkdijk is a facility in the Netherlands to test dikes and to develop sensor network technologies for early warning systems.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Inflatable rubber dams are cylindrical rubber fabrics placed across channels, streams and weir or dam crests to raise the upstream water level when inflated.
The International Commission on Large Dams, or ICOLD, (Commission Internationale des Grands Barrages or CIGB) is an international non-governmental organization dedicated to the sharing of professional information and knowledge of the design, construction, maintenance, and impact of large dams.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Islamabad (اسلام آباد) is the capital city of Pakistan located within the federal Islamabad Capital Territory.
The Itaipu Dam (Barragem de Itaipu, Represa de Itaipú) is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay.
The Jawa Dam is the remains of an ancient masonry gravity dam on Wadi Rajil at Jawa in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan, north of Azraq.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
John Aird & Co. was once a leading British civil engineering business based in London.
Lieutenant-Colonel John By (7 August 1779 – 1 February 1836) was an English military engineer, best remembered for supervising the construction of the Rideau Canal and founding Bytown in the process, which would become the Canadian capital, Ottawa.
John Redpath (1796 – March 5, 1869) was a Scots-Quebecer businessman and philanthropist who helped pioneer the industrial movement that made Montreal, Quebec the largest and most prosperous city in Canada.
The Johnstown Flood (locally, the Great Flood of 1889) occurred on May 31, 1889, after the catastrophic failure of the South Fork Dam on the Little Conemaugh River upstream of the town of Johnstown, Pennsylvania.
Johnstown is a city in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, United States, west-southwest of Altoona and east of Pittsburgh.
Jones Falls Dam is a dam on the Rideau Canal located in Rideau Lakes, Leeds and Grenville United Counties, Ontario, Canada, that was built in 1831 and completed in 1832 to tame the mile-long series of rapids and falls that runs through the Jones Falls.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Kallanai (also known as the Grand Anicut, Tamil: கல்லணை) is an ancient dam, which is built (in running water) across the Kaveri river in Tiruchirappalli District in the state of Tamil Nadu in India.
The Kārūn (کارون) is Iran's most effluent and only navigable river.
Kaveri (anglicized as Cauvery), also referred as Ponni, is an Indian river flowing through the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
Hugh Keenleyside Dam (originally known as the High Arrow Dam is a flood control dam spanning the Columbia River, 12 km (6.5 miles) upstream of the city of Castlegar, British Columbia, Canada. The dam is at the outflow of what was the upper and lower Arrow Lakes, today the two lakes are joined forming one long reservoir extending north to Revelstoke Dam, and contains 8.76 km3 (7.1 MAF) of reservoir volume. The dam is operated by BC Hydro. The long earth fill and concrete dam was built as part of fulfilling Canada's role in the Columbia River Treaty, along with the Duncan Dam, both were built to prevent flooding and control the flow of water in the Columbia River for downstream hydroelectric dams. It was commissioned on October 10, 1968, six months ahead of schedule. Immediately downstream of the dam a 185 megawatt (MW) hydroelectric powerhouse, the Arrow Lakes Generating Station, was begun in 1999 and completed in 2002. The station is owned by the Columbia Power Corporation. Lower Arrow Lake was raised 12 metres (40 feet) above the natural levels, resulting in several towns being dismantled and relocated before their sites were flooded, including Burton. The dam was named after Hugh Llewellyn Keenleyside, the Canadian ambassador to Mexico, 1944-1947. Hugh Keenleyside served as the chairman of the British Columbia Power Commission and co-chairman at the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority from 1962 to 1969. The Arrow Lakes reservoir is described by BC Hydro as a "great waterway for boating", despite the effect that the difference between high and low water has on docks and ramps. The dam is equipped with a navigation lock, which is available at no charge to boaters. However, commercial traffic and floating logs have priority over leisure crafts.
Kelly is a census-designated place (CDP) in Teton County in the U.S. state of Wyoming.
Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.
The Lake Homs Dam, also known as Quatinah Barrage, is a Roman-built dam near the city of Homs, Syria, which is in use to this day.
Lake Missoula was a prehistoric proglacial lake in western Montana that existed periodically at the end of the last ice age between 15,000 and 13,000 years ago.
Lake Moeris (Μοῖρις, genitive Μοίριδος) is an ancient lake in the northwest of the Faiyum Oasis, southwest of Cairo, Egypt.
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
A landslide dam or barrier lake is a natural damming of a river by some kind of landslides, such as debris flows and rock avalanches, or by volcanic eruptions.
Lawn Lake Dam was an earthen dam in Rocky Mountain National Park, United States that failed on July 15, 1982 at about 6 a.m., in an event known as the flood of 1982.
The following is a list of reservoirs and dams, arranged by continent and country.
The following table lists the largest man-made dams by volume of fill/structure.
This is a list of Roman dams and reservoirs.
This is a list of the tallest dams in the world over in height.
A tidal barrage is an artificial obstruction at the mouth of a tidal watercourse, in contrast to a normal barrage along a river's inland course.
A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways.
A log house, or log building, is a structure built with horizontal logs interlocked at the corners by notching.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
The Malpasset Dam was an arch dam on the Reyran River, located approximately 7 km north of Fréjus on the French Riviera (Côte d'Azur), southern France, in the Var département.
The Marib Dam (سـدّ مَـأرِب, or) is a dam blocking the Wadi Adhanah (also Dhana or Adhana), in the valley of Dhana in the Balaq Hills, Yemen.
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.
Masonry dams are dams made out of masonrymainly stone and brick, sometimes joined with mortar.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Mir Alam Tank is a reservoir in Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
Moglicë Hydro Power Plant is a large hydroelectricity plant under construction on the river Devoll situated near the village Moglicë, Albania.
Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.
A moraine-dammed lake occurs when the terminal moraine has prevented some meltwater from leaving the valley.
Morarji Desai (29 February 1896 – 10 April 1995) was an Indian independence activist and served between 1977 and 1979 as the 4th Prime Minister of India and led the government formed by the Janata Party.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.
Mountain City is a small unincorporated community in Elko County, Nevada, United States, within the Mountain City Ranger District of the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest.
The Murghāb River (Persian/Pashto: مرغاب, Morqâb), also called Margos, Margu and Margiana River (Ancient Greek: Μαργιανή, Margianḗ, مارغيانہ), and also transliterated as Murgab (from Russian Мургаб) and Murgap (from Turkmen), is an long river in Central Asia.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep, wide and slow enough for a vessel to pass or walk.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
New Melones Dam is an earth and rock filled embankment dam on the Stanislaus River, about west of Jamestown, California in the United States, on the border of Calaveras County and Tuolumne County.
Nick Cullather is an American historian and professor of history at Indiana University.
The Nieuwe Maas ("New Meuse") is a distributary of the Rhine River, and a former distributary of the Maas River, in the Dutch province of South Holland.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The Nurek Dam (Tajik: Нерӯгоҳи обии Норак, Nerūgohi obii Norak, Tajiki for Nurek Hydro-electric Station) is an earth-fill embankment dam on the Vakhsh River in Tajikistan.
Obdam is a former municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland and the region of West-Frisia.
An ogee is a curve (often used in moulding), shaped somewhat like an S, consisting of two arcs that curve in opposite senses, so that the ends are parallel.
is the southernmost prefecture of Japan.
Open innovation is a term used to promote an information age mindset toward innovation that runs counter to the secrecy and silo mentality of traditional corporate research labs.
Operation Chastise was an attack on German dams carried out on 16–17 May 1943 by Royal Air Force No. 617 Squadron, later called the Dam Busters, using a purpose-built "bouncing bomb" developed by Barnes Wallis.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
In mathematics, the simplest form of the parallelogram law (also called the parallelogram identity) belongs to elementary geometry.
The Paraná River (Río Paraná, Rio Paraná, Ysyry Parana) is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina for some.
Parker Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam that crosses the Colorado River downstream of Hoover Dam.
Parramatta is a prominent suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, west of the Sydney central business district on the banks of the Parramatta River.
A penstock (fr. conduite forcée) is a sluice or gate or intake structure that controls water flow, or an enclosed pipe that delivers water to hydro turbines and sewerage systems.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
The Pong Dam, also known as the Beas Dam, is an earth-fill embankment dam on the Beas River in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, just upstream of Talwara.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to perform useful work.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Pressure grouting or jet grouting involves injecting a grout material into otherwise inaccessible but interconnected pore or void space of which neither the configuration or volume are known, and is often referred to simply as grouting.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
Protective signs are symbols to be used during an armed conflict to mark persons and objects under the protection of various treaties of international humanitarian law (IHL).
Pumped-storage hydroelectricity (PSH), or pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES), is a type of hydroelectric energy storage used by electric power systems for load balancing.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Rankine's theory (maximum-normal stress theory), developed in 1857 by William John Macquorn Rankine, is a stress field solution that predicts active and passive earth pressure.
As described by the third of Newton's laws of motion of classical mechanics, all forces occur in pairs such that if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts an equal and opposite reaction force on the first.
Red Bluff Diversion Dam is a disused irrigation diversion dam on the Sacramento River in Tehama County, California, United States, southeast of the city of Red Bluff.
Red Bluff is a city in and the county seat, of Tehama County, California, United States.
REN21, the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century, is the global renewable energy policy multi-stakeholder network that connects a wide range of key actors.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting the soil mass laterally so that the soil can be retained at different levels on the two sides.
The Rideau Canal, also known unofficially as the Rideau Waterway, connects Canada's capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, to Lake Ontario and the Saint Lawrence River at Kingston, Ontario.
The River Dee (Afon Dyfrdwy, Deva Fluvius) is a river in the United Kingdom.
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Roman concrete, also called opus caementicium, was a material used in construction during the late Roman Republic until the fading of the Roman Empire.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Rotte is a river in the Rhine-Maas-delta in the Netherlands.
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.
__notoc__ The Ruhr is a river in western Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia), a right tributary (east-side) of the Rhine.
The Sabaeans or Sabeans (اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون,; שבא; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula.
The Sacramento River is the principal river of Northern California in the United States, and is the largest river in California.
Sadd el-Kafara ("Dam of the Infidels") was a masonry embankment dam on Wadi al-Garawi 10 km southeast of Helwan in Helwan Governorate, Egypt.
Sarez Lake is a lake in Rushon District of Gorno-Badakhshan province, Tajikistan.
Shadi Kaur Dam (also "Shadikor") was a dam located on the Shadi Kaur river about north of Pasni in Balochistan province of Pakistan.
In oceanography, geomorphology, and earth sciences, a shoal is a natural submerged ridge, bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material, and rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface.
The Shuibuya Dam is a concrete-face rock-fill embankment dam on the Qingjiang River in Badong County, Enshi, Hubei Province, China.
Sir John Aird, 1st Baronet (3 December 1833 – 6 January 1911) was a notable English civil engineering contractor of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Six Companies, Inc. was a joint venture of construction companies that was formed to build the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River in Nevada and Arizona.
Slope stability is the potential of soil covered slopes to withstand and undergo movement.
A sluice (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate.
A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement or, in extended use, any fluid mixture of a pulverized solid with a liquid (usually water), often used as a convenient way of handling solids in bulk.
In geotechnical engineering, soil compaction is the process in which a stress applied to a soil causes densification as air is displaced from the pores between the soil grains.
Soil liquefaction describes a phenomenon whereby a saturated or partially saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress, usually earthquake shaking or other sudden change in stress condition, causing it to behave like a liquid.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The South Fork Dam was on Lake Conemaugh, an artificial body of water near South Fork, Pennsylvania, United States.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.
A splash dam was a temporary wooden dam used to raise the water level in streams to float logs downstream to sawmills.
Statkraft is a hydropower company, fully owned by the Norwegian state.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A steel dam is a type of dam (a structure to impound or retard the flow of water) that is made of steel, rather than the more common masonry, earthworks, concrete or timber construction materials.
Stiffness is the rigidity of an object — the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force.
The Subiaco Dams were a group of three Roman gravity dams at Subiaco, Lazio, Italy, devised as pleasure lakes for emperor Nero (54–68 AD).
Sunshu Ao (孫叔敖, ca. 630, † ca. 593 BCE) was a Chinese hydrologist and politician.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens, terra-cone (terrikon), are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Tap water (running water, city water, town water, municipal water, etc.) is water supplied to a tap (valve).
Tarbela Dam (Urdu/Pashto: تربیلا بند) is an earth fill dam on the Indus River in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan.
The Taum Sauk pumped storage plant is in the St. Francois mountain region of the Missouri Ozarks about south of St. Louis near Lesterville, Missouri, in Reynolds County.
Testalinda is a historic area, school, creek, and a dam south of the Okanagan town of Oliver, British Columbia.
The Century Magazine was first published in the United States in 1881 by The Century Company of New York City, which had been bought in that year by Roswell Smith and renamed by him after the Century Association.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The World's Work (1900–1932) was a monthly magazine that covered national affairs from a pro-business point of view.
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China.
A tidal barrage is a dam-like structure used to capture the energy from masses of water moving in and out of a bay or river due to tidal forces.
Tidal power or tidal energy is a form of hydropower that converts the energy obtained from tides into useful forms of power, mainly electricity.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
In Euclidean geometry, a convex quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is referred to as a trapezoid in American and Canadian English but as a trapezium in English outside North America.
A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence") is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.
The Uinkaret volcanic field is an area of monogenetic volcanoes in northwestern Arizona, United States, located on the north rim of the Grand Canyon.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The Usoi Dam is a natural landslide dam along the Murghab River in Tajikistan.
The Vajont Dam (or Vaiont Dam) is a disused dam, completed in 1959 in the valley of the Vajont River under Monte Toc, in the municipality of Erto e Casso, 100 km (60 miles) north of Venice, Italy.
The Val di Stava Dam collapse occurred on 19 July 1985, when two tailings dams above the village of Stava, near Tesero, Northern Italy, failed.
Viscoelasticity is the property of materials that exhibit both viscous and elastic characteristics when undergoing deformation.
A volcanic dam is a type of natural dam produced directly or indirectly by volcanism, which holds or temporarily restricts the flow of surface water in existing streams, like a man-made dam.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
Warwick is a town and locality in southeast Queensland, Australia, lying south-west of Brisbane.
Water level or gauge height or stage is the elevation of the free surface of a stream, lake or reservoir relative to a specified vertical datum.
Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
A water turbine is a rotary machine that converts kinetic energy and potential energy of water into mechanical work.
A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.
A watermill or water mill is a mill that uses hydropower.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
A weir or low head dam is a barrier across the horizontal width of a river that alters the flow characteristics of water and usually results in a change in the height of the river level.
Wild Horse Reservoir is a man-made lake in Elko County, Nevada in the United States.
Prof William John Macquorn Rankine LLD (5 July 1820 – 24 December 1872) was a Scottish mechanical engineer who also contributed to civil engineering, physics and mathematics.
Sir William Willcocks KCMG (27 September 1852 in India – 28 July 1932 in Cairo, Egypt) was a British civil engineer during the high point of the British Empire.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
A wing dam or wing dike is a man made barrier that, unlike a conventional dam, only extends partway into a river.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The second cholera pandemic (1829–1851), also known as the Asiatic Cholera Pandemic, was a cholera pandemic that reached from India across western Asia to Europe, Great Britain and the Americas, as well as east to China and Japan.
The 2010 China floods began in early May 2010.
Anicut, Artificial dam, CFRD, Concrete face rock fill dam, Concrete face rock-fill dam, Concrete-face rock-fill, Concrete-face rock-fill dam, Dam break, Dammed, Dammed water, Damming, Dams, Flood Control Dam, Natural dam, Natural dams, River dam, Rock-fill dam, Rock-filled dam, Saddle Dam, Saddle dam, Underground dam.