208 relations: Abrocomes, Achaemenes, Achaemenes (satrap), Achaemenid Empire, Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley, Achaemenid Macedonia, Afghanistan, Ahura Mazda, Akkadian language, Amun, Anatolia, Ancestor, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Libya, Arachosia, Aramaic language, Aras (river), Ariabignes, Ariana, Ariomardus, Aristagoras, Arsames, Artaphernes (son of Artaphernes), Artaxerxes I of Persia, Artazostre, Artisan, Artystone, Aryandes, Asha, Asia, Aspathines, Assyria, Athens, Atossa, Autobiography, Babylon, Babylonia, Bactria, Balkans, Bardiya, Battle of Marathon, Behistun Inscription, Black Sea, Bolan Pass, Book of Haggai, Book of Zechariah, Bosporus, ..., Bridle, Budini, Bulgaria, Cambridge University Press, Cambyses II, Canal of the Pharaohs, Carpet, Caucasus, Central Asia, Classical Athens, Coronation, Cuneiform script, Cyclades, Cyrus the Great, Danube, Dardanelles, Darius the Great's Suez Inscriptions, Darius the Mede, Datis, Democratic republic, Dhul-Qarnayn, Divine providence, Don River (Russia), Drangiana, Earth and water, Eastern Europe, Ecbatana, Egypt, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Elam, Elamite language, Embalming, Eretria, Ernst Herzfeld, Euboea, Europe, Ezra–Nehemiah, First Persian invasion of Greece, Freer Gallery of Art, Gandhara, Gherla, Gobryas, Great King, Greco-Persian Wars, Greek language, Harvard Art Museums, Herodotus, Hindush, Histories (Herodotus), History of Persian Egypt, Hoboken, New Jersey, Hydarnes, Hyperanthes, Hystaspes (father of Darius I), Idanthyrsus, Indian Ocean, Indus River, Infrastructure, Ionia, Ionian Revolt, Iran, Iranian languages, Iranian peoples, Irrigation, Jürgen von Beckerath, John Wiley & Sons, Karachi, King of Kings, Lancer, Latin, Lineage (anthropology), List of kings of Babylon, List of monarchs of Persia, List of pharaohs, Loan, Louvre, Lydia, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia (region), Magi, Mardonius, Mary Boyce, Masistes, Media (region), Mediterranean Sea, Megabyzus, Metalworking, Miltiades, Monarchy, Mount Behistun, Murashu family, Naqsh-e Rustam, Naxos, Nebuchadnezzar III, Nekhbet, Nile, Nippur, North Caucasus, Old Aramaic language, Old Persian, Old Persian cuneiform, Oligarchy, Otanes, Paeonia (kingdom), Pakistan, Palace of Darius in Susa, Parmys, Parthia, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Persian language, Persian people, Persis, Pharaoh, Plataea, Politician, Population, Ptah, Quran, Red Sea, Relief, Roman Empire, Romania, Royal Road, Sailor, Sardis, Satrap, Scylax of Caryanda, Scythia, Scythian languages, Scythians, Second Temple, Shahnameh, Soldier, Stanford University Press, Sudan (region), Suez, Susa, Tachara, Talent (measurement), Tanakh, Textile, The Cambridge Ancient History, Thrace, Thracians, Tomb of Darius I, Tool, Tribute, Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt, Usurper, Vassal, Volga River, Washington, D.C., Western Asia, Xerxes I, Zagazig, Zopyrus, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (158 more) » « Shrink index
Abrocomes (Ὰβροκόμης) was a son of king Darius I of Persia and his wife Phratagune, who died with his full brother Hyperanthes in the battle of Thermopylae, while fighting over the body of Leonidas.
Achaemenes (c. 705 BC – c. 675 BC) was the eponymous apical ancestor of the Achaemenid dynasty of rulers from Persis.
Achaemenes (also incorrectly called Achaemenides by Ctesias, from the Old Persian HaxāmanišM. A. Dandamayev, “Achaemenes,” Encyclopædia Iranica, I/4, p. 414; an updated version is available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/achaemenes-greek) was an Achaemenid general and satrap of ancient Egypt during the early 5th century BC, at the time of the 27th Dynasty of Egypt.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley refers to the Achaemenid military conquest of territories of North-western regions of the Indian subcontinent.
Achaemenid Macedonia refers to the period in which the ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedonia was under the sway of the Achaemenid Persians.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb.
Arachosia is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Greco-Bactrian, and Indo-Scythian empires.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Ariabignes (Ἀριαβίγνης) was one of the sons of the Persian king Darius I and his mother was a daughter of Gobryas (Γοβρύας).
Ariana, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek Ἀρ(ε)ιανή Ar(e)ianē (inhabitants: Ariani; Ἀρ(ε)ιανοί Ar(e)ianoi), was a general geographical term used by some Greek and Roman authors of the ancient period for a district of wide extent between Central Asia and the Indus River, compromising the eastern provinces of the Achaemenid Empire that covered the whole of modern-day Afghanistan, as well as the easternmost part of Iran and up to the Indus River in Pakistan (former Northern India).
Ariomardus was a son of the Persian King Darius I and his wife Parmys.
Aristagoras (Ἀρισταγόρας ὁ Μιλήσιος), d. 497/496 BC, was the leader of Miletus in the late 6th century BC and early 5th century BC and a key player during the early years of the Ionian Revolt against the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Arsames (𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠𐎶 Aršāma, modern Persian: آرشام‎ Arshām, Greek: Ἀρσάμης; – ca. 520 BC) was the son of Ariaramnes and perhaps briefly the king of Persia during the Achaemenid dynasty, but gave up the throne and declared loyalty to Cyrus II of Persia.
Artaphernes, son of Artaphernes, was the nephew of Darius the Great, and a general of the Achaemenid Empire.
Artaxerxes I (اردشیر یکم., 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, "whose rule (xšaça R. Schmitt.. Encyclopædia Iranica. 15 December 1986. Retrieved 12 March 2012.; Artaxérxēs) was the fifth King of Persia from 465 BC to 424 BC. He was the third son of Xerxes I. He may have been the "Artasyrus" mentioned by Herodotus as being a Satrap of the royal satrapy of Bactria. In Greek sources he is also surnamed "long-handed" (μακρόχειρ Macrocheir; Longimanus), allegedly because his right hand was longer than his left.
Artazostre (or Artozostre) (Old Persian *Arta-zausri) was a Persian princess, daughter of king Darius the Great (521-485 BC) by Artystone, daughter of Cyrus the Great.
An artisan (from artisan, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker.
Artystone (Greek Ἀρτυστώνη Artystone; Elamite Ir-taš-du-na, Ir-da-iš-du-na; from Old Persian *Artastūnā, "pillar of Arta, the deified true") was a Persian princess, daughter of king Cyrus the Great, and sister or half-sister of Cambyses II, Atossa and Smerdis (Bardiyā).
Aryandes (or Aryavanda) was the first Achaemenid satrap of ancient Egypt between the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, during the early 27th Dynasty of Egypt.
Asha (also arta; Avestan: aša/arta) is a concept of cardinal importance.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Aspathines (Ἀσπαθίνης) or Aspačanā (𐎠𐎿𐎱𐎨𐎴𐎠; literally “delighting in horses”) (born and died sometime between 550 BC and 450BC) was a senior official under Darius the Great and Xerxes I of Persia.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Atossa was an Achaemenid empress and daughter of Cyrus the Great and Cassandane.
An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a self-written account of the life of oneself.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Bardiya (𐎲𐎼𐎮𐎡𐎹 Bardiya), also known as Smerdis (Σμέρδις Smerdis) (possibly died 522 BC) was a son of Cyrus the Great and the younger brother of Cambyses II, both Persian kings.
The Battle of Marathon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece.
The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Bolān Pass (درۂ بولان) is a mountain pass through the Toba Kakar Range of Balochistan province in western Pakistan, from the Afghanistan border.
The Book of Haggai is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and has its place as the third-to-last of the Minor Prophets.
The Book of Zechariah, attributed to the Hebrew prophet Zechariah, is included in the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Hebrew Bible.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
A bridle is a piece of equipment used to direct a horse.
The Budini (Ancient Greek: Βουδίνοι; Boudínoi) was a group of people (a tribe) described by Herodotus and several later classical authors.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cambyses II (𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya כנבוזי Kanbūzī; Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire.
The Canal of the Pharaohs, also called the Ancient Suez Canal or Necho's Canal, is the forerunner of the Suez Canal, constructed in ancient times.
A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of pile attached to a backing.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
The Cyclades (Κυκλάδες) are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
Darius the Great's Suez Inscriptions were texts written in Old Persian, Elamite, Babylonian and Egyptian on five monuments erected in Wadi Tumilat, commemorating the opening of a canal between the Nile and the Bitter Lakes.
Darius the Mede is mentioned in the Book of Daniel as king of Babylon between Belshazzar and Cyrus the Great, but he is not known to history, and no additional king can be placed between the known figures of Belshazzar and Cyrus.
Datis or Datus (Old Persian: Dâtiça), was a Median admiral who served the Persian Empire, under Darius the Great.
A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy.
Dhul-Qarnayn, (ذو القرنين), or Zulqarnayn, "he of the two horns" (or figuratively “he of the two ages”), appears in Surah 18 verses 83-101 of the Quran as a figure empowered by Allah to erect a wall between mankind and Gog and Magog, the representation of chaos.
In theology, divine providence, or just providence, is God's intervention in the universe.
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
Drangiana or Zarangiana (Δραγγιανή, Drangianē; also attested in Old Western Iranian as Zranka was a historical region and administrative division of the Achaemenid Empire. This region comprises territory around Hamun Lake, wetlands in endorheic Sistan Basin on the Iran-Afghan border, and its primary watershed Helmand river in what is nowadays southwestern region of Afghanistan.
In the writings of the Ancient Greek chronicler Herodotus, the phrase earth and water (γῆ καί ὕδωρ ge kai hydor) is used to represent the demand of the Persians from the cities or people who surrendered to them.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Ecbatana (𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 Hagmatāna or Haŋmatāna, literally "the place of gathering", אַחְמְתָא, Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus and Herodotus,Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian: kura-gam-ta-nu in the Nabonidus Chronicle) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
Elamite is an extinct language that was spoken by the ancient Elamites.
Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.
Eretria (Ερέτρια, Eretria, literally "city of the rowers") is a town in Euboea, Greece, facing the coast of Attica across the narrow South Euboean Gulf.
Ernst Emil Herzfeld (23 July 1879 – 20 January 1948) was a German archaeologist and Iranologist.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Ezra–Nehemiah is a book in the Hebrew Bible found in the Ketuvim section, originally with the Hebrew title of Ezra.
The first Persian invasion of Greece, during the Persian Wars, began in 492 BC, and ended with the decisive Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.
The Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery form the Smithsonian Institution's national museums of Asian art in the United States.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Gherla (Szamosújvár; Neuschloss) is a city in Cluj County, Romania (in the historical region of Transylvania).
Gobryas (Γοβρύας; 𐎥𐎢𐎲𐎽𐎢𐎺 g-u-b-ru-u-v, reads as Gaub(a)ruva?; Elamite: Kambarma) was a common name of several Persian noblemen.
Great King and the equivalent in many languages is a semantic title for historical titles of monarchs, suggesting an elevated status among the host of Kings and Princes.
The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Harvard Art Museums are part of Harvard University and comprise three museums: the Fogg Museum (established in 1895), the Busch-Reisinger Museum (established in 1903), and the Arthur M. Sackler Museum (established in 1985) and four research centers: the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis (founded in 1958), the Center for the Technical Study of Modern Art (founded in 2002), the Harvard Art Museums Archives, and the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies (founded in 1928).
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hindush was the eastern most satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, covering the lower and central Indus basin (present day Sindh and the southern Punjab regions of Pakistan).
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
The history of Persian Egypt is divided into three eras.
Hoboken (Unami: Hupokàn) is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.
Hydarnes (Greek: Ὑδάρνης, from Old Persian Vidarna- possibly New Persian H(a)idar), son of Bagābigna, was a Persian nobleman of the Achaemenid Empire in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC.
Hyperanthes (Ὑπεράνθης) was a son of Darius the Great of Persia and brother to Xerxes I. He was present in the second invasion of Greece in 480 BC.
Vishtaspa (fl. 550 BC), known under his Hellenized name Hystaspes (Ὑστάσπης), was a Persian satrap of Bactria and Persis.
Idanthyrsus (Ιδάνθυρσος) is the name of two Scythian kings: 1.The first one led Scythians, under whom, according to Strabo, they overran Asia, and advanced as far as Egypt.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Jürgen von Beckerath (19 February 1920 – 26 June 2016) was a German Egyptologist.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
The genitive phrase King of Kings (Assyrian šar šarrāni, Hebrew מֶלֶךְ מְלָכִים melek mĕlakîm, Persian شاهنشاه) is a superlative expression for "great king" or high king; it is probably originally of Semitic origins (compare the superlatives Lord of Lords, Song of Songs or Holy of Holies), but from there was also adopted in Persian (Shahanshah), Hellenistic and Christian traditions.
A lancer was a type of cavalryman who fought with a lance.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor.
The following is a list of the kings of Babylonia (ancient southern-central Iraq), compiled from the traditional Babylonian king lists and modern archaeological findings.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
This article contains a list of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic Period before 3100 BC through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, when Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC.
In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, and/or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe.
Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.
Mardonius (Μαρδόνιος Mardonios, Old Persian: Marduniya, literally: "the mild one"; died 479 BC) was a leading Persian military commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the early 5th century BC who died at the Battle of Plataea.
Nora Elisabeth Mary Boyce (2 August 1920 – 4 April 2006) was a British scholar of Iranian languages, and an authority on Zoroastrianism.
Masistes (Greek Μασίστης, Masistês; Old Iranian *Masišta) (?- c. 478 BC) was a Persian prince of the Achaemenid Dynasty, son of king Darius I (reign: 520-486 BC) and of his wife Atossa, and full brother of king Xerxes I (reign: 486-465 BC).
Media (Old Persian: Māda, Middle Persian: Mād) is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Megabyzus (Μεγάβυζος, a folk-etymological alteration of Old Persian Bagabuxša, meaning "God saved") was a Achaemenid Persian general, son of Zopyrus, satrap of Babylonia.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Miltiades (Μιλτιάδης; c. 550 – 489 BC), also known as Miltiades the Younger, was an Athenian citizen known mostly for his role in the Battle of Marathon, as well as for his downfall afterwards.
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
Mount Bisotoun (or Behistun and Bisotun) is a mountain of the Zagros Mountains range, located in Kermanshah Province of western Iran.
The house of Murashu were a family discovered in archaeological findings dating to the late 19th century.
Naqsh-e Rustam (نقش رستم) is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods.
Naxos (Greek: Νάξος) is a Greek island and the largest of the Cyclades.
Nebuchadnezzar III ruled over Babylon (c. 522 BC).
Nekhbet (also spelt Nekhebit) was an early predynastic local goddess in Egyptian mythology, who was the patron of the city of Nekheb (her name meaning of Nekheb).
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;": Vol. 1, Part 1. Accessed 15 Dec 2010. Akkadian: Nibbur) was among the most ancient of Sumerian cities.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
Old Aramaic (code: oar) refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, considered to give way to Middle Aramaic by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sasanian Empire in 224 CE).
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
Old Persian cuneiform is a semi-alphabetic cuneiform script that was the primary script for Old Persian.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Otanes (Ὀτάνης) is a name given to several figures that appear in the ''Histories'' of Herodotus.
In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Παίονες).
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palace of Darius in Susa was a palace complex in Susa, Iran, a capital of the Achaemenid Empire.
Parmida (Elamite Uparmiya) was a Persian princess, the only daughter of Bardiya (Smerdis), son of Cyrus the Great.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
Pasargadae (from Πασαργάδαι, from Old Persian Pāθra-gadā, "protective club" or "strong club"; Modern Persian: پاسارگاد Pāsārgād) was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great who had issued its construction (559–530 BC); it was also the location of his tomb.
Persepolis (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Persis (Περσίς), better known as Persia (Parsa; پارس, Pars), or "Persia proper", was originally a name of a region near the Zagros mountains at Lake Urmia.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Plataea or Plataeae (Πλαταιαί) was an ancient city, located in Greece in southeastern Boeotia, south of Thebes.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (ptḥ, probably vocalized as Pitaḥ in ancient Egyptian) is the demiurge of Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Royal Road was an ancient highway, part of the Silk Road and the Uttara Path built in ancient South Asia and Central Asia, reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the first (Achaemenid) Persian Empire in the 5th century BCE.
A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.
Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
Scylax of Caryanda (Σκύλαξ ο Καρυανδεύς) was a renowned Greek explorer and writer of the late 6th and early 5th centuries BCE.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
The Scythian languages are a group of Eastern Iranian languages of the classical and late antiquity (Middle Iranian) period, spoken in a vast region of Eurasia named Scythia.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa.
Suez (السويس; Egyptian Arabic) is a seaport city (population ca. 497,000) in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez (a branch of the Red Sea), near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate.
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
The Tachara, or the Tachar Château, also referred to as the Palace of Darius the Great, was the exclusive building of Darius I at Persepolis, Iran.
The talent (talentum, from Ancient Greek: τάλαντον, talanton 'scale, balance, sum') was one of several ancient units of mass, a commercial weight, as well as corresponding units of value equivalent to these masses of a precious metal.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Cambridge Ancient History is a multi-volume work of ancient history from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, published by Cambridge University Press.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
The tomb of Darius I (Darius the Great) is one of the four tombs of Achaemenid kings at the historical site of Naqsh-e Rustam located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, Iran.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVII, alternatively 27th Dynasty or Dynasty 27), also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province (satrapy) of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC to 404 BC.
A usurper is an illegitimate or controversial claimant to power, often but not always in a monarchy.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.
Zagazig (الزقازيق, rural) is a city in Lower Egypt.
Zopyrus (Ζώπυρος) (ca. 500 BC) was a Persian nobleman mentioned in Herodotus' Histories.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
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