324 relations: A & C Black, A priori and a posteriori, A Treatise of Human Nature, A Treatise of Human Nature (Abstract), A. J. Ayer, Adam Ferguson, Adam Smith, Aesthetics, Against the Current: Essays in the History of Ideas, Age of Enlightenment, Albert Einstein, Alexander Donaldson (bookseller), Alexander Hamilton, Alexander Rosenberg, Alison Gopnik, Allan Gibbard, Allied Publishers, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, Analytic philosophy, Ancient philosophy, Andrew Millar, Anthropic principle, Arnold Vinnius, Arthur Schopenhauer, Ashgate Publishing, Association of ideas, Atheism, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Autonomy, Barry Stroud, BBC, BBC History, Begging the question, Bertrand Russell, Berwickshire, Bristol, Broadview Press, Buddhism, Bundle theory, Buridan's ass, Calton Hill, Cambridge University Press, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Catholic Church, Causality, Chargé d'affaires, Charles Sanders Peirce, Charon, Christine Korsgaard, ..., Church of Scotland, Cicero, Circular reasoning, Classical economics, Classical liberalism, Classical mechanics, Cognitive science, Columbia University Press, Common sense, Compatibilism, Consent of the governed, Consequentialism, Constant conjunction, Contradiction, Counter-Enlightenment, Daniel Dennett, Darwinism, David Hume (advocate), Decentralization, Deism, Deontological ethics, Derek Parfit, Determinism, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, Dichotomy, Dickinson S. Miller, Douglass Adair, Duke University Press, Economist, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, Edmund Husserl, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, Elijah Millgram, Emotivism, Empiricism, Encyclopædia Britannica, Epistemology, Ernest Campbell Mossner, Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary, Ethics, Existence of God, Experience, Expressivism, Fact–value distinction, Federalist No. 10, Feeling, Fideism, Folens (Irish publishers), Fordham University, Four Dissertations, Francis Bacon, Francis Hutcheson (philosopher), Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Frederick Copleston, Free will, Freedom of the press, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Galen Strawson, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Anderson (minister), George Berkeley, George Campbell (minister), George Colebrooke, George Holland Sabine, George Vanden-Bempde, 3rd Marquess of Annandale, Gilles Deleuze, Glorious Revolution, Hans Joas, Heresy in Christianity, Historian, History of science, House of Stuart, Human science, Hume and the Problem of Causation, Hume Studies, Hume's fork, Hume's principle, Humorism, Huntington Library Quarterly, Immanuel Kant, Inductive reasoning, Innatism, Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen, International trade, InterVarsity Press, Isaac de Pinto, Isaac Newton, Isaiah Berlin, Is–ought problem, J. L. Mackie, Jacobite risings, James Boswell, James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, James Giles (philosopher), James Madison, James St Clair, Jean Buridan, Jean Elizabeth Hampton, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jerry Fodor, Johann Friedrich Herbart, Johann Joachim Spalding, Johannes Voet, John Home, John Locke, John Passmore, John Stuart Mill, John Wiley & Sons, Jorge Luis Borges, Joseph Addison, Joseph Butler, Joseph Cropsey, Journal of the History of Ideas, Juvenilia, Karl Popper, Kingdom of Great Britain, La Flèche, Language, Truth, and Logic, Leo Strauss, Liberty, Liberty Fund, List of essayists, List of liberal theorists, Logical equivalence, Logical positivism, Longman, Manchester University Press, Marco Sgarbi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mencius, Mental breakdown, Meta-ethics, Metaphysics, Michael Ignatieff, Mind (journal), Miracle, Monotheism, Moral responsibility, Moral sense theory, Moritz Schlick, National Library of Scotland, Natural law, Natural philosophy, Natural selection, Natural theology, Naturalism (philosophy), Neology, New Town, Edinburgh, Nicolas Malebranche, Non-cognitivism, Norm (philosophy), Norman Kemp Smith, Northwestern University Press, Oberon Books, Of Miracles, Of the Balance of Trade, Old Calton Burial Ground, Old Style and New Style dates, Oliver Goldsmith, Online Books Page, Ontology, Oxford University Press, P. F. Strawson, Palgrave Macmillan, Paranoia, Paris, Paul Krugman, Paul Russell (philosopher), Penguin Books, Penn State University Press, Personal identity, Peter Singer, Philosopher, Philosophical realism, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Philosophy East and West, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of religion, Philosophy of science, Physical law, Political philosophy, Polytheism, Presbyterianism, Princeton University Press, Private property, Problem of induction, Professor of Moral Philosophy (Glasgow), Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Protestantism, Prytanée National Militaire, Puritans, Quasi-realism, Rationalism, Reasons and Persons, Relation of Ideas, Robert Boyle, Roman conquest of Britain, Routledge, Rowman & Littlefield, Royal Mile, Royal Society of Edinburgh, Royalist, Rutgers University, Samuel Johnson, Søren Kierkegaard, Science of man, Scotland, Scots law, Scottish Enlightenment, Scurvy, Semantics, Separation of powers, Simon Blackburn, Skeptical movement, Society of Jesus, Special relativity, Springer Science+Business Media, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Suffrage, SUNY Press, Swiss Armed Forces, Tautology (logic), Taylor & Francis, Teleological argument, The History of England (Hume), The Journal of Philosophy, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, The Missing Shade of Blue, The Poker Club, The Spectator (1711), The Wealth of Nations, Theology, Theory of art, Thomas Cadell (publisher), Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Reid, Thought, Thought: Fordham University Quarterly, Tobias Smollett, Tom Beauchamp, Tory, Tragedy, Turin, University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, University of Edinburgh, University of Glasgow, University of Hawaii Press, University of Illinois Press, University of Leeds, University of Nebraska Press, University of Pennsylvania Press, University of Pittsburgh Press, University of Texas at Austin, University of Toronto Press, University of Virginia, Utilitarianism, Verificationism, Vienna, Virgil, Virtue ethics, Voltaire, Western philosophy, Whigs (British political party), William Cleghorn, William Harvey, William James, William Tait (publisher), Windward Islands, Yale University. 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A & C Black is a British book publishing company, owned since 2002 by Bloomsbury Publishing.
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
A Treatise of Human Nature (1738–40) is a book by Scottish philosopher David Hume, considered by many to be Hume's most important work and one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
An Abstract of a Book lately Published, full title An Abstract of a Book lately Published; Entitled, A Treatise of Human Nature, &c.
Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).
Adam Ferguson, FRSE (Scottish Gaelic: Adhamh MacFhearghais), also known as Ferguson of Raith (1 JulyGregorian Calendar/20 JuneJulian Calendar 1723 – 22 February 1816), was a Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Against the Current: Essays in the History of Ideas (1979) is a collection of essays by 20th century philosopher and historian Isaiah Berlin.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alexander Donaldson (1727 – 11 March 1794) was a Scottish bookseller, publisher, and printer.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Alexander Rosenberg (born 1946) is an American philosopher, and the R. Taylor Cole Professor of Philosophy at Duke University.
Alison Gopnik (born June 16, 1955) is an American professor of psychology and affiliate professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley.
Allan Gibbard (born 1942) is the Richard B. Brandt Distinguished University Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Allied Publishers is an Indian-based academic and literary publishing house, established in 1934 by M. Graham Brash, the Company was acquired by the late Mr.
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a book by the Scottish empiricist philosopher David Hume, published in English in 1748.
An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (EPM) is a book by Scottish enlightenment philosopher David Hume.
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
Andrew Millar (17058 June 1768) was a Scottish publisher in the eighteenth century.
The anthropic principle is a philosophical consideration that observations of the universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it.
Arnold Vinnius (4 January 1588, Monster – 1 September 1657, Leiden) was one of the leading jurists of the 17th century in the Netherlands.
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Association of ideas, or mental association, is a process by which representations arise in consciousness, and also for a principle put forward by an important historical school of thinkers to account generally for the succession of mental phenomena.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Australasian Journal of Philosophy is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of philosophy and "one of the oldest English-language philosophy journals in the world".
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Barry Stroud (born 1935, Toronto) is a Canadian philosopher known for his work on philosophical skepticism, David Hume, and Ludwig Wittgenstein, among other topics.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC History Magazine is a British publication devoted to history articles on both British and world history and are aimed at all levels of knowledge and interest.
Begging the question is a logical fallacy which occurs when an argument's premises assume the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Berwickshire is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area in the Scottish Borders.
Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of 456,000.
Broadview Press is an independent academic publisher that focuses on the humanities.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bundle theory, originated by the 18th century Scottish philosopher David Hume, is the ontological theory about objecthood in which an object consists only of a collection (bundle) of properties, relations or tropes.
Buridan's ass is an illustration of a paradox in philosophy in the conception of free will.
Calton Hill is a hill in central Edinburgh, Scotland, situated beyond the east end of Princes Street and included in the city's UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Canadian Journal of Philosophy is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of philosophy that was established in 1971 by John King-Farlow, Kai Nielsen, T.M. Penelhum, and W.W. Rozeboom.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
A chargé d'affaires, often shortened to chargé (French) and sometimes to charge-D (abbreviated in colloquial English), is a diplomat who heads an embassy in the absence of the ambassador.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
In Greek mythology, Charon or Kharon (Greek Χάρων) is the ferryman of Hades who carries souls of the newly deceased across the rivers Styx and Acheron that divided the world of the living from the world of the dead.
Christine Marion Korsgaard FBA (born April 9, 1952) is an American philosopher and Arthur Kingsley Porter Professor of Philosophy at Harvard University whose main scholarly interests are in moral philosophy and its history; the relation of issues in moral philosophy to issues in metaphysics, the philosophy of mind, and the theory of personal identity; the theory of personal relationships; and in normativity in general.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Circular reasoning (circulus in probando, "circle in proving"; also known as circular logic) is a logical fallacy in which the reasoner begins with what they are trying to end with.
Classical economics or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.
Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by ("common to") nearly all people.
Compatibilism is the belief that free will and determinism are mutually compatible and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent.
In political philosophy, the phrase consent of the governed refers to the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and lawful when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
Constant conjunction is a phrase used in philosophy as a variant or near synonym for causality and induction.
In classical logic, a contradiction consists of a logical incompatibility between two or more propositions.
The Counter-Enlightenment was a term that some 20th-century commentators have used to describe multiple strains of thought that arose in the late-18th and early-19th centuries in opposition to the 18th-century Enlightenment.
Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.
Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
David Hume, Baron Hume of Ninewells FRSE (1757–1838) was a Scottish advocate, judge and legal scholar, whose work on Scots criminal law and Scots private law has had a deep and continuing influence.
Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.
Derek Antony Parfit, FBA (11 December 1942 – 1 January 2017) was a British philosopher who specialised in personal identity, rationality, and ethics.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion is a philosophical work by the Scottish philosopher David Hume.
A dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets).
Dickinson Sargeant Miller (October 7, 1868 – November 13, 1963) worked with many world-renowned philosophers, including William James, George Santayana, John Dewey, Edmund Husserl, and Ludwig Wittgenstein.
Douglass Greybill Adair (March 5, 1912 – May 2, 1968) was an American historian who specialized in intellectual history.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (or;; 8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 16099 December 1674) was an English statesman who served as Lord Chancellor to King Charles II from 1658, two years before the Restoration of the Monarchy, until 1667.
Elijah "Lije" Millgram is an American philosopher.
Emotivism is a meta-ethical view that claims that ethical sentences do not express propositions but emotional attitudes.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ernest Campbell Mossner (October 22, 1907 – August 5, 1986) professor of English at the University of Texas at Austin and biographer of the Scottish philosopher, essayist and historian, David Hume (1711–1776).
Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary (1758) is a two-volume compilation of essays by David Hume.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
The existence of God is a subject of debate in the philosophy of religion and popular culture.
Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
Expressivism in meta-ethics is a theory about the meaning of moral language.
The fact–value distinction is the distinction between things that can be known to be true and things that are the personal preferences of individuals.
Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel.
Fideism is an epistemological theory which maintains that faith is independent of reason, or that reason and faith are hostile to each other and faith is superior at arriving at particular truths (see natural theology).
Folens is a major company in Irish educational publishing.
Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.
Four Dissertations is a collection of four essays by the Scottish enlightenment philosopher David Hume, first published in 1757.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Francis Hutcheson (8 August 1694 – 8 August 1746) was an Irish philosopher born in Ulster to a family of Scottish Presbyterians who became known as one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment.
Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford, KG, PC, PC (Ire) (5 July 1718 – 14 June 1794) was a British courtier and politician.
The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (Frankfurt General Newspaper), abbreviated FAZ, is a centre-right, liberal-conservativeHans Magnus Enzensberger: (in German).
Frederick Charles Copleston, SJ, CBE (10 April 1907 – 3 February 1994) was a Jesuit priest, philosopher, and historian of philosophy, best known for his influential multi-volume A History of Philosophy (1946–74).
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.
Galen John Strawson (born 1952) is a British analytic philosopher and literary critic who works primarily on philosophy of mind, metaphysics (including free will, panpsychism, the mind-body problem, and the self), John Locke, David Hume, Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Anderson (1677–1756) was a prominent Scottish minister during the Enlightenment.
George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
Rev Prof George Campbell DD FRSE (25 December 1719 – 6 April 1796) was a figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, known as a philosopher, minister, and professor of divinity.
Sir George Colebrooke, 2nd Baronet (14 June 1729 – 5 August 1809), of Gatton in Surrey, was an English merchant banker, chairman of the East India Company and Member of Parliament, who bankrupted himself through unwise speculations.
George Holland Sabine (9 December 1880 – 18 January 1961), popularly known as Sabine, was a professor of philosophy, dean of the Graduate School and vice president of Cornell University.
George Vanden Bempde (earlier Johnstone) (29 May 1720 – 29 April 1792), 3rd Marquess of Annandale, succeeded James Johnstone, 2nd Marquess of Annandale on his death in 1730 (but in practice from 1733), and enjoyed that title from then to his own death, whereupon the title became extinct.
Gilles Deleuze (18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1960s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy, literature, film, and fine art.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Hans Joas (born November 27, 1948) is a German sociologist and social theorist.
When heresy is used today with reference to Christianity, it denotes the formal denial or doubt of a core doctrine of the Christian faithJ.D Douglas (ed).
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
Human Science studies the philosophical, biological, social, and cultural aspects of human life.
Hume and the Problem of Causation is a book written by Tom Beauchamp and Alexander Rosenberg, published in 1981 by Oxford University Press.
Hume Studies is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes articles on the philosophical thought of David Hume.
Hume's fork is an explanation, developed by later philosophers, of David Hume's aggressive, 1730s division of "relations of ideas" from "matters of fact and real existence".
Hume's principle or HP—the terms were coined by George Boolos—says that the number of Fs is equal to the number of Gs if and only if there is a one-to-one correspondence (a bijection) between the Fs and the Gs.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Huntington Library Quarterly is an official publication of the Huntington Library.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed.
The Institut für die Wissenschaften vom Menschen (IWM, Institute for Human Sciences) is an independent institute for advanced study in the humanities and social sciences based in Vienna, Austria.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
InterVarsity Press (IVP) was founded in 1947 by InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA as a publisher of evangelical Christian books.
Isaac de Pinto (Amsterdam, 10 April 1717 – 13 August 1787 in the Hague) was a Dutch Jew of Portuguese origin, a merchant/banker, one of the main investors in the Dutch East India Company, a scholar, philosophe and a pre-Keynesian, who concentrated on Jewish emancipation and National Debt.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.
The is–ought problem, as articulated by Scottish philosopher and historian David Hume (1711–76), states that many writers make claims about what ought to be, based on statements about what is.
John Leslie Mackie (25 August 1917 – 12 December 1981) was an Australian philosopher, originally from Sydney.
The Jacobite risings, also known as the Jacobite rebellions or the War of the British Succession, were a series of uprisings, rebellions, and wars in Great Britain and Ireland occurring between 1688 and 1746.
James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (29 October 1740 – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish biographer and diarist, born in Edinburgh.
James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (baptised 25 October 1714; died 26 May 1799), was a Scottish judge, scholar of linguistic evolution, philosopher and deist.
James Giles (born 1958) is a Canadian philosopher and psychologist.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
General The Hon. James St Clair (1688 – 30 November 1762), was a Scottish soldier and Whig politician.
Jean Buridan (Latin: Johannes Buridanus; –) was an influential 14th century French philosopher.
Jean Elizabeth Hampton (June 1, 1954 – April 2, 1996) was an American political philosopher, author of Hobbes and the Social Contract Tradition, Political Philosophy, The Authority of Reason, The Intrinsic Worth of Persons and, with Jeffrie G Murphy, Forgiveness and Mercy.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jerry Alan Fodor (April 22, 1935 – November 29, 2017) was an American philosopher and cognitive scientist.
Johann Friedrich Herbart (4 May 1776 – 14 August 1841) was a German philosopher, psychologist and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline.
Johann Joachim Spalding (1 November 1714 – 25 May 1804) was a German Protestant theologian and philosopher of Scottish ancestry who was a native of Tribsees, Swedish Pomerania.
Johannes Voet (3 October 1647 in Utrecht – 11 September 1713 in Leiden) was a Dutch jurist.
Rev John Home FRSE (13 September 1722 – 4 September 1808) was a Scottish minister, soldier and author.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Passmore AC (9 September 1914 – 25 July 2004) was an Australian philosopher.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish-language literature.
Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essayist, poet, playwright, and politician.
Joseph Butler (18 May 1692 – 16 June 1752) was an English bishop, theologian, apologist, and philosopher.
Joseph Cropsey (New York, August 27, 1919 – Washington, D.C., July 1, 2012) was an American political philosopher and emeritus professor of political science at the University of Chicago, where he was also associate director of the John M. Olin Center for Inquiry into the Theory and Practice of Democracy.
The Journal of the History of Ideas is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering intellectual history and the history of ideas, including the histories of philosophy, literature and the arts, natural and social sciences, religion, and political thought.
Juvenilia are literary, musical or artistic works produced by an author during their youth.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
La Flèche is a town and commune in the French department of Sarthe, in the Pays de la Loire region in the Loire Valley.
Language, Truth, and Logic is a 1936 work of philosophy by Alfred Jules Ayer.
Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
This is a list of essayists—people notable for their essay-writing.
Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment.
In logic, statements p and q are logically equivalent if they have the same logical content.
Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
Marco Sgarbi (14 August 1982) is an Italian philosopher and an intellectual historian.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
A mental breakdown (also known as a nervous breakdown) is an acute, time-limited mental disorder that manifests primarily as severe stress-induced depression, anxiety, Paranoia, or dissociation in a previously functional individual, to the extent that they are no longer able to function on a day-to-day basis until the disorder is resolved.
Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Michael Grant Ignatieff (born May 12, 1947) is a Canadian author, academic and former politician.
Mind is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Mind Association.
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
In philosophy, moral responsibility is the status of morally deserving praise, blame, reward, or punishment for an act or omission, in accordance with one's moral obligations.
Moral sense theory (also known as sentimentalism) is a theory in moral epistemology and meta-ethics concerning the discovery of moral truths.
Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882 – June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher, physicist, and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle.
The National Library of Scotland (Leabharlann Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Naitional Leebrar o Scotland) is the legal deposit library of Scotland and is one of the country's National Collections.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
Neology is the coining of new words, from the Greek root (Neo-: new, and Logos-: the word).
The New Town is a central area of Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland.
Nicolas Malebranche, Oratory of Jesus (6 August 1638 – 13 October 1715), was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher.
Non-cognitivism is the meta-ethical view that ethical sentences do not express propositions (i.e., statements) and thus cannot be true or false (they are not truth-apt).
Norms are concepts (sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express.
Norman Duncan Kemp Smith FRSE (5 May 1872 – 3 September 1958) was a Scottish philosopher who was Professor of Psychology (1906–14) and Philosophy (1914–19) at Princeton University and was Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at the University of Edinburgh (1919–45).
Northwestern University Press is affiliated with Northwestern University in Evanston, IL.
Oberon Books is a London-based independent publisher of drama texts and books on theatre.
"Of Miracles" is the title of Section X of David Hume's An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding (1748).
On the Balance of Trade is an economic text on monetary theory, written by David Hume and published in 1752.
The Old Calton Burial Ground is a graveyard at Calton Hill, in Edinburgh, Scotland, to the north-east of the city centre.
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.
Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1728 – 4 April 1774) was an Irish novelist, playwright and poet, who is best known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770), and his plays The Good-Natur'd Man (1768) and She Stoops to Conquer (1771, first performed in 1773).
The Online Books Page is an index of e-text books available on the Internet.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Sir Peter Frederick Strawson FBA (23 November 1919 – 13 February 2006), usually cited as P. F. Strawson, was an English philosopher.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.
Paul Russell (born 1955) is a professor in philosophy at the University of British Columbia, where he has been teaching since 1987.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Penn State University Press, also called The Pennsylvania State University Press, was established in 1956 and is a non-profit publisher of scholarly books and journals.
In philosophy, the matter of personal identity deals with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time?" or "What kinds of things are we persons?" Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.
Peter Albert David Singer, AC (born 6 July 1946) is an Australian moral philosopher.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (PPR) is a bimonthly philosophy journal founded in 1940.
Philosophy East and West is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering non-Western traditions of philosophy in relation to Anglo-American philosophy, integrating the discipline with literature, science, and social practices.
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
The problem of induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic philosophical sense, highlighting the apparent lack of justification for.
The Chair of Moral Philosophy is a professorship at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, which was established in 1727.
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Present Itself as a Science (Prolegomena zu einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik, die als Wissenschaft wird auftreten können) is a book by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, published in 1783, two years after the first edition of his Critique of Pure Reason.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Prytanée National Militaire, originally Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand or Collège Henri-IV de La Flèche, is a French school managed by the military, offering regular secondary education as well as special preparatory classes, equivalent in level to the first years of university, for students who wish to enter French military academies.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Quasi-realism is the meta-ethical view which claims that.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Reasons and Persons is a 1984 philosophical work by Derek Parfit, in which the author discusses ethics, rationality and personal identity.
In philosophy, a relation is a type of fact that is true or false of two things.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Royal Mile (Ryal Mile) is the name given to a succession of streets forming the main thoroughfare of the Old Town of the city of Edinburgh in Scotland.
The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters.
A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim.
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
The science of man (or the science of human nature) is a topic in David Hume's 18th century experimental philosophy A Treatise of Human Nature (1739).
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scots law is the legal system of Scotland.
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Simon Blackburn (born 12 July 1944) is an English academic philosopher known for his work in metaethics, where he defends quasi-realism, and in the philosophy of language; more recently, he has gained a large general audience from his efforts to popularise philosophy.
The skeptical movement (also spelled sceptical) is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism (also called rational skepticism).
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
The Swiss Armed Forces (German: Schweizer Armee, French: Armée suisse, Italian: Esercito svizzero, Romanisch: Armada svizra) operates on land, in the air, and in international waters.
In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world.
The History of England (1754–61) is David Hume's great work on the history of England, which he wrote in installments while he was librarian to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh.
The Journal of Philosophy is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal on philosophy, founded in 1904 at Columbia University.
The Logic of Scientific Discovery is a 1959 book about the philosophy of science by Karl Popper.
"The Missing Shade of Blue" is an example introduced by the Scottish philosopher David Hume to show that it is at least conceivable that the mind can generate an idea without first being exposed to the relevant sensory experience.
The Poker Club was one of several clubs at the heart of the Scottish Enlightenment where many associated with that movement met and exchanged views in a convivial atmosphere.
The Spectator was a daily publication founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele in England, lasting from 1711 to 1712.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
At the broadest level, a theory of art aims to shed light on some aspect of the project of defining art or to theorize about the structure of our concept of ‘art’ without providing classical definitions, namely definitions formulated in terms of “necessary and sufficient” conditions.
Thomas Cadell (1742–1802) was a successful 18th-century English bookseller who published works by some of the most famous writers of the 18th century.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas Reid DD FRSE (26 April 1710 – 7 October 1796) was a religiously-trained British philosopher, a contemporary of David Hume as well as "Hume's earliest and fiercest critic".
Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.
Thought: Fordham University Quarterly was a peer-reviewed academic journal that published articles and reviews on a broad range of topics in the Catholic tradition.
Tobias George Smollett (19 March 1721 – 17 September 1771) was a Scottish poet and author.
Tom L. Beauchamp is an American philosopher specializing in philosophy of David Hume, moral philosophy, bioethics, and animal ethics.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.
The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.
The University of Illinois Press (UIP) is a major American university press and is part of the University of Illinois system.
The University of Leeds is a Russell Group university in Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The University of Pittsburgh Press is a scholarly publishing house and a major American university press, part of the University of Pittsburgh.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Verificationism, also known as the verification idea or the verifiability criterion of meaning, is the philosophical doctrine that only statements that are empirically verifiable (i.e. verifiable through the senses) are cognitively meaningful, or else they are truths of logic (tautologies).
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Virtue ethics (or aretaic ethics, from Greek ἀρετή (arete)) are normative ethical theories which emphasize virtues of mind and character.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
William Cleghorn (1718 – August 1754) was a British philosopher.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.
William Tait (1793 – 1864) was a Scottish publisher, best known for Tait's Magazine.
The Windward Islands are the southern, generally larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.