296 relations: Abraham Silberschatz, Abstract interpretation, Academic conference, Academic journal, Academy, Access control, ACID, ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Active database, ADABAS, Airline reservations system, American National Standards Institute, Apache Cassandra, Apache CouchDB, Apache HBase, Apollo program, Application programming interface, Application software, Array data structure, Array DBMS, Association for Computing Machinery, Associative model of data, Atomicity (database systems), B-tree, Batch processing, Bibliographic database, Britton Lee, Inc., Business process modeling, CAP theorem, Central processing unit, Character encoding, Charles Bachman, Cincom Systems, Cloud computing, Cloud database, Clusterpoint, COBOL, CODASYL, Codd's 12 rules, Column (database), Column-oriented DBMS, Commercial software, Comparison of database tools, Comparison of object database management systems, Comparison of object-relational database management systems, Comparison of relational database management systems, Computer data storage, Computer hardware, Computer memory, Computer multitasking, ..., Computer network, Conceptual schema, Concurrency control, Consistency (database systems), Consistency model, Content Addressable File Store, Content management system, Content repository, Correlation database, Couchbase Server, Crash (computing), Customer relationship management, Data, Data & Knowledge Engineering, Data (computing), Data access, Data bank, Data control language, Data definition language, Data hierarchy, Data independence, Data integrity, Data manipulation language, Data mining, Data model, Data processing, Data security, Data store, Data structure, Data warehouse, Database, Database application, Database audit, Database design, Database engine, Database index, Database model, Database normalization, Database schema, Database security, Database storage structures, Database testing, Database theory, Database transaction, Database trigger, Database tuning, Database-centric architecture, Datalog, Dataphor, DBase, Deductive database, Denormalization, Desktop computer, DevOps, Distributed computing, Distributed database, Distributed transaction, Document-oriented database, Durability (database systems), Edgar F. Codd, EJB QL, Email, Embedded database, Encryption, End user, Enhanced entity–relationship model, Enterprise resource planning, Enterprise software, Entity–attribute–value model, Entity–relationship model, Event store, Eventual consistency, EXist, Fault tolerance, Federated database system, File system, Flat file database, Fuzzy logic, Graph (abstract data type), Graph database, Hard disk drive, Hash function, Hazelcast, Heterogeneous database system, Hierarchical database model, Honeywell, Human resources, Hyperlink, Hypermedia, Hypertext, IBM, IBM Business System 12, IBM Db2, IBM Information Management System, IBM Peterlee Relational Test Vehicle (PRTV), IBM Research, IBM System R, IBM System/360, IBM System/38, IDMS, In-memory database, Information retrieval, Information technology, Ingres (database), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Integrated Data Store, International Computers Limited, International Organization for Standardization, Inventory control, Inverted index, Isolation (database systems), Java Database Connectivity, Johannes Gehrke, Journal of Database Management, Kernel (operating system), Key-value database, Knowledge, Knowledge base, Knowledge management, Larry Ellison, Library, Linked list, Logic programming, Logical data model, Lotus 1-2-3, Market (economics), MarkLogic, Materialized view, Memcached, MemSQL, Metadata, Michael Stonebraker, Michigan Terminal System, MICRO Relational Database Management System, Microsoft SQL Server, Middleware (distributed applications), Mimer SQL, Mobile database, MongoDB, Multics, Multics Relational Data Store, Multiprocessing, MultiValue, MySQL, Navigational database, Netezza, Network model, NewSQL, Nielsen Corporation, NoSQL, NuoDB, Object Data Management Group, Object database, Object Query Language, Object-oriented programming, Object-relational database, Object-relational impedance mismatch, Object-relational mapping, Online analytical processing, Online encyclopedia, Open API, Open Database Connectivity, Open-source software, Operating system, Operational database, Oracle Corporation, Oracle Database, Oracle Exadata, Oxford English Dictionary, Parallel computing, Parallel database, Physical data model, Physical security, Primary key, Privilege (computing), Probabilistic database, Process (computing), Prototype, QUEL query languages, Query language, Query optimization, Query plan, Question-focused dataset, Raghu Ramakrishnan, RAID, Real-time database, Record locking, Redis, Rel (DBMS), Relational database, Relational model, Riak, Row (database), San Jose, California, Saxon XSLT, Scalability, ScaleBase, Semantic data model, Server (computing), Shared memory, Shared-nothing architecture, SIGMOD, Software, Software portability, Spatial database, Spreadsheet, SQL, SQL/XML, Star schema, Sublanguage, Symposium on Principles of Database Systems, Table (database), Technical standard, Temporal database, Teradata, Terminology-oriented database, Time series database, Total cost of ownership, Transaction log, Transaction processing, Triplestore, Tuple relational calculus, Turing Award, Two-phase commit protocol, Unified Modeling Language, United States Department of Labor, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Universal Product Code, University of Alberta, University of Michigan, Unstructured data, Uppsala University, User (computing), User interface, VLDB, VoltDB, Wayne Ratliff, Wayne State University, Web browser, Website, Wire protocol, Workflow, World Wide Web, XML, XML database, XQuery. 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Avi Silberschatz was born in Haifa, Israel.
In computer science, abstract interpretation is a theory of sound approximation of the semantics of computer programs, based on monotonic functions over ordered sets, especially lattices.
An academic conference or symposium is a conference for researchers (not necessarily academics) to present and discuss their work.
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource.
In computer science, ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) is a set of properties of database transactions intended to guarantee validity even in the event of errors, power failures, etc.
The ACM Transactions on Database Systems (ACM TODS) is one of the journals produced by the Association for Computing Machinery.
An active database is a database that includes an event-driven architecture (often in the form of ECA rules) which can respond to conditions both inside and outside the database.
ADABAS, a contraction of “adaptable database system", is a database package that was developed by Software AG to run on IBM mainframes.
Airline reservation systems (ARS) are part of the so-called passenger service systems (PSS), which are applications supporting the direct contact with the passenger.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
Apache Cassandra is a free and open-source distributed wide column store NoSQL database management system designed to handle large amounts of data across many commodity servers, providing high availability with no single point of failure.
Apache CouchDB is open source database software that focuses on ease of use and having a scalable architecture.
HBase is an open-source, non-relational, distributed database modeled after Google's Bigtable and is written in Java.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.
Array database management systems (DBMSs) provide database services specifically for arrays (also called raster data), that is: homogeneous collections of data items (often called pixels, voxels, etc.), sitting on a regular grid of one, two, or more dimensions.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
The associative model of data is a data model for database systems.
In database systems, atomicity (or atomicness; from Greek atomos, undividable) is one of the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) transaction properties.
In computer science, a B-tree is a self-balancing tree data structure that keeps data sorted and allows searches, sequential access, insertions, and deletions in logarithmic time.
In computing, batch processing refers to a computer working through a queue or batch of separate jobs (programs) without manual intervention (non-interactive).
A bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records, an organized digital collection of references to published literature, including journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and legal publications, patents, books, etc.
Britton Lee Inc. was a pioneering relational database company.
Business process modeling (BPM) in business process management and systems engineering is the activity of representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current process may be analysed, improved, and automated.
In theoretical computer science, the CAP theorem, also named Brewer's theorem after computer scientist Eric Brewer, states that it is impossible for a distributed data store to simultaneously provide more than two out of the following three guarantees:Seth Gilbert and Nancy Lynch,, ACM SIGACT News, Volume 33 Issue 2 (2002), pg.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
Charles William Bachman III (Born on December 11, 1924 – July 13, 2017) was an American computer scientist, who spent his entire career as an industrial researcher, developer, and manager rather than in academia.
Cincom Systems, Inc., is a privately held, multinational, computer technology corporation founded in 1968 by Tom Nies, Tom Richley and Claude Bogardus.
Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.
A cloud database is a database that typically runs on a cloud computing platform, access to it is provided as a service.
COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.
CODASYL, the Conference/Committee on Data Systems Languages, was a consortium formed in 1959 to guide the development of a standard programming language that could be used on many computers.
Codd's twelve rules are a set of thirteen rules (numbered zero to twelve) proposed by Edgar F. Codd, a pioneer of the relational model for databases, designed to define what is required from a database management system in order for it to be considered relational, i.e., a relational database management system (RDBMS).
In a relational database, a column is a set of data values of a particular simple type, one value for each row of the database.
"A column-oriented DBMS"(or columnar database management system) is a database management system (DBMS) that stores data tables by column rather than by row.
Commercial software, or seldom payware, is computer software that is produced for sale or that serves commercial purposes.
The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of available database administrator tools.
This is a comparison of notable object database management systems, showing what fundamental object database features are implemented natively.
This is a comparison of object-relational database management systems (ORDBMSs).
The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of relational database management systems.
Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
In computing, multitasking is the concurrent execution of multiple tasks (also known as processes) over a certain period of time.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
A conceptual schema is a high-level description of a business's informational needs.
In information technology and computer science, especially in the fields of computer programming, operating systems, multiprocessors, and databases, concurrency control ensures that correct results for concurrent operations are generated, while getting those results as quickly as possible.
Consistency in database systems refers to the requirement that any given database transaction must change affected data only in allowed ways.
In computer science, Consistency models are used in distributed systems like distributed shared memory systems or distributed data stores (such as a filesystems, databases, optimistic replication systems or Web caching).
The Content Addressable File Store (CAFS) was a hardware device developed by International Computers Limited (ICL) that provided a disk storage with built-in search capability.
A content management system (CMS)Managing Enterprise Content: A Unified Content Strategy.
A content repository or content store is a database of digital content with an associated set of data management, search and access methods allowing application-independent access to the content, rather like a digital library, but with the ability to store and modify content in addition to searching and retrieving.
A correlation database is a database management system (DBMS) that is data-model-independent and designed to efficiently handle unplanned, ad hoc queries in an analytical system environment.
Couchbase Server, originally known as Membase, is an open-source, distributed (shared-nothing architecture) multi-model NoSQL document-oriented database software package that is optimized for interactive applications.
In computing, a crash (or system crash) occurs when a computer program, such as a software application or an operating system, stops functioning properly and exits.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is an approach to manage a company's interaction with current and potential customers.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
Data & Knowledge Engineering is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal in the area of database systems and knowledge base systems.
Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.
Data access typically refers to software and activities related to storing, retrieving, or acting on data housed in a database or other repository.
In telecommunications, computing, and information architecture, a data bank or databank is a repository of information on one or more subjects – a database – that is organized in a way that facilitates local or remote information retrieval and is able to processes a large number of continual queries over a long period of time.
A data control language (DCL) is a syntax similar to a computer programming language used to control access to data stored in a database (Authorization).
A data definition language or data description language (DDL) is a syntax similar to a computer programming language for defining data structures, especially database schemas.
Data hierarchy refers to the systematic organization of data, often in a hierarchical form.
Data independence is the type of data transparency that matters for a centralized DBMS.
Data integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of the accuracy and consistency of, data over its entire life-cycle, and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation and usage of any system which stores, processes, or retrieves data.
A data manipulation language (DML) is a computer programming language used for adding (inserting), deleting, and modifying (updating) data in a database.
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
A data model (or datamodel) is a set of tables, linked by relationships and is an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to properties of the real world entities.
Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information." In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing, "the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer." Data processing is distinct from word processing, which is manipulation of text specifically rather than data generally.
Data security means protecting digital data, such as those in a database, from destructive forces and from the unwanted actions of unauthorized users, such as a cyberattack or a data breach.
A data store is a repository for persistently storing and managing collections of data which include not just repositories like databases, but also simpler store types such as simple files, emails etc.
In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.
In computing, a data warehouse (DW or DWH), also known as an enterprise data warehouse (EDW), is a system used for reporting and data analysis, and is considered a core component of business intelligence.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
A database application is a computer program whose primary purpose is entering and retrieving information from a computerized database.
Database auditing involves observing a database so as to be aware of the actions of database users.
Database design is the organisation of data according to a database model.
A database engine (or storage engine) is the underlying software component that a database management system (DBMS) uses to create, read, update and delete (CRUD) data from a database.
A database index is a data structure that improves the speed of data retrieval operations on a database table at the cost of additional writes and storage space to maintain the index data structure.
A database model is a type of data model that determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized and manipulated.
Database normalization is the process of restructuring a relational database in accordance with a series of so-called normal forms in order to reduce data redundancy and improve data integrity.
The database schema of a database system is its structure described in a formal language supported by the database management system (DBMS).
Database security concerns the use of a broad range of information security controls to protect databases (potentially including the data, the database applications or stored functions, the database systems, the database servers and the associated network links) against compromises of their confidentiality, integrity and availability.
Database tables and indexes may be stored on disk in one of a number of forms, including ordered/unordered flat files, ISAM, heap files, hash buckets, or B+ trees.
Database testing usually consists of a layered process, including the user interface (UI) layer, the business layer, the data access layer and the database itself.
Database theory encapsulates a broad range of topics related to the study and research of the theoretical realm of databases and database management systems.
A transaction symbolizes a unit of work performed within a database management system (or similar system) against a database, and treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions.
A database trigger is procedural code that is automatically executed in response to certain events on a particular table or view in a database.
Database tuning describes a group of activities used to optimize and homogenize the performance of a database.
Database-centric Architecture or data-centric architecture has several distinct meanings, generally relating to software architectures in which databases play a crucial role.
Datalog is a declarative logic programming language that syntactically is a subset of Prolog.
Dataphor is an open-source truly-relational database management system (RDBMS) and its accompanying user interface technologies, which together are designed to provide highly declarative software application development.
A deductive database is a database system that can make deductions (i.e., conclude additional facts) based on rules and facts stored in the (deductive) database.
Denormalization is a strategy used on a previously-normalized database to increase performance.
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements.
DevOps (a clipped compound of "development" and "operations") is a software engineering culture and practice that aims at unifying software development (Dev) and software operation (Ops).
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
A distributed database is a database in which storage devices are not all attached to a common processor.
A distributed transaction is a database transaction in which two or more network hosts are involved.
A document-oriented database, or document store, is a computer program designed for storing, retrieving and managing document-oriented information, also known as semi-structured data.
In database systems, durability is the ACID property which guarantees that transactions that have committed will survive permanently.
Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd (19 August 1923 – 18 April 2003) was an English computer scientist who, while working for IBM, invented the relational model for database management, the theoretical basis for relational databases and relational database management systems.
EJB QL or EJB-QL is a portable database query language for Enterprise Java Beans.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
An embedded database system is a database management system (DBMS) which is tightly integrated with an application software that requires access to stored data, such that the database system is "hidden" from the application’s end-user and requires little or no ongoing maintenance.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
In product development, an end user (sometimes end-user) is a person who ultimately uses or is intended to ultimately use a product.
The enhanced entity–relationship (EER) model (or extended entity–relationship model) in computer science is a high-level or conceptual data model incorporating extensions to the original entity–relationship (ER) model, used in the design of databases.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the integrated management of core business processes, often in real-time and mediated by software and technology.
Enterprise software, also known as enterprise application software (EAS), is computer software used to satisfy the needs of an organization rather than individual users.
Entity–attribute–value model (EAV) is a data model to encode, in a space-efficient manner, entities where the number of attributes (properties, parameters) that can be used to describe them is potentially vast, but the number that will actually apply to a given entity is relatively modest.
An entity–relationship model (ER model for short) describes interrelated things of interest in a specific domain of knowledge.
An event store is a type of database optimized for storage of events.
Eventual consistency is a consistency model used in distributed computing to achieve high availability that informally guarantees that, if no new updates are made to a given data item, eventually all accesses to that item will return the last updated value.
eXist-db (or eXist for short) is an open source software project for NoSQL databases built on XML technology.
Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure (or one or more faults within) some of its components.
A federated database system is a type of meta-database management system (DBMS), which transparently maps multiple autonomous database systems into a single federated database.
In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved.
A flat file database is a database stored as an ordinary unstructured file called a "flat file".
Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1.
In computer science, a graph is an abstract data type that is meant to implement the undirected graph and directed graph concepts from mathematics, specifically the field of graph theory.
In computing, a graph database (GDB) is a database that uses graph structures for semantic queries with nodes, edges and properties to represent and store data.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size.
In computing, Hazelcast is an open source in-memory data grid based on Java.
A heterogeneous database system is an automated (or semi-automated) system for the integration of heterogeneous, disparate database management systems to present a user with a single, unified query interface.
A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure.
Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments.
Human resources are the people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy.
In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking, tapping, or hovering.
Hypermedia, an extension of the term hypertext, is a nonlinear medium of information that includes graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks.
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access, or where text can be revealed progressively at multiple levels of detail (also called StretchText).
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Business System 12, or simply BS12, was one of the first fully relational database management systems, designed and implemented by IBM's Bureau Service subsidiary at the company's international development centre in Uithoorn, Netherlands.
IBM Db2 contains database-server products developed by IBM.
IBM Information Management System (IMS) is a joint hierarchical database and information management system with extensive transaction processing capabilities.
PRTV (Peterlee Relational Test Vehicle) was the world's first relational database management system that could handle significant data volumes.
IBM Research is IBM's research and development division.
IBM System R is a database system built as a research project at IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory beginning in 1974.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.
The System/38 was a midrange computer server platform manufactured and sold by the IBM Corporation.
CA IDMS (Integrated Database Management System) is primarily a network model (CODASYL) database management system for mainframes.
An in-memory database (IMDB, also main memory database system or MMDB or memory resident database) is a database management system that primarily relies on main memory for computer data storage.
Information retrieval (IR) is the activity of obtaining information system resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Ingres Database is a commercially supported, open-source SQL relational database management system intended to support large commercial and government applications.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
Integrated Data Store (IDS) was an early network database management system largely used by industry, known for its high performance.
International Computers Limited (ICL) was a large British computer hardware, computer software and computer services company that operated from 1968 until 2002.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Inventory control or stock control can be broadly defined as "the activity of checking a shop’s stock." However, a more focused definition takes into account the more science-based, methodical practice of not only verifying a business' inventory but also focusing on the many related facets of inventory management (such as forecasting future demand) "within an organisation to meet the demand placed upon that business economically." Other facets of inventory control include supply chain management, production control, financial flexibility, and customer satisfaction.
In computer science, an inverted index (also referred to as postings file or inverted file) is an index data structure storing a mapping from content, such as words or numbers, to its locations in a database file, or in a document or a set of documents (named in contrast to a forward index, which maps from documents to content).
In database systems, isolation determines how transaction integrity is visible to other users and systems.
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is an application programming interface (API) for the programming language Java, which defines how a client may access a database.
Johannes Gehrke is a German Computer Scientist and a Technical Fellow in the Enterprise and Devices Group at Microsoft known for his work in database systems, distributed systems, and data mining.
The Journal of Database Management is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering database management.
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
A key–value database, or key–value store, is a data storage paradigm designed for storing, retrieving, and managing associative arrays, a data structure more commonly known today as a dictionary or hash.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
A knowledge base (KB) is a technology used to store complex structured and unstructured information used by a computer system.
Knowledge management (KM) is the process of creating, sharing, using and managing the knowledge and information of an organisation.
Lawrence Joseph Ellison (born August 17, 1944) is an American businessman, entrepreneur, and philanthropist who is co-founder, executive chairman and chief technology officer of Oracle Corporation.
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.
In computer science, a linked list is a linear collection of data elements, whose order is not given by their physical placement in memory.
Logic programming is a type of programming paradigm which is largely based on formal logic.
A logical data model or logical schema is a data model of a specific problem domain expressed independently of a particular database management product or storage technology (physical data model) but in terms of data structures such as relational tables and columns, object-oriented classes, or XML tags.
Lotus 1-2-3 is a discontinued spreadsheet program from Lotus Software (later part of IBM).
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
MarkLogic Corporation is an American software business that develops and provides an enterprise NoSQL database, also named MarkLogic.
In computing, a materialized view is a database object that contains the results of a query.
Memcached (pronunciation: mem-cash-dee, mem-cashed) is a general-purpose distributed memory caching system.
MemSQL is a distributed, in-memory, SQL database management system.
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".
Michael Ralph Stonebraker (born October 11, 1943) is a computer scientist specializing in database research.
The Michigan Terminal System (MTS) is one of the first time-sharing computer operating systems.
The MICRO Relational Database Management System was the first large-scale set-theoretic database management system to be used in production.
Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft.
Middleware in the context of distributed applications is software that provides services beyond those provided by the operating system to enable the various components of a distributed system to communicate and manage data.
Mimer SQL is an SQL-based relational database management system produced by the Swedish company Mimer Information Technology AB (Mimer AB), formerly known as Upright Database Technology AB.
Mobile computing devices (e.g., smartphones and PDAs) store and share data over a mobile network, or a database which is actually stored by the mobile device.
MongoDB is a free and open-source cross-platform document-oriented database program.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
The Multics Relational Data Store, or MRDS for short, was the first commercial relational database management system.
Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.
MultiValue is a type of NoSQL and multidimensional database, typically considered synonymous with PICK, a database originally developed as the Pick operating system.
MySQL ("My S-Q-L") is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS).
A navigational database is a type of database in which records or objects are found primarily by following references from other objects.
IBM Netezza (pronounced ne-teez-a) designs and markets high-performance data warehouse appliances and advanced analytics applications for uses including enterprise data warehousing, business intelligence, predictive analytics and business continuity planning.
The network model is a database model conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships.
NewSQL is a class of modern relational database management systems that seek to provide the same scalable performance of NoSQL systems for online transaction processing (OLTP) read-write workloads while still maintaining the ACID guarantees of a traditional database system.
The Nielsen Corporation, self-referentially known as The Nielsen Company, and formerly known as ACNielsen or AC Nielsen, is a global marketing research firm, with worldwide headquarters in New York City, United States.
A NoSQL (originally referring to "non SQL" or "non relational") database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases.
NuoDB is a database company based in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Object Data Management Group (ODMG) was conceived in the summer of 1991 at a breakfast with object database vendors that was organized by Rick Cattell of Sun Microsystems.
An object database is a database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming.
Object Query Language (OQL) is a query language standard for object-oriented databases modeled after SQL.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
An object-relational database (ORD), or object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), is a database management system (DBMS) similar to a relational database, but with an object-oriented database model: objects, classes and inheritance are directly supported in database schemas and in the query language.
The object-relational impedance mismatch is a set of conceptual and technical difficulties that are often encountered when a relational database management system (RDBMS) is being served by an application program (or multiple application programs) written in an object-oriented programming language or style, particularly because objects or class definitions must be mapped to database tables defined by a relational schema.
Object-relational mapping (ORM, O/RM, and O/R mapping tool) in computer science is a programming technique for converting data between incompatible type systems using object-oriented programming languages.
Online analytical processing, or OLAP, is an approach to answering multi-dimensional analytical (MDA) queries swiftly in computing.
An online encyclopedia is an encyclopedia accessible through the internet, such as Wikipedia.
An open API (often referred to as a public API) is a publicly available application programming interface that provides developers with programmatic access to a proprietary software application or web service.
In computing, Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a standard application programming interface (API) for accessing database management systems (DBMS).
Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Operational database management systems (also referred to as OLTP On Line Transaction Processing databases), are used to update data in real-time.
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.
The Oracle Exadata Database Machine is a combined compute and storage system marketed for running Oracle Database software.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.
A parallel database system seeks to improve performance through parallelization of various operations, such as loading data, building indexes and evaluating queries.
A physical data model (or database design) is a representation of a data design as implemented, or intended to be implemented, in a database management system.
Physical security describes security measures that are designed to deny unauthorized access to facilities, equipment and resources and to protect personnel and property from damage or harm (such as espionage, theft, or terrorist attacks).
In the relational model of databases, a primary key is a specific choice of a minimal set of attributes (columns) that uniquely specify a tuple (row) in a relation (table).
In computing, privilege is defined as the delegation of authority over a computer system.
Most real databases contain data whose correctness is uncertain.
In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed.
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.
QUEL is a relational database query language, based on tuple relational calculus, with some similarities to SQL.
Query languages or data query languages (DQLs) are computer languages used to make queries in databases and information systems.
Query optimization is a function of many relational database management systems.
A query plan (or query execution plan) is an ordered set of steps used to access data in a SQL relational database management system.
A question-focused dataset (QFD) is a subset of data that is derived from one or more parent data sources and substantively transformed in order to answer a specific analytic question or small set of questions.
Raghu Ramakrishnan is a researcher in the areas of database and information management.
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks, originally Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) is a data storage virtualization technology that combines multiple physical disk drive components into one or more logical units for the purposes of data redundancy, performance improvement, or both.
A real-time database is a database system which uses real-time processing to handle workloads whose state is constantly changing.
Record locking is the technique of preventing simultaneous access to data in a database, to prevent inconsistent results.
Redis is an open-source in-memory database project implementing a distributed, in-memory key-value store with optional durability.
Rel is an open source true relational database management system that implements a significant portion of Chris Date and Hugh Darwen's Tutorial D query language.
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.
The relational model (RM) for database management is an approach to managing data using a structure and language consistent with first-order predicate logic, first described in 1969 by Edgar F. Codd, where all data is represented in terms of tuples, grouped into relations.
Riak (pronounced "ree-ack") is a distributed NoSQL key-value data store that offers high availability, fault tolerance, operational simplicity, and scalability.
In the context of a relational database, a row—also called a tuple—represents a single, implicitly structured data item in a table.
San Jose (Spanish for 'Saint Joseph'), officially the City of San José, is an economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California.
Saxon is an XSLT and XQuery processor created by Michael Kay and now developed and maintained by his company, Saxonica.
Scalability is the capability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be enlarged to accommodate that growth.
ScaleBase was a company that sold software to implement distributed MySQL databases for cloud computing.
A semantic data model in software engineering has various meanings.
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
In computer science, shared memory is memory that may be simultaneously accessed by multiple programs with an intent to provide communication among them or avoid redundant copies.
A shared-nothing architecture (SN) is a distributed-computing architecture in which each node is independent and self-sufficient, and there is no single point of contention across the system.
SIGMOD is the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Management of Data, which specializes in large-scale data management problems and databases.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Portability in high-level computer programming is the usability of the same software in different environments.
A spatial database is a database that is optimized for storing and querying data that represents objects defined in a geometric space.
A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form.
SQL (S-Q-L, "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).
SQL/XML or XML-Related Specifications is part 14 of the Structured Query Language (SQL) specification.
In computing, the star schema is the simplest style of data mart schema and is the approach most widely used to develop data warehouses and dimensional data marts.
A sublanguage is a subset of a language.
The ACM Symposium on Principles of Database Systems (PODS) is an international research conference on database theory, and has been held yearly since 1982.
A table is a collection of related data held in a structured format within a database.
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems.
A temporal database stores data relating to time instances.
Teradata Corporation is a provider of database and analytics-related products and services.
A terminology-oriented database or terminology-oriented database management system is a conceptual extension of an object-oriented database.
A time series database (TSDB) is a software system that is optimized for handling time series data, arrays of numbers indexed by time (a datetime or a datetime range).
Total cost of ownership (TCO) is a financial estimate intended to help buyers and owners determine the direct and indirect costs of a product or system.
In the field of databases in computer science, a transaction log (also transaction journal, database log, binary log or audit trail) is a history of actions executed by a database management system used to guarantee ACID properties over crashes or hardware failures.
Transaction processing is information processing in computer science that is divided into individual, indivisible operations called transactions.
A triplestore or RDF store is a purpose-built database for the storage and retrieval of triples through semantic queries.
Tuple calculus is a calculus that was created and introduced by Edgar F. Codd as part of the relational model, in order to provide a declarative database-query language for data manipulation in this data model.
The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".
In transaction processing, databases, and computer networking, the two-phase commit protocol (2PC) is a type of atomic commitment protocol (ACP).
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering, that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system.
The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The Universal Product Code (UPC) is a barcode symbology that is widely used in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, in Europe and other countries for tracking trade items in stores.
The University of Alberta (also known as U of A and UAlberta) is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Unstructured data (or unstructured information) is information that either does not have a pre-defined data model or is not organized in a pre-defined manner.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
VLDB is an annual conference held by the non-profit Very Large Data Base Endowment Inc. The mission of VLDB is to promote and exchange scholarly work in databases and related fields throughout the world.
VoltDB is an in-memory database designed by Michael Stonebraker (who was involved in Ingres and PostgreSQL), Sam Madden, and Daniel Abadi.
Cecil Wayne Ratliff (born 1946) wrote the database program Vulcan.
Wayne State University (WSU) is a public research university located in Detroit, Michigan.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server.
In computer networking, a wire protocol refers to a way of getting data from point to point: A wire protocol is needed if more than one application has to interoperate.
A workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process information.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
An XML database is a data persistence software system that allows data to be specified, and sometimes stored, in XML format.
XQuery (XML Query) is a query and functional programming language that queries and transforms collections of structured and unstructured data, usually in the form of XML, text and with vendor-specific extensions for other data formats (JSON, binary, etc.). The language is developed by the XML Query working group of the W3C.
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