122 relations: Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, Afroasiatic Urheimat, Ahmed Abdulshafi Bassey, Al-Fashir, Al-Zubayr Rahma Mansur, Alluvium, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Arabic, Arable land, Arabs, Atbarah River, Bahr el Ghazal (region of South Sudan), Basement (geology), BBC, Borehole, Calais Jungle, Central Darfur, Chad, Civilization, Counter-insurgency, Daju kingdom, Daju languages, Daju people, Dar Lyon, Darfur Peace Agreement, Darfur Regional Authority, Darfurian status referendum, 2016, Deriba (caldera), Doha, East Africa Time, East Darfur, Economic development, Egypt, Emergency management, Emir, Erenga people, Famine, Flood, Fongoro language, Fula people, Funj Sultanate, Fur language, Fur people, Hill, Humanitarian crisis, Ideology, Immigration, Independence, Insurgency, Internally displaced person, ..., International community, Ivory, Janjaweed, Justice and Equality Movement, Kanem–Bornu Empire, Keira dynasty, Khartoum, Lake Chad, Liberation and Justice Movement, Libya, List of heads of state of Sudan, Lost Boys of Sudan, Mahdi, Marrah Mountains, Masalit language, Massif, Meroë, Midob language, Militia, Minni Minnawi, Muammar Gaddafi, Muhammad Ahmad, North Darfur, Nyala, Sudan, Omdurman, Oral tradition, Ottoman Empire, Peacekeeping, Plain, Politics of Sudan, Prehistory, Proxy war, Qatar, Refugee, Remote sensing, Reuters, Richard Cockett, Rizeigat tribe, Rudolf Carl von Slatin, Sahara, Sahel, Sand, Sandstone, Semi-arid climate, Shartai Jaafar Abdel Hakam, Sinyar language, South Darfur, Spain, States of Sudan, Sudan, Sudan Liberation Movement/Army, Sudanese pound, Sultan, Sultanate of Bagirmi, Sultanate of Darfur, Ta’isha tribe, Tama language, Temperate climate, Topographic prominence, Tora (Darfur), Tunjur people, United Kingdom, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations–African Union Mission in Darfur, Wadai Empire, Wadi, War in Darfur, West Darfur, Wet season, World Food Programme, Zaghawa language, 2010 Sahel famine. Expand index (72 more) » « Shrink index
Abdullah Ibn-Mohammed Al-Khalifa or Abdullah al-Khalifa or Abdullahi al-Khalifa, also known as "The Khalifa" (c.; 1846 – November 25, 1899) was a Sudanese Ansar ruler who was one of the principal followers of Muhammad Ahmad.
The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where speakers of the proto-Afroasiatic language lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into separate distinct languages.
Ahmed Abdulshafi Yacoub Bassey is a leader of one of the factions of the Darfurian rebel group the Sudan Liberation Movement.
Al Fashir, Al-Fashir or El Fasher (الفاشر) is the capital city of North Darfur, Sudan.
Al-Zubayr Rahma Mansur (الزبير رحمة منصور) (also Sebehr Rahma, Rahama ZobeirHake, Alfred Egmont. "", 1884.) was a slave trader in the late 19th century.
Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.
The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (السودان الإنجليزي المصري) was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the eastern Sudan region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, but in practice the structure of the condominium ensured full British control over the Sudan.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Atbarah River (نهر عطبرة; transliterated: Nahr 'Atbarah) in northeast Africa rises in northwest Ethiopia, approximately 50 km north of Lake Tana and 30 km west of Gondar.
The Bahr el Ghazal is a historical region of northwestern South Sudan.
In geology, basement and crystalline basement are the rocks below a sedimentary platform or cover, or more generally any rock below sedimentary rocks or sedimentary basins that are metamorphic or igneous in origin.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
A borehole is a narrow shaft bored in the ground, either vertically or horizontally.
The Calais Jungle was a refugee and migrant encampment in the vicinity of Calais, France, in use from January 2015 to October 2016.
Central Darfur State (Wilāyat Wasaṭ Dārfūr) is one of the states of Sudan, and one of five comprising the Darfur region.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".
The Daju kingdom was a Medieval monarchy that existed in Darfur (Sudan) from possibly the 12th–15th century.
The Daju languages are spoken in isolated pockets by the Daju people across a wide area of Sudan and Chad, in parts of the regions of Kordofan, Darfur and Wadai.
The Daju people are a group of seven distinct ethnicities speaking related languages (see Daju languages) living on both sides of the Chad-Sudan border and in the Nuba Mountains.
Malcolm Douglas Lyon (22 April 1898 – 17 February 1964), generally known as Dar Lyon was an English first-class cricketer who played for Somerset County Cricket Club through the 1920s.
The Darfur Peace Agreement may refer to one of two Darfur Peace Agreements that have been signed by the Government of Sudan and Darfur-based rebel groups with the intention of ending the Darfur Conflict.
The Darfur Regional Authority (السلطة الإنتقالية الإقليمية لدارفور, al-slTa al-intqalia al-iqlimia al-darfor) was an interim governing body for the Darfur region of the Republic of Sudan.
A referendum on the permanent status of the Darfur within Sudan was held on 11–13 April 2016.
Deriba is a Pleistocene or Holocene caldera in Darfur, Sudan.
Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.
East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa.
East Darfur State (Wilāyat Šarq Dārfūr; Sharq Darfur) is one of the states of Sudan, and one of five comprising the Darfur region.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Emergency management or disaster management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, and recovery).
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Erenga is an ethnic group of Sudan.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
Fongoro, or Formona, is a minor Central Sudanic language of Chad and formerly of Sudan.
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.
The Funj Sultanate of Sennar (sometimes spelled Sinnar; also known as the Funj Monarchy, Funj Caliphate or Funj Kingdom; traditionally known in Sudan as the Blue Sultanate due to the Sudanese convention of referring to African peoples as blue) was a sultanate in what is now Sudan, northwestern Eritrea and western Ethiopia, named after the Funj ethnic group of its dynasty, or Sinnar (or Sennar) after its capital, which ruled a substantial area of northeast Africa between 1504 and 1821.
The Fur language (Fur: bèle fòòr or fòòraŋ bèle; Fûrâwî; sometimes called Konjara by linguists, after a former ruling clan) is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken by the Fur of Darfur in western Sudan.
The Fur (Fur: fòòrà, Arabic: فور Fūr) are an ethnic group inhabiting western Sudan.
A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain.
A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد janjawīd; also transliterated Janjawid) (English: a man with a gun on a horse.") are a militia that operate in western Sudan and eastern Chad.
The Justice and Equality Movement (abbreviated JEM; حركة العدل والمساواة) is a Sudanese opposition group founded by Khalil Ibrahim, the group has been led since January 2012 by his brother Gibril Ibrahim, as Khalil was killed in December 2011.
The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern Chad and Nigeria.
The Keira dynasty were the rulers of the Sultanate of Darfur from the seventeenth century to 1916.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
Lake Chad (French: Lac Tchad) is a historically large, shallow, endorheic lake in Africa, which has varied in size over the centuries.
The Liberation and Justice Movement is a rebel group in the Darfur conflict in Sudan, led by Dr Tijani Sese.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
This article lists the heads of state of Sudan since the country's independence in 1956.
The Lost Boys of Sudan was the name given to a group of over 40,000 boys of the Nuer and Dinka ethnic groups.
The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.
The Marrah Mountains or Marra Mountains (Fur, Fugo Marra; جبل مرة, Jebel Marra (Sudanese Arabic – “woman mountains” due to the outline of a reclining woman when viewed from the south-east, also known in English as Gimbala) is a range of volcanic peaks in a massif that rises up to. It is the highest mountain in Sudan.
Masalit (autonym Masala/Masara) is a Maban language spoken by the Masalit people in western Darfur, Sudan.
In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures.
Meroë (also spelled Meroe; Meroitic: Medewi or Bedewi; Arabic: مرواه and مروى Meruwi; Ancient Greek: Μερόη, Meróē) is an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile about 6 km north-east of the Kabushiya station near Shendi, Sudan, approximately 200 km north-east of Khartoum.
Midob (also spelt Meidob) is the language of the Midob people of North Darfur, Sudan.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Suliman Arcua Minnawi, known as "Minni Minnawi" (born 1968 in Furawiyya, North Darfur), is a Sudanese politician who was the leader of the largest faction of the Sudanese Liberation Army.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, on 29 June 1881, proclaimed himself the Mahdi, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith.
North Darfur State (ولاية شمال دارفور Wilāyat Šamāl Dārfūr; Shamal Darfor) is one of the wilayat or states of Sudan.
Nyala (Daju: "the place of chatting or a theatre") is the capital of state of South Darfur in the south-west of Sudan.
Omdurman (standard أم درمان Umm Durmān) is the second largest city in Sudan and Khartoum State, lying on the western banks of the River Nile, opposite the capital, Khartoum.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
Officially, the politics of Sudan takes place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic consociationalist republic, where the President of Sudan is head of state, head of government and commander-in-chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces in a multi-party system.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Richard Cockett (born 1961) is a British historian, journalist and writer.
The Rizeigat, or Rizigat, or Rezeigat (Standard Arabic Rizayqat) are a Muslim and Arabic tribe of the nomadic Bedouin Baggara (Standard Arabic Baqqara) people in Sudan's Darfur region.
Major-General Rudolf Anton Carl Freiherr von Slatin, Geh. Rat, (7 June 1857, Ober Sankt Veit, Hietzing, Vienna – 4 October 1932, Vienna) was an Anglo-Austrian soldier and administrator in the Sudan.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Shartai Jaafar Abdel Hakam is a Sudanese politician who served as governor of West Darfur and Chairperson of the Transitional Darfur Regional Authority (TDRA).
Shemya is the language of the Sinyar people.
South Darfur State (ولاية جنوب دارفور Wilāyat Ǧanūb Dārfūr; Janob Darfor) is one of the wilayat or states of Sudan.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Below is a list of the 18 states of Sudan, organized by their original provinces during the period of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (حركة تحرير السودان Ḥarakat Taḥrīr Al-Sūdān; abbreviated SLM, SLA or SLM/A) is a Sudanese rebel group active in Darfur, Sudan.
The Sudanese pound (Arabic) is the currency of Sudan.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The Sultanate or Kingdom of Bagirmi or Baghermi (Royaume du Baguirmi) was a kingdom and Islamic sultanate southeast of Lake Chad in central Africa between 1522 and 1897.
The Sultanate of Darfur was a pre-colonial state in present-day Sudan.
Ta’isha is one of the Baqqara tribes, these nomads originated from the Guhayna group, a clan of Bedouin Arabs who came across the Sinai Peninsula from Arabia.
Tama, or Damut, is the primary language spoken by the Tama people in eastern Chad and in western Sudan.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
In topography, prominence characterizes the height of a mountain or hill's summit by the vertical distance between it and the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it.
The Tora are a semi-legendary culture that existed in Jebel Marra, Darfur.
The Tunjur, or Tungur, are a Sunni Muslim ethnic group found in eastern Chad and western Sudan.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (known by its acronym UNAMID) is a joint African Union (AU) and United Nations (UN) peacekeeping mission formally approved by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1769 on 31 July 2007, to bring stability to the war-torn Darfur region of Sudan while peace talks on a final settlement continue.
The Wadai Empire or Sultanate (سلطنة وداي, royaume du Ouaddaï; 1635–1912) was a kingdom located to the east of Lake Chad in present-day Chad and in the Central African Republic.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population.
West Darfur State (Wilāyat Ḡarb Dārfūr; Gharb Darfor) is one of the states of Sudan, and one of five comprising the Darfur region.
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
Zaghawa is a Saharan language spoken by the Zaghawa people of east-central Chad (in the Sahel) and northwestern Sudan (Darfur).
A large-scale, drought-induced famine occurred in Africa's Sahel region and many parts of the neighboring Sénégal River Area from February to August 2010.