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The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shaykh ′Abd al-Ghani ibn Isma′il al-Nabulsi (an-Nabalusi) (19 March 1641 – 5 March 1731), an eminent Sunni Muslim scholar and Sufi, was born in Damascus in 1641 into a family of Islamic scholarship.
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.
Sayyid ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muṣṭafā ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Zayn al-ʿAbidīn al-Shāghūrī al-Ḥusaynī (أبو منير عبد الرحمن بن عبد الرحمن بن مصطفى بن عبد الرحمن زين العابدين المشهور بالشاغوري) was a Syrian Sufi master of the Hashimi-Darqawi branch of the Shadhili tariqa, as well as poet, textile worker, and trade unionist.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
Ahab (Aḫabbu; Αχααβ; Achab) was the seventh king of Israel since Jeroboam I, the son and successor of Omri, and the husband of Jezebel of Sidon, according to the Hebrew Scriptures.
Ahmad ibn Tulun (translit; ca. 20 September 835 – 10 May 884) was the founder of the Tulunid dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria between 868 and 905.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Al-Adiliyah Madrasa is a 13th-century madrasah located in Damascus, Syria.
Abu Mansur Nizar al-Aziz Billah, commonly known as al-Aziz (10 May 955 – 14 October 996) (أبو منصور نزار العزيز بالله) was the fifth Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate (975–996).
Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr (13 August 985 – 13 February 1021), better known by his regnal title al-Ḥākim bi-Amr Allāh (الحاكم بأمر الله; literally "Ruler by God's Command"), was the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021).
Al-Hamidiyah Souq is the largest and the central souk in Syria, located inside the old walled city of Damascus next to the Citadel.
Al-Hariqa (الحريقة) is a neighborhood in Damascus, Syria.
Al-Jaish Sports Club (نادي الجيش الرياضي) is a football club based in Damascus, Syria, founded in 1947 The club plays in the Abbasiyyin Stadium.
Al-Majd Sports Club (نادي المجد الرياضي) is a Syrian football club based in Damascus, Syria.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
Al-Masdar News (sometimes abbreviated AMN) (المصدر نيوز) is an online newspaper founded by Leith Abou Fadel.
Al-Midan (حي الميدان) is a neighbourhood and municipality in Damascus, Syria, just south of the old walled city and very near the modern city centre.
Al-Muhafaza Sports Club (نادي المحافظة الرياضي) is a Syrian football club based in Damascus.
Al-Qassaa (القصاع; also spelled Qasa′ or Qasa'ah) is a neighborhood and district of the Sarouja municipality in Damascus, Syria.
Al-Salihiyah (الصالحية) is a municipality and a neighborhood of Damascus, Syria.
Al-Salimiyah Madrasa is a 16th-century madrasah that houses the Tekkiye Mosque, built by the Ottomans in Damascus, Syria.
Al-Shorta Sports Club (نادي الشرطة الرياضي) is a Syrian football club based in Damascus, Syria.
Al-Tall (التل, also spelled al-Tell) is a city in southern Syria, administratively part of the Rif Dimashq Governorate and capital of the al-Tall District.
Al-Wahda Sports Club (نادي الوحدة الرياضي) is a Syrian multi-sports club based in Damascus.
Al-Zabadani or Az-Zabadani (الزبداني) is a city and popular hill station in southwestern Syria in the Rif Dimashq Governorate, close to the border with Lebanon.
The Az-Zahiriyah library (المكتبة الظاهرية) in Damascus, Syria dates back to 1277, taking its name from its founder Sultan Baibars (1223–1277).
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
Ali ibn Husayn (علي بن الحسين) known as Zayn al-Abidin (the adornment of the worshippers) and Imam al-Sajjad (The Prostrating Imam), was the fourth Shia Imam, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali.
Alptakin (also known as Haftakin and Aftakin) was a Turkish military officer of the Buyids, and later the ruler of Damascus.
Amalric (Amalricus; Amaury; 113611 July 1174) was King of Jerusalem from 1163, and Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession.
Amara District is a district of the Maysan Governorate, Iraq.
The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.
Ananias (Ἀνανίας, same as Hebrew חנניה, Hananiah, "favoured of the ") was a disciple of Jesus at Damascus mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles in the Bible, which describes how he was sent by Jesus to restore the sight of "Saul, of Tarsus" (known later as Paul the Apostle) and provide him with additional instruction in the way of the Lord.
The Ancient City of Damascus is the historic city centre of Damascus, Syria.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ancient Semitic religion encompasses the polytheistic religions of the Semitic peoples from the ancient Near East and Northeast Africa.
The Anti-Lebanon Mountains (Jibāl Lubnān ash-Sharqiyyah, "Eastern Mountains of Lebanon"; Lebanese Arabic:, Jbel esh-Shar'iyyeh, "Eastern Mountains") are a southwest-northeast-trending mountain range that forms most of the border between Syria and Lebanon.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antiochian Greek Christians, also known as Rûm, are an Arabic-speaking ethnoreligious Christian group from the Levant region.
Antiquities of the Jews (Ἰουδαϊκὴ ἀρχαιολογία, Ioudaikē archaiologia; Antiquitates Judaicae), also Judean Antiquities (see Ioudaios), is a 20-volume historiographical work composed by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the 13th year of the reign of Roman emperor Flavius Domitian which was around AD 93 or 94.
Sharaf al-Maʿālī Abu Manṣūr Anūshtakīn al-Dizbarī (d. January 1042) was a Fatimid statesman and general who became the most powerful Fatimid governor of Syria.
Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.
The Arab International University (AIU) (previously: Arab European University) is a Syrian private university located in Ghabaghib, Daraa Governorate, Syria, founded in 2005.
Arab Muslims are adherents of Islam who identify linguistically, culturally, and genealogically as Arabs.
The Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya; Arap İsyanı) or Great Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية الكبرى, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya al-Kubrā) was officially initiated by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, at Mecca on June 10, 1916 (9 Sha'ban of the Islamic calendar for that year) although his sons ‘Ali and Faisal had already initiated operations at Medina starting on 5 June with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic coffee (qahwah arabiyya) refers to a version of the brewed coffee of Coffea arabica beans.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aram (’Ărām) is a son of Shem, according to the Table of Nations in Genesis 10 of the Hebrew Bible, and the father of Uz, Hul, Gether and Mash or Meshech.
Aram-Damascus was an Aramaean state around Damascus in Syria, from the late 12th century BCE to 732 BCE.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
Aretas IV Philopatris (حارثة الرابع. Ḥāritat in Nabataean) was the King of the Nabataeans from roughly 9 BC to 40 AD.
The Armenians in Syria are Syrian citizens of either full or partial Armenian descent.
As'ad Pasha al-Azem (أسعد باشا العظم, 1706 – March 1758) was the governor of Damascus under Ottoman rule from 1742 to his deposition in 1757.
Assassin's Creed is a franchise centered on an action-adventure video game series developed by Ubisoft.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Assyrians in Syria are people of Assyrian descent living in Syria.
Atabeg, Atabek, or Atabey is a hereditary title of nobility of a Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a monarch and charged with raising the crown prince.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Azm Palace (قصر العظم) is a palace in Damascus, Syria which dates back to the days of the Ottoman Empire.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Hattusili III (Hittite: "from Hattusa") was king of the Hittite empire (New Kingdom) c. 1267–1237 BC (short chronology timeline).
Baalshamin or Ba'al Šamem (Aramaic: ܒܥܠ ܫܡܝܢ), lit.
Bab al-Faradis (باب الفراديس; "The Gate of the Paradise") or Bab al-Amara is one of the seven ancient city-gates of Damascus, Syria.
Bab al-Faraj (باب الفرج; "The Gate of Deliverance") also known as Bab al-Bawabijiyah (باب البوابجية) and Bab al-Manakhiliyah (باب المناخلية) is one of the gates of the old city of Damascus in Syria.
Bab al-Jabiya (باب الجابية; Gate of the Water Trough) is one of the seven ancient city-gates of Damascus, Syria.
Bāb aṣ-Ṣaghīr (بَـاب الـصَّـغِـيْـر, "Small Gate"), also called Goristan-e-Ghariban, may refer to one of the seven gates in the Old City of Damascus, and street in the modern city of Damascus, Syria.
Bab al-Salam (باب السلام) (The Gate of Peace) is one of the seven ancient city-gates of Damascus, Syria.
Bab Kisan (Arabic: باب كيسان, meaning "Kisan Gate") is one of the seven ancient city-gates of Damascus, Syria.
Bab Sharqi (باب شرقي; "The Eastern Gate"), also known as the Gate of the Sun, is one of the seven ancient city gates of Damascus, Syria.
Bab Tuma (باب توما, meaning: "Gate of Thomas") is a borough of the Old City of Damascus in Syria, one of the seven gates inside the historical walls of the city, and a geographic landmark of Early Christianity.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Backgammon is one of the oldest known board games.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Banias (بانياس الحولة; בניאס) is the Arabic and modern Hebrew name of an ancient site that developed around a spring once associated with the Greek god Pan.
The Barada (بردى / ALA-LC: Baradá) is the main river of Damascus, the capital city of Syria.
Barada SC (نادي بردى الرياضي) is a Syrian football club based in Damascus.
Bashan (הַבָּשָׁן, ha-Bashan; Basan or Basanitis) is a biblical place first mentioned in, where Og the king of Bashan came out against the Israelites at the time of their entrance into the Promised Land, but was utterly routed..
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in.
The Battle of al-Babein took place on March 18, 1167, during the third Crusader invasion of Egypt.
The Battle of Aleppo (معركة حلب) was a major military confrontation in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria, between the Syrian opposition (including the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and other largely-Sunni groups, such as the Levant Front and the Al-Qaeda-affiliated Al-Nusra Front) against the government of Bashar al-Assad, supported by Hezbollah, Shia militias and Russia, and against the Kurdish People's Protection Units. The battle began on 19 July 2012 and was part of the ongoing Syrian Civil War. A stalemate that had been in place for four years finally ended in July 2016, when Syrian government troops closed the rebels' last supply line into Aleppo with the support of Russian airstrikes. In response, rebel forces launched unsuccessful counteroffensives in September and October that failed to break the siege; in November, government forces embarked on a decisive campaign that resulted in the recapture of all of Aleppo by December 2016. The Syrian government victory was widely seen as a potential turning point in Syria's civil war. The large scale devastation of the battle and its importance led combatants to name it the "mother of battles" or "Syria's Stalingrad". The battle was marked by widespread violence against civilians, alleged repeated targeting of hospitals and schools (mostly by pro-government Air Forces and to a lesser extent by the rebels), and indiscriminate aerial strikes and shelling against civilian areas. It was also marked by the inability of the international community to resolve the conflict peacefully. The UN special envoy to Syria proposed to end the battle by giving East Aleppo autonomy, but the idea was rejected by the Syrian government. Hundreds of thousands of residents were displaced by the fighting and efforts to provide aid to civilians or facilitate evacuation were routinely disrupted by continued combat and mistrust between the opposing sides. Various claims of war crimes emerged during the battle, including the use of chemical weapons by both Syrian government forces and rebel forces, the use barrel bombs by the Syrian Air Force, the dropping of cluster munitions on populated areas by Russian and Syrian forces, the carrying out of "double tap" airstrikes to target rescue workers responding to previous strikes, summary executions of civilians and captured soldiers by both sides, indiscriminate shelling and use of highly inaccurate improvised artillery by rebel forces. During the 2016 Syrian government offensive, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights warned that "crimes of historic proportions" were being committed in Aleppo. Fighting also caused severe destruction to the Old City of Aleppo, a UNESCO World Heritage site. An estimated 33,500 buildings have been either damaged or destroyed. After four years of fighting, the battle represents one of the longest sieges in modern warfare and one of the bloodiest battles of the Syrian Civil War, leaving an estimated 31,000 people dead, almost a tenth of the estimated overall war casualties at that time.
The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated the forces of Ayyubid leader Saladin.
The Battle of Damascus (18 – 21 June 1941) was the final action of the Allied advance on Damascus in Syria during the Syria–Lebanon Campaign in World War II.
The Battle of Hattin took place on 4 July 1187, between the Crusader states of the Levant and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin.
The Battle of Jaffa took place during the Crusades, as one of a series of campaigns between the army of Sultan Saladin (Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb) and the Crusader forces led by King Richard I of England (known as Richard the Lionheart).
The Battle of Maysalun (معركة ميسلون), also called the Battle of Maysalun Pass or the Battle of Khan Maysalun, was fought between the forces of the Arab Kingdom of Syria and the French Army of the Levant on 24 July 1920 near Khan Maysalun in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, about west of Damascus.
The Battle of Montgisard was fought between the Ayyubids and the Kingdom of Jerusalem on 25 November 1177.
The Battle of Qarqar (or Ḳarḳar) was fought in 853 BC, when the army of Assyria led by king Shalmaneser III encountered an allied army of eleven kings at Qarqar, led by Hadadezer (also called Adad-idr and possibly to be identified with Benhadad II) of Damascus and King Ahab of Israel.
The Battle of the Zab (معركة الزاب) took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. It spelled the end of the Umayyad Caliphate and the rise of the Abbasids, a dynasty that would last (under various influences and with varying power) until the 13th century.
The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate.
Beit al-Mamlouka (بيت المملوكة) is a luxury boutique hotel located in the old city of Damascus, Syria.
Ben-Hadad I (בן הדד; בר הדד) was the king of Aram Damascus between 885 BC and 865 BC.
The Beqaa Valley (وادي البقاع,, Lebanese; Բեքայի դաշտավայր), also transliterated as Bekaa, Biqâ and Becaa and known in Classical antiquity as Coele-Syria, is a fertile valley in eastern Lebanon.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Bilad al-Sham (بِـلَاد الـشَّـام Bilād a'š-Šām) was a Rashidun, Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphate province in what is now the region of Syria.
Biryawaza was a powerful ruler in the area of Egyptian controlled Syria in the middle fourteenth century BC.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Bloudan (بلودان) is a Syrian village located 51 kilometers north-west of Damascus, in the Rif Dimashq Governorate; it has an altitude of about 1500 meters.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
A boutique hotel is a small hotel which typically has between 10 and 100 rooms in unique settings with upscale accommodations and individualized Unique Selling Points (USPs).
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Burid dynasty was a Turkish Muslim dynastyBurids, R. LeTourneau, The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
A caravan city is a city located on and deriving its prosperity from its location on a major trans-desert trade route.
A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
A card game is any game using playing cards as the primary device with which the game is played, be they traditional or game-specific.
The Holy Cross Cathedral (كاتدرائية سيدة النياح للروم الملكيين في دمشق) also called Greek-Melkite Patriarchal Cathedral of the Dormition of Our Lady is the Catholic cathedral of Melkite Greek Church in the city of Damascus, the capital of Syria.
The Cathedral of Saint George is a Syriac Orthodox cathedral located in Bab Tuma, central Damascus, Syria.
The Chapel of Saint Paul (كنيسة مار بولس, Kanīsat Mar Bawlus) is a church in Damascus, Syria, located along Tarafa bin al-Abd Street near the former Bab Kisan (Kisan Gate).
Chedorlaomer, also spelled Kedorlaomer (כְּדָרְלָעֹמֶר, Kedorla'omer), is a king of Elam in Genesis 14.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Cinema Dimashq (Translated from Arabic, Cinema Damascus) is a movie theater in Damascus, Syria.
The Citadel of Damascus (Qalʿat Dimašq) is a large medieval fortified palace and citadel in Damascus, Syria.
Coele-Syria, Coele Syria, Coelesyria (Κοίλη Συρία, Koílē Syría), also rendered as Coelosyria and Celesyria, otherwise Hollow Syria (Cava Syria, Hohl Syrien), was a region of Syria in classical antiquity.
The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti إتحاد و ترقى جمیعتی), later Party of Union and Progress (İttihad ve Terakki Fırkası, Birlik ve İlerleme Partisi) began as a secret society established as the "Committee of Ottoman Union" (İttihad-ı Osmanî Cemiyeti) in Istanbul on February 6, 1889 by medical students Ibrahim Temo, Mehmed Reshid, Abdullah Cevdet, İshak Sükuti, Ali Hüseyinzade, Kerim Sebatî, Mekkeli Sabri Bey, Nazım Bey, Şerafettin Mağmumi, Cevdet Osman and Giritli Şefik.
The conversion of Paul the Apostle, was, according to the New Testament, an event in the life of Paul the Apostle that led him to cease persecuting early Christians and to become a follower of Jesus.
The Crusader invasion of Egypt (1154–1169) was a series of campaigns undertaken by the Kingdom of Jerusalem to strengthen its position in the Levant by taking advantage of the weakness of Fatimid Egypt.
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
The Damascus affair of 1840 refers to the arrest of thirteen notable members of the Jewish community of Damascus who were accused of murdering a Christian monk for ritual purposes.
Damascus Governorate (مُحافظة دمشق) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Damascus International Airport (مطار دمشق الدولي) is the international airport of Damascus, the capital of Syria.
The Damascus International Fair is an annual commercial exhibition event, taking place in Damascus, Syria.
The Damascus Securities Exchange (DSE) (سوق دمشق للأوراق المالية Sūq Dimashq lil-'Awrāq al-Māliyyah) is a stock exchange located in Damascus, Syria.
The Street Called Straight in the New Testament, or Damascus Straight Street (τήν ῥύμην τήν καλουμένην εὐθείαν, Via Recta, الشارع المستقيم Al-Shāri‘ al-Mustaqīm) is the Roman street (Decumanus Maximus) which runs from east to west in the old city of Damascus, Syria.
The University of Damascus (جامعة دمشق, Jāmi‘atu Dimashq) is the largest and oldest university in Syria, located in the capital Damascus and has campuses in other Syrian cities.
Damietta (دمياط,; ⲧⲁⲙⲓⲁϯ) also known as Damiata, or Domyat, is a port and the capital of the Damietta Governorate in Egypt, a former bishopric and present multiple Catholic titular see.
Darayya (داريا) is a suburb of Damascus in Syria, the centre of Darayya lying south-west of the centre of Damascus.
The Decapolis (Greek: Δεκάπολις Dekápolis, Ten Cities) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in the southeastern Levant.
In Roman city planning, a decumanus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, castrum (military camp), or colonia.
The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection.
Diyarbakır (Amida, script) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.
Ahmed Djemal Pasha (احمد جمال پاشا, Ahmet Cemal Paşa; 6 May 1872 – 21 July 1922), commonly known as Cemal Paşa in Turkey, and Jamal Basha or Jamal Basha Al-Saffah (Jamal Basha the Bloodthirsty) in the Arab world, was an Ottoman military leader and one-third of the military triumvirate known as the Three Pashas (also called the "Three Dictators") that ruled the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Djemal was the Minister of the Navy.
Douma (Dūmā) is a city in Syria.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
Dummar (دمر) is a municipal district of Damascus, Syria, located in the northwest of the city.
Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq (died June 8, 1104) was the Seljuq ruler of Damascus from 1095 to 1104.
Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
Abdelkader ibn Muhieddine (6 September 1808 – 26 May 1883; عبد القادر ابن محيي الدين), known as the Emir Abdelkader or Abdelkader El Djezairi, was an Algerian religious and military leader who led a struggle against the French colonial invasion in the mid-19th century.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Expedition of Zayd ibn Harithah in Hisma took place in October, 628AD, 6th month of 7AH of the Islamic calendar.
Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashemi (فيصل بن الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, Fayṣal al-Awwal ibn al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 20 May 1885 – 8 September 1933) was King of the Arab Kingdom of Syria or Greater Syria in 1920, and was King of Iraq from 23 August 1921 to 1933.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
Frederick I (Friedrich I, Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
Ghouta (غوطة دمشق / ALA-LC: Ghūṭat Dimashq) is a countryside and suburban area in southwestern Syria that surrounds the city of Damascus along its eastern and southern rim.
Global Heritage Fund (GHF) is a non-profit organization that operates internationally.
Syria is a unitary state, but for administrative purposes, it is divided into fourteen governorates, also called provinces in English (Arabic muḥāfaẓāt, singular muḥāfaẓah).
The Great Syrian Revolt (الثورة السورية الكبرى) or Great Druze Revolt (1925–1927) was a general uprising across Mandatory Syria and Lebanon aimed at getting rid of the French, who had been in control of the region since the end of World War I.Miller, 1977, p. 547.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch, also known as the Antiochian Orthodox Church (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἀντιοχείας, Patriarcheîon Antiocheías; بطريركية أنطاكية وسائر المشرق للروم الأرثوذكس, Baṭriyarkiyya Anṭākiya wa-Sāʾir al-Mashriq li'l-Rūm al-Urthūdhuks), is an autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Hadadezer (" Hadad is help"); also known as Adad-Idri (dIM-id-ri), and possibly the same as Bar-Hadad II (Aram.) or Ben-Hadad II (Heb.), was the king of Aram Damascus at the time of the battle of Qarqar against the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III in 853 BCE.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
The Hamdanid dynasty (حمدانيون Ḥamdānyūn) was a Shi'a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004).
Harasta (حرستا), also known as Harasta al-Basal or Hirista, is a city and northeastern suburb of Damascus, Rif Dimashq, Syria.
Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
Hauran (حوران / ALA-LC: Ḥawrān), also spelled Hawran, Houran and Horan, known to the Ancient Greeks and Romans as Auranitis, is a volcanic plateau, a geographic area and a people located in southwestern Syria and extending into the northwestern corner of Jordan.
Hazael (Aramaic: חזאל, from the triliteral Semitic root h-z-y, "to see"; his full name meaning, "El/God has seen"; ilu) was a court official and later an Aramean king who is mentioned in the Bible.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
The Hejaz (or Hedjaz) railway (Hicaz Demiryolu) was a narrow-gauge railway (track gauge) that ran from Damascus to Medina, through the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia, with a branch line to Haifa on the Mediterranean Sea.
Heraclius (Flavius Heracles Augustus; Flavios Iraklios; c. 575 – February 11, 641) was the Emperor of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire from 610 to 641.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
The Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology (HIAST) (المعهد العالي للعلوم التطبيقية والتكنولوجيا) is an engineering and technology institute in Damascus, Syria.
Higher Institute of Dramatic Arts (المعهد العالي للفنون المسرحية) was founded in Damascus, Syria in 1977 by some academics such as Saadallah Wannous.
Hippodamus of Miletus (Greek: Ἱππόδαμος ὁ Μιλήσιος, Hippodamos ho Milesios; 498 – 408 BC), was an ancient Greek architect, urban planner, physician, mathematician, meteorologist and philosopher, who is considered to be "the father of European urban planning", the namesake of the "Hippodamian Plan" (grid plan) of city layout.
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691 – 6 February 743) (هشام بن عبد الملك) was the 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
A hookah (from Hindustani: हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari), (Nastaleeq), IPA:; also see other names), also known as the ḡalyān (Persian: قلیان), is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco (often Mu‘assel), or sometimes cannabis or opium, whose vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin—often glass-based—before inhalation.
The House of Saint Ananias (also called Chapel of Saint Ananias) (كنيسة القديس حنانيا) is an ancient underground structure in Damascus, Syria, that is alleged to be the remains of the home of Ananias of Damascus, where Ananias baptized Saul (who became Paul the Apostle).
Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn 'Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic ''Nabi'' (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah.
Izz ad-Din Ibn Abdul Salam was a Damascene scholar of Islamic jurisprudence and theology active in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Ibn ʿArabi (full name Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibnʿArabī al-Ḥātimī aṭ-Ṭāʾī أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن محمد بن عربي الحاتمي الطائي ‎ 26 July 1165 – 16 November 1240), was an Arab Andalusian Sufi scholar of Islam, mystic, poet, and philosopher.
Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.
Ibrahim Pasha (Kavalalı İbrahim Paşa, 1789 – November 10, 1848) was the eldest son of Muhammad Ali, the Wāli and unrecognised Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The Ikhshidid dynasty ruled Egypt from 935 to 969.
Imad ad-Din Zengi (عماد الدین زنكي; – 14 September 1146), also romanized as Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, and Zanki, was a Oghuz Turkish atabeg who ruled Mosul, Aleppo, Hama, and Edessa.
International University for Science and Technology (IUST) (IUST; الجامعة الدولية الخاصة للعلوم والتكنولوجيا) is a private, accredited university located in Oum El Qusur, thirty five kilometers away from the center of Damascus, Syria.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Jaramana (جرمانا) is a city in southern Syria, administratively part of the Rif Dimashq Governorate in the Ghouta plain.
Jasmine (taxonomic name Jasminum) is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae).
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Abū Sulaymān Khālid ibn al-Walīd ibn al-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī (أبو سليمان خالد بن الوليد بن المغيرة المخزومي‎; 585–642), also known as Sayf ullah al-Maslūl (سيف الله المسلول; Drawn Sword of God) was a companion of Muhammad.
Khan As'ad Pasha (خان أسعد باشا) is the largest khan in the Old City of Damascus, covering an area of.
Khan Jaqmaq (خان جقمق) is one of the few remaining khans in the Old City of Damascus.
Khan Sulayman Pasha (خان سليمان باشا) is a large khan in the Old City of Damascus.
A khanqah or khaniqah (also transliterated as khankahs, khaneqa, khanegah or khaneqah (خانقاه)), also known as a ribat (رباط) – among other terms – is a building designed specifically for gatherings of a Sufi brotherhood or tariqa and is a place for spiritual retreat and character reformation.
Khutbah (Arabic: خطبة khuṭbah, hutbe) serves as the primary formal occasion for public preaching in the Islamic tradition.
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
Kurds in Syria refers to people born in or residing in Syria who are of Kurdish origin.
The Lajat (/ALA-LC: al-Lajāʾ), also spelled Lejat, Lajah, el-Leja or Laja, is the largest lava field in southern Syria, spanning some 900 square kilometers.
Latakia, Lattakia or Latakiyah (اللَاذِقِيَّة Syrian pronunciation), is the principal port city of Syria, as well as the capital of the Latakia Governorate.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
Levantine Arabic (الـلَّـهْـجَـةُ الـشَّـامِـيَّـة,, Levantine Arabic: il-lahže š-šāmiyye) is a broad dialect of Arabic and the vernacular Arabic of the eastern coastal strip of the Levantine Sea, that is Shaam.
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
The List of World Heritage in Danger is compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) through the World Heritage Committee according to Article 11.4 of the World Heritage Convention,Full title: Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage which was established in 1972 to designate and manage World Heritage Sites.
This is a list of World Heritage Sites in the Arab States, in Western Asia and North Africa, occupy an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea.
Maaloula or Maҁlūlā (ܡܥܠܘܠܐ - מעלולא; معلولا) is a town in the Rif Dimashq Governorate in Syria.
Madaya (مضايا) is a small mountainous town in Syria, located at an altitude of around.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Maktab Anbar (مكتب عنبر) (Anbar Office) is an old house in the center of Old Damascus near the Umayyad Mosque and a short distance from the Street Called Straight.
Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.
Mariamite Cathedral of Damascus (الكنيسة المريمية) is one of the oldest Greek Orthodox churches in Damascus, Syria and holds the seat of the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch.
A Marian apparition is a reported supernatural appearance by the Blessed Virgin Mary.
Mariano Francisco Julio Goybet (17 August 1861 – 29 September 1943) was a French Army general, who held several senior commands in World War I.
Marjeh Square (ساحة المرجة / ALA-LC: sāḥat al-Marjah), also known as "Martyrs' Square" (ساحة الشهداء sāḥat ash-Shuhadā’), is a square in central Damascus, Syria, just outside the walls of the old city.
The Maronites are a Christian group who adhere to the Syriac Maronite Church with the largest population around Mount Lebanon in Lebanon.
Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (691 – 6 August 750; Arabic: مروان بن محمد بن مروان بن الحكم / ALA-LC: Marwān bin Muḥammad bin Marwān bin al-Ḥakam) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed.
The Mausoleum of Saladin holds the resting place and grave of the medieval Muslim Ayyubid Sultan Saladin.
Mawdud ibn Altuntash (also spelled Maudud or Sharaf al-Dawla Mawdûd) (died October 2, 1113) was a Turkic military leader who was atabeg of Mosul from 1109 to 1113.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Mezzeh (المزة, also transcribed as al-Mazzah, el-Mezze, etc.) is a municipality in Damascus, Syria, due west of Kafr Sousa.
Ahmed Şefik Midhat Pasha (18 October 1822 – 26 April 1883), was one of the leading Ottoman statesmen during the late Tanzimat period.
Midhat Pasha Souq (سوق مدحت باشا) (also called Al-Taweel Souq) is a historical souq which forms the western half of the Street Called Straight inside the old walled city of Damascus, Syria.
Koca Mi'mâr Sinân Âğâ (معمار سينان, "Sinan Agha the Grand Architect"; Modern Turkish: Mimar Sinan,, "Sinan the Architect") (1488/1490 – July 17, 1588) was the chief Ottoman architect (mimar) and civil engineer for Sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III.
A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus.
The Ministry of Culture (وزارة الثقافة) is a government ministry office of the Syrian Arab Republic, responsible for cultural affairs in Syria.
Monophysitism (or; Greek: μονοφυσιτισμός; Late Koine Greek from μόνος monos, "only, single" and φύσις physis, "nature") is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in the historical incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word (Logos) of God, had only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human.
Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Mount Lebanon (جَبَل لُبْنَان, jabal lubnān, Lebanese Arabic pronunciation; ܛܘܪ ܠܒܢܢ) is a mountain range in Lebanon.
Mount Qasioun (جبل قاسيون, transliterated as Jabal Qāsiyūn) is a mountain overlooking the city of Damascus, Syria.
Mu'in ad-Din Unur al-Atabeki (Muiniddin Üner; died August 28, 1149) was the Turkish ruler of Damascus in the mid-12th century.
Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
Muhammad Abul Huda al-Yaqoubi (محمد أبو الهدى اليعقوبي; born May 7, 1963) is a Syrian Islamic scholar and religious leader.
Munira al-Qubaysi (also spelt Qubeysi; born 1933 in Damascus) is the founder of Al-qubaysiat, a female only Sufi movement that originated in Syria.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Nabataean Kingdom (المملكة النبطية), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity.
Nabi Habeel Mosque (مسجد النبي هابيل) is located on the west mountains of Damascus, near the Zabadani Valley, overlooking the villages of the Barada river (Wadi Barada), in Syria.
The National Museum of Damascus (المتحف الوطني بدمشق) is a museum in the heart of Damascus, Syria, It is the country's national museum as well as its largest.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Necho II (sometimes Nekau, Neku, Nechoh, or Nikuu; Greek: Νεχώς Β' or Νεχώ Β') of Egypt was a king of the 26th Dynasty (610–595 BC).
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
Nicolaus of Damascus (Greek: Νικόλαος Δαμασκηνός, Nikolāos Damaskēnos; Latin: Nicolaus Damascenus) was a Greek historian and philosopher who lived during the Augustan age of the Roman Empire.
Nūr ad-Dīn Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿImād ad-Dīn Zengī (February 1118 – 15 May 1174), often shortened to his laqab Nur ad-Din (نور الدين, "Light of the Faith"), was a member of the Oghuz Turkish Zengid dynasty which ruled the Syrian province of the Seljuk Empire.
Nur al-Din Bimaristan (البيمارستان النوري) is a large medieval bimaristan ("hospital") in Damascus, Syria.
The Nur al-Din Madrasa (المدرسة النورية, al-madrasa an-nũriyya) is a funerary madrasa in Damascus, Syria.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
The October War Panorama (بانوراما حرب تشرين) is a National museum located in Damascus, Syria which commemorates the memory of the 1973 October War between Egypt and Syria against Israel from a Syrian perspective.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Our Lady of Soufanieh refers to Marian apparitions reported to have occurred in Soufanieh, a suburb of Damascus in Syria.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Palmyra (Palmyrene: Tadmor; تَدْمُر Tadmur) is an ancient Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria.
The Arab Games (الألعاب العربية), also called the Pan Arab Games, are a regional multi-sport event held between nations from the Arab world.
The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.
Patriarch of Antioch is a traditional title held by the Bishop of Antioch.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of relative peace and stability experienced by the Roman Empire between the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, and the death of Marcus Aurelius, last of the "good emperors".
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Petra (Arabic: البتراء, Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu, is a historical and archaeological city in southern Jordan.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
Philip the Tetrarch, sometimes called Herod Philip II (Hērōdēs Philippos) by modern writers (ruled from 4 BC until his death in AD 34) was the son of Herod the Great and his fifth wife, Cleopatra of Jerusalem.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
Pope Gregory III (Gregorius III; died 28 November 741) was Pope from 11 February 731 to his death in 741.
Pope John V (Ioannes V; d. 2 August 686) was Pope from 23 July 685 to his death in 686.
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
The Qarmatians (قرامطة Qarāmita; also transliterated Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians) were a syncretic branch of Sevener Ismaili Shia Islam that combined elements of Zoroastrianism.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Qumran (קומראן; خربة قمران) is an archaeological site in the West Bank managed by Israel's Qumran National Park.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
Ramesses II (variously also spelt Rameses or Ramses; born; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt.
Ramla (רַמְלָה, Ramla; الرملة, ar-Ramlah) (also Ramlah, Ramle, Remle and sometimes Rama) is a city in central Israel.
The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Resafa (الرصافة), known in Byzantine times as Sergiopolis (which has namesakes) and briefly as Anastasiopolis, was a city located in the Roman province of Euphratensis, in modern-day Syria.
Resh is the twentieth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Rēsh, Hebrew Rēsh, Aramaic Rēsh, Syriac Rēsh ܪ, and Arabic.
Rezon the Syrian, also named "Ezron", was an enemy of King Solomon mentioned in 1 Kings.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Part of the Syrian Civil War, the Rif Dimashq Governorate campaign consisted of several battles and offensives across the governorate including the Syrian capital of Damascus.
The Rif Dimashq offensive (February–April 2018), code-named Operation Damascus Steel, was a military offensive launched by the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) in February 2018 in a bid to capture the rebel-held eastern Ghouta suburb.
Rukneddine or Rukn al-Din (ركن الدين) is a municipality of Damascus, Syria.
The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
Sahnaya (صحنايا, lso spelled Sihnaya or Sehnaya) is a town in southern Syria, administratively part of the Rif Dimashq Governorate, located southwest of Damascus in the western Ghouta.
Saidnaya (also transliterated Saydnaya or Sednaya from the ܣܝܕܢܝܐ, صيدنايا) is a city located in the mountains, above sea level, north of the city of Damascus in Syria.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Sarouja (ساروجة) is a municipality of Damascus, Syria, due north of the Old City.
The Sayyidah Ruqayyah Mosque (مسجد السيدة رقية) is located in Damascus, Syria, and contains the grave of Sukayna bint Husayn, also known as Ruqayyah, the young daughter of Al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī.
Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque (مسجد السيدة زينب) is a mosque located in the city of Sayyidah Zaynab, in the southern suburbs of Damascus, Syria.
Sa`id Hawwa (Arabic: سعيد حوى, Sa`īd Ḥawwá) (1935–1989) was a leading member and prominent ideologue in the Muslim Brotherhood of Syria.
The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC).
Sebastia (سبسطية, Sabastiyah;, Sevastee;, Sebasti; Sebaste) is a Palestinian village of over 4,500 inhabitants,.
The Second Crusade (1147–1149) was the second major crusade launched from Europe.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اول, Modern Turkish: Birinci Selim; 1470/1 – September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute (Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Asad ad-Dīn Shīrkūh bin Shādhī (in أسد الدين شيركوه بن شاذي), also known as Shirkuh, Shêrkoh, or Shêrko (meaning "lion of the mountains" in Kurdish) (died 22 February 1169) was a Kurdish military commander, and uncle of Saladin.
The Siege of Acre was the first significant counter attack by King Guy of Jerusalem to the losses the kingdom experienced to Saladin, leader of the Muslims in Syria and Egypt and formed part of what later became known as the Third Crusade.
The Siege of Damascus took place between 24 July and 29 July 1148, during the Second Crusade.
The Siege of Damascus (1400) was a major event during the war between the Timurid Empire and Mamluk Egypt.
The Siege of Damascus (634) lasted from 21 August to 19 September 634 AD before the city fell to the Rashidun Caliphate.
The Siege of Edessa took place from November 28 to December 24, 1144, resulting in the fall of the capital of the crusader County of Edessa to Zengi, the atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo.
The Siege of Jerusalem was a siege on the city of Jerusalem that lasted from September 20 to October 2, 1187, when Balian of Ibelin surrendered the city to Saladin.
The Siege of Kerak took place in 1183, with Saladin's forces attacking and being repelled from the Crusader stronghold.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte (باب عالی Bāb-ı Ālī or Babıali, from باب, bāb "gate" and عالي, alī "high"), is a synecdochic metonym for the central government of the Ottoman Empire.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sulayman bin Abd al-Malik (سليمان بن عبد الملك) (c. 674 – 22 September 717) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 715 until 717.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the British invasion of Vichy French Syria and Lebanon from June–July 1941, during the Second World War.
Syriac Catholic cathedral is the cathedral of the Syriac Catholic Church, located in Damascus, Syria.
The Syriac Catholic Church (or Syrian Catholic Church) (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Qaṯolīqayṯo), (also known as Syriac Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch or Aramean Catholic Church), is an Eastern Catholic Christian Church in the Levant that uses the West Syriac Rite liturgy and has many practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Syrian Desert (بادية الشام, Bâdiyat aş-Şâm), also known as the Hamad, is a combination of steppe and desert covering of the Middle East, including parts of south-eastern Syria, northeastern Jordan, northern Saudi Arabia, and western Iraq.
Syrian Jews (יהודי סוריה Yehudey Surya, الْيَهُود السُّورِيُّون al-Yahūd as-Sūriyyūn, colloquially called SYs in the United States) are Jews who lived in the region of the modern state of Syria, and their descendants born outside Syria.
The Syrian National Congress, also called the Pan-Syrian Congress, was convened in May 1919 in Damascus, Syria, after the expulsion of the Ottoman Empire from the area.
The Syrian Premier League (الدوري السوري الممتاز) is the highest division in football in Syria.
Syrian Private University or SPU (SPU; الجامعة السورية الخاصة) (formerly: Syrian International University for Science and Technology) is a private university located in Syria.
General Establishment of Syrian Railways (المؤسسة العامة للخطوط الحديدية, Chemins de fer syriens, CFS) is the national railway operator for the state of Syria, subordinate to the Ministry of Transportation.
Syrian Turkmen (also referred to as Syrian Turkomans or simply Syrian Turks or Turks of Syria) (تركمان سوريا, Suriye Türkmenleri or Suriye Türkleri), are Syrian citizens of mainly Turkish origin whose families had migrated to Syria from Anatolia during the centuries of Ottoman rule (1516-1918).
The Syrian Virtual University (الجامعة الإفتراضيّة السوريّة) is a Syrian educational institution established by the Syrian Ministry of Higher Education.
Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer.
Tables is a general name given to a class of board games similar to backgammon, played on a board with two rows of 12 vertical markings called "points".
Tadamon (التضامن; also spelled Tadamoun or Tadamun) is a neighborhood and district of the al-Midan municipality of Damascus, Syria.
A taxicab, also known as a taxi or a cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride.
The Tekkiye Mosque or Sultan Selim Mosque (التكية السليمانية, Selimiye Camii or Sultan Selim Camii) is a mosque complex in Damascus, Syria, located on the banks of the Barada River.
Tell Ramad (تل رماد) is a prehistoric, Neolithic tell at the foot of Mount Hermon, about southwest of Damascus in Syria.
The Third Crusade (1189–1192), was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in 1187.
Thomas the Apostle (תומאס הקדוש; ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ Thoma Shliha; also called Didymus which means "the twin") was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, according to the New Testament.
Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
Tiglath-Pileser III (cuneiform: TUKUL.TI.A.É.ŠÁR.RA; Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of the Ešarra") was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE (ruled 745–727 BCE) who introduced advanced civil, military, and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.
Toghtekin (Modern Tuğtekin; Arabicised epithet: ظاهر الدين طغتكين Zahir ad-Din Toghtekin; died February 12, 1128), also spelled Tughtigin, was a Turkic military leader, who was atabeg of Damascus from 1104 to 1128.
The Treaty of Jaffa was an agreement during the Crusades.
The Tulunids, were a dynasty of Turkic origin and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria.
Turco-Mongol or the Turko-Mongol tradition was a cultural or ethnocultural synthesis that arose during the early 14th century, among the ruling elites of Mongol Empire successor states such as the Chagatai Khanate and Golden Horde.
Turkification, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), is a cultural shift whereby populations or states adopted a historical Turkic culture, such as in the Ottoman Empire.
Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (I.) (died 1095) was the Seljuq emir of Damascus from 1078 to 1092, and Seljuq sultan of Damascus from 1092 to 1094.
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz or Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 AH) – February 720 (16th Rajab, 101 AH)) (ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The Umayyad Mosque, also known as the Great Mosque of Damascus (جامع بني أمية الكبير, Romanization: Ğāmi' Banī 'Umayya al-Kabīr), located in the old city of Damascus, is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The University of Kalamoon (Arabic:جامعة القلمون الخاصة) is a private, accredited university located in Deir Atiyah An-Nabek District Rif Dimashq Governorate in Syria, located between the Qalamoun Mountains and the Eastern Lebanon Mountains, 88 kilometres (55 miles) north of the capital Damascus.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
According to the Table of nations of Genesis 10 in the Hebrew Bible, Uz (‘Ūṣ) is one of the sons of Aram, son of Shem.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Wadi International University (جامعة الوادي الدولية الخاصة), commonly referred to as the German Syrian University, is a private, internationally oriented university, located in Wadi al-Nasara in Syria.
Western Neo-Aramaic is a modern Aramaic language.
The World Heritage Committee selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties.
World Monuments Fund (WMF) is a private, international, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic architecture and cultural heritage sites around the world through fieldwork, advocacy, grantmaking, education, and training.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yarmouk Camp (مخيم اليرموك) is a district of the city of Damascus, populated by Palestinians, with hospitals and schools.
Yarmouk Private University is a private university located on the international Highway connecting Damascus to Dara’a, 45 km (27.96 miles) away from Damascus.
The Yarmuk River (نهر اليرموك,, or شريعة المناذرة,; נהר הירמוך,; Hieromices), sometimes spelled Yarmouk, is the largest tributary of the Jordan River.
Sayyidah Zaynab bint ʿAli (الـسَّـيّـدة زَيـنـب بـنـت عـلي, Also: 'Zainab') was one of the daughters of the fourth caliph and the first Shia imam, ‘Ali and his first wife Fatimah.
Zenodorus (Ζηνόδωρος) was the ruler of a small principality in the vicinity of Damascus described by Josephus as the "house of Lysanias", 23-20 BCE.
Zobah or Aram-Zobah (Hebrew צובה or ארם צובא) was an early Aramean state which extended from the Beqaa Valley along the eastern side of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains reaching Hamath to the north and Damascus to the south, at one time of considerable importance.
The 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war (also called the 1860 Civil War in Syria) was the culmination of a peasant uprising, which began in the north of Mount Lebanon as a rebellion of Maronite peasants against their Druze overlords and culminated in a massacre in Damascus.
The 5th Pan Arab Games were held in Damascus, Syria between October 6 and October 21, 1976.
The 7th Pan Arab Games were held in Damascus, Syria between October 4 and October 18, 1992.
The 2008 Arab Capital of Culture was chosen to be Damascus, Syria.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 3rd Light Horse Brigade was a mounted infantry brigade of the First Australian Imperial Force which served in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. The brigade first saw action during the Dardanelles Campaign in the Battle of Gallipoli where they were noted for their charge during the Battle of the Nek.
Al Shamie, Al-Shami, Capital of Syria, City of Jasmin, City of jasmin, Classical damascus, Damascos, Damascuc, Damascus in the middle ages, Damascus, SY, Damascus, Syria, Damaskos, Damaskus, Demographics of Damascus, Dimashq, Emirate of Damascus, Geography of Damascus, History of Damascus, Medieval damascus, Names of Damascus, Sultanate of Damascus, الشام, دمشق.