115 relations: Adi Shamir, Advanced Encryption Standard, Advanced Encryption Standard process, Alex Biryukov, Algorithm, American National Standards Institute, Asiacrypt, Backdoor (computing), Bitwise operation, Block cipher, Block cipher mode of operation, Block size (cryptography), Blowfish (cipher), Bruce Schneier, Brute Force: Cracking the Data Encryption Standard, Brute-force attack, Bryant Tuckerman, Burt Kaliski, Byte, CAST-128, Chosen-plaintext attack, Ciphertext, Classified information, Claude Shannon, Computer security, Confusion and diffusion, Cryptanalysis, Crypto (book), Cryptography, Davies attack, DES supplementary material, DES-X, DESCHALL Project, Differential cryptanalysis, Differential-linear attack, Digital electronics, Distributed.net, Don Coppersmith, Donald Davies, Edna Grossman, EFF DES cracker, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Eli Biham, Encryption, Exclusive or, Fast Software Encryption, FEAL, Federal Information Processing Standards, Federal Register, Feistel cipher, ..., Field-programmable gate array, Function composition, GDES, Germany, GOST (block cipher), Group (mathematics), Horst Feistel, IBM, ICE (cipher), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, International Committee for Information Technology Standards, International Data Encryption Algorithm, Inverse function, Involution (mathematics), John Gilmore (activist), Journal of Cryptology, Key (cryptography), Key schedule, Key size, Known-plaintext attack, Lars Ramkilde Knudsen, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Linear cryptanalysis, LOKI, Lookup table, Lucifer (cipher), MARS (cryptography), Martin Hellman, Matt Curtin, Matt Robshaw, Mitsuru Matsui, Moore's law, National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Security Agency, National Security Archive, NewDES, Parity bit, Permutation, Plaintext, Public-key cryptography, Rainbow table, RC5, RC6, Roy Adler, RSA Security, Ruhr University Bochum, Russia, S-box, SAFER, SciEngines GmbH, Selected Areas in Cryptography, Serpent (cipher), Skipjack (cipher), Software, Soviet Union, Steven Levy, Symmetric-key algorithm, Triple DES, Twofish, United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, University of Kiel, Videocipher, Walter Tuchman, Whitfield Diffie, 56-bit encryption. Expand index (65 more) » « Shrink index
Adi Shamir (עדי שמיר; born July 6, 1952) is an Israeli cryptographer.
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known by its original name Rijndael, is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001.
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the symmetric block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology of the United States (NIST), was chosen using a process lasting from 1997 to 2000 that was markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the Data Encryption Standard (DES).
Alex Biryukov is a cryptographer, currently a full professor at the University of Luxembourg.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
Asiacrypt (also ASIACRYPT) is an important international conference for cryptography research.
A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system, a product, or an embedded device (e.g. a home router), or its embodiment, e.g. as part of a cryptosystem, an algorithm, a chipset, or a "homunculus computer" (such as that as found in Intel's AMT technology).
In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.
In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called a block, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key.
In cryptography, a block cipher mode of operation is an algorithm that uses a block cipher to provide an information service such as confidentiality or authenticity.
In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers.
Blowfish is a symmetric-key block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in a large number of cipher suites and encryption products.
Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963, is an American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. He is the author of several books on general security topics, computer security and cryptography. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute. He has been working for IBM since they acquired Resilient Systems where Schneier was CTO. He is also a contributing writer for The Guardian news organization.
Brute Force (2005, Copernicus Books) is a book by Matt Curtin about cryptography.
In cryptography, a brute-force attack consists of an attacker trying many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly.
Louis Bryant Tuckerman, III (November 28, 1915 – May 19, 2002) was an American mathematician, born in Lincoln, Nebraska.
Burton S. "Burt" Kaliski, Jr. is a cryptographer, who is currently the chief technology officer (CTO) and senior vice president at Verisign.
The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.
In cryptography, CAST-128 (alternatively CAST5) is a symmetric-key block cipher used in a number of products, notably as the default cipher in some versions of GPG and PGP.
A chosen-plaintext attack (CPA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis which presumes that the attacker can obtain the ciphertexts for arbitrary plaintexts.
In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher.
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
In cryptography, confusion and diffusion are two properties of the operation of a secure cipher identified by Claude Shannon in his 1945 classified report A Mathematical Theory of Cryptography. These properties, when present, work to thwart the application of statistics and other methods of cryptanalysis.
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in the Digital Age is a book about cryptography written by Steven Levy, published in 2001.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
In cryptography, the Davies attack is a dedicated statistical cryptanalysis method for attacking the Data Encryption Standard (DES).
For reference, this article details the various tables referenced in the Data Encryption Standard (DES) block cipher.
In cryptography, DES-X (or DESX) is a variant on the DES (Data Encryption Standard) symmetric-key block cipher intended to increase the complexity of a brute force attack using a technique called key whitening.
DESCHALL, short for DES Challenge, was the first group to publicly break a message which used the Data Encryption Standard (DES), becoming the $10,000 winner of the first of the set of DES Challenges proposed by RSA Security in 1997.
Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.
Introduced by Martin Hellman and Susan K. Langford in 1994, the differential-linear attack is a mix of both linear cryptanalysis and differential cryptanalysis.
Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.
distributed.net is a distributed computing effort that is attempting to solve large scale problems using otherwise idle CPU or GPU time.
Don Coppersmith (born 1950) is a cryptographer and mathematician.
Donald Watts Davies, CBE, FRS (7 June 1924 – 28 May 2000) was a Welsh computer scientist who was employed at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL).
Edna Grossman (born Edna Kalka) is an American mathematician.
In cryptography, the EFF DES cracker (nicknamed "Deep Crack") is a machine built by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) in 1998, to perform a brute force search of the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher's key space – that is, to decrypt an encrypted message by trying every possible key.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
Eli Biham (אלי ביהם) is an Israeli cryptographer and cryptanalyst, currently a professor at the Technion Israeli Institute of Technology Computer Science department.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
Exclusive or or exclusive disjunction is a logical operation that outputs true only when inputs differ (one is true, the other is false).
Fast Software Encryption, often abbreviated FSE, is a workshop for cryptography research, focused on symmetric-key cryptography with an emphasis on fast, practical techniques, as opposed to theory.
In cryptography, FEAL (the Fast data Encipherment ALgorithm) is a block cipher proposed as an alternative to the Data Encryption Standard (DES), and designed to be much faster in software.
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the United States federal government for use in computer systems by non-military government agencies and government contractors.
The Federal Register (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.
In cryptography, a Feistel cipher is a symmetric structure used in the construction of block ciphers, named after the German-born physicist and cryptographer Horst Feistel who did pioneering research while working for IBM (USA); it is also commonly known as a Feistel network.
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".
In mathematics, function composition is the pointwise application of one function to the result of another to produce a third function.
In cryptography, the Generalized DES Scheme (GDES or G-DES) is a variant of the DES symmetric-key block cipher designed with the intention of speeding up the encryption process while improving its security.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The GOST block cipher (Magma), defined in the standard GOST 28147-89 (RFC 5830), is a Soviet and Russian government standard symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 64 bits.
In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.
Horst Feistel (January 30, 1915 – November 14, 1990) was a German-born cryptographer who worked on the design of ciphers at IBM, initiating research that culminated in the development of the Data Encryption Standard (DES) in the 1970s.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
In cryptography, ICE (Information Concealment Engine) is a symmetric-key block cipher published by Kwan in 1997.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
The InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS), (pronounced "insights"), is an ANSI-accredited standards development organization composed of Information technology developers.
In cryptography, the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), originally called Improved Proposed Encryption Standard (IPES), is a symmetric-key block cipher designed by James Massey of ETH Zurich and Xuejia Lai and was first described in 1991.
In mathematics, an inverse function (or anti-function) is a function that "reverses" another function: if the function applied to an input gives a result of, then applying its inverse function to gives the result, and vice versa.
In mathematics, an involution, or an involutory function, is a function that is its own inverse, for all in the domain of.
John Gilmore (born 1955) is one of the founders of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the Cypherpunks mailing list, and Cygnus Solutions.
The Journal of Cryptology is a scientific journal in the field of cryptology and cryptography.
In cryptography, a key is a piece of information (a parameter) that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm.
In cryptography, the so-called product ciphers are a certain kind of cipher, where the (de-)ciphering of data is typically done as an iteration of rounds.
In cryptography, key size or key length is the number of bits in a key used by a cryptographic algorithm (such as a cipher).
The known-plaintext attack (KPA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker has access to both the plaintext (called a crib), and its encrypted version (ciphertext).
Lars Ramkilde Knudsen (born 21 February 1962) is a Danish researcher in cryptography, particularly interested in the design and analysis of block ciphers, hash functions and message authentication codes (MACs).
Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) is a series of computer science books published by Springer Science+Business Media (formerly Springer-Verlag) since 1973.
In cryptography, linear cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis based on finding affine approximations to the action of a cipher.
In cryptography, LOKI89 and LOKI91 are symmetric-key block ciphers designed as possible replacements for the Data Encryption Standard (DES).
In computer science, a lookup table is an array that replaces runtime computation with a simpler array indexing operation.
In cryptography, Lucifer was the name given to several of the earliest civilian block ciphers, developed by Horst Feistel and his colleagues at IBM.
MARS is a block cipher that was IBM's submission to the Advanced Encryption Standard process.
Martin Edward Hellman (born October 2, 1945) is an American cryptologist, best known for his invention of public key cryptography in cooperation with Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle.
Matt Curtin (born 1973) is a computer scientist and entrepreneur in Columbus, Ohio best known for his work in cryptography and firewall systems.
Matthew John Barton "Matt" Robshaw is a cryptographer.
is a Japanese cryptographer and senior researcher for Mitsubishi Electric Company.
Moore's law is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-governmental, non-profit research and archival institution located on the campus of the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 to check rising government secrecy, the National Security Archive is an investigative journalism center, open government advocate, international affairs research institute, and is the largest repository of declassified U.S. documents outside the federal government.
In cryptography, NewDES is a symmetric key block cipher.
A parity bit, or check bit, is a bit added to a string of binary code to ensure that the total number of 1-bits in the string is even or odd.
In mathematics, the notion of permutation relates to the act of arranging all the members of a set into some sequence or order, or if the set is already ordered, rearranging (reordering) its elements, a process called permuting.
In cryptography, plaintext or cleartext is unencrypted information, as opposed to information encrypted for storage or transmission.
Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.
A rainbow table is a precomputed table for reversing cryptographic hash functions, usually for cracking password hashes.
In cryptography, RC5 is a symmetric-key block cipher notable for its simplicity.
In cryptography, RC6 (Rivest cipher 6) is a symmetric key block cipher derived from RC5.
Roy Lee Adler (February 22, 1931 – July 26, 2016) was an American mathematician.
RSA Security LLC, formerly RSA Security, Inc. and doing business as RSA, is an American computer and network security company.
The Ruhr-University Bochum (German: Ruhr-Universität Bochum, RUB), located on the southern hills of central Ruhr area Bochum, was founded in 1962 as the first new public university in Germany after World War II.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
In cryptography, an S-box (substitution-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms which performs substitution.
In cryptography, SAFER (Secure And Fast Encryption Routine) is the name of a family of block ciphers designed primarily by James Massey (one of the designers of IDEA) on behalf of Cylink Corporation.
SciEngines GmbH is a privately owned company founded 2007 as a spin-off of the COPACOBANA project by the Universities of Bochum and Kiel, both in Germany.
Selected Areas in Cryptography (SAC) is an international cryptography conference (originally a workshop) held every August in Canada since 1994.
Serpent is a symmetric key block cipher that was a finalist in the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) contest, where it was ranked second to Rijndael.
In cryptography, Skipjack is a block cipher—an algorithm for encryption—developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA).
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Steven Levy (born 1951) is an American journalist who has written several books on computers, technology, cryptography, the internet, cybersecurity, and privacy.
Symmetric-key algorithms are algorithms for cryptography that use the same cryptographic keys for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext.
In cryptography, Triple DES (3DES), officially the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA or Triple DEA), is a symmetric-key block cipher, which applies the DES cipher algorithm three times to each data block.
In cryptography, Twofish is a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key sizes up to 256 bits.
The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (sometimes referred to as the Intelligence Committee or SSCI) is dedicated to overseeing the United States Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the federal government of the United States who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches.
Kiel University (German: Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, CAU) is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany.
VideoCipher is a brand name of analog scrambling and de-scrambling equipment for cable and satellite television invented primarily to enforce Television receive-only (TVRO) satellite equipment to only receive TV programming on a subscription basis.
Walter Tuchman led the Data Encryption Standard development team at IBM.
Bailey Whitfield 'Whit' Diffie (born June 5, 1944) is an American cryptographer and one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography along with Martin Hellman and Ralph Merkle.
In computing, 56-bit encryption refers to a key size of fifty-six bits, or seven bytes, for symmetric encryption.