390 relations: A. Powell Davies, ABC News, Accordance, Achaemenid Empire, Agence France-Presse, Aharon Barak, Al Jazeera, Aleppo Codex, Alexander Jannaeus, Alpa, American Colony, Jerusalem, American Schools of Oriental Research, Ancient Hebrew writings, Apocalypse, Arab Legion, Arabic, Aramaic alphabet, Aramaic Enoch Scroll, Aramaic language, Archaeology, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Ashland Theological Seminary, Ashuri, Australia, Azusa Pacific University, École Biblique, Bank vault, Barbara Thiering, Barkhi Nafshi, Bedouin, Beirut, Benjamin Mazar, Bethlehem, Biblical Archaeology Society, Biblical Hebrew, Biblical manuscript, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Book of Baruch, Book of Daniel, Book of Deuteronomy, Book of Enoch, Book of Esther, Book of Exodus, Book of Ezekiel, Book of Genesis, Book of Habakkuk, Book of Isaiah, Book of Jeremiah, Book of Job, Book of Joshua, ..., Book of Jubilees, Book of Judges, Book of Lamentations, Book of Leviticus, Book of Numbers, Book of Ruth, Book of Tobit, Books of Kings, Books of Samuel, Boston, Brazil, British Museum, British Museum leather dressing, Bronze, Cairo Geniza, Calf, California, California Science Center, Canadian Museum of History, Capra (genus), Catholic Bible, Cave, Charlotte, North Carolina, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cinnabar, Cipher, Cologne, Common Era, Community Rule, Computer program, Concordance (publishing), Consistency, Copper, Copper Scroll, Copyright, Craig A. Evans, Cyclotron, Dalia Dorner, Damascus Document, David Nimmer, Dead Sea, Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times, Department of Antiquities (Jordan), Deuterocanonical books, Development of the Hebrew Bible canon, Development of the Old Testament canon, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, Discovery Place, DNA, Dominique Barthélemy, Donald W. Parry, Early Christianity, Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible, Ebionites, Ecclesiastes, Egypt, Ein Gedi, Eleazar Sukenik, Elisha Qimron, Emanuel Tov, En-Gedi Scroll, Encryption, England, Eschatology, Essenes, Eugene Ulrich, Exposure (photography), Falsifiability, Field Museum of Natural History, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, First Jewish–Roman War, France, Frank Moore Cross, Franklin Institute, Gazelle, Géza Vermes, Genesis Apocryphon, Genizah, Gerald Lankester Harding, Germany, Glasgow, Gnostic Society, Goat, Google, Gospel of Mark, Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Green Collection, Habakkuk Commentary, Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, Hasmonean dynasty, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hellenistic period, Hershel Shanks, Hide (skin), Houston, Houston Museum of Natural Science, Huntington Library, Hyrcania (fortress), Illinois, Infrared photography, Isaiah Scroll, Israel, Israel Antiquities Authority, Israel Museum, Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, James A. Sanders, James E. Bowley, James M. Robinson, James, brother of Jesus, Józef Milik, Jerusalem, Jewish history, Jewish Museum (Manhattan), Jewish religious movements, Jews, John C. Trever, John Hyrcanus, John M. Allegro, John Strugnell, Jordan, Jordan Archaeological Museum, Jordan Lead Codices, Jordan River, José O'Callaghan Martínez, Josephus, Judaean Desert, Judaism, Judeo-Christian, Kansas City Union Station, Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Ketef Hinnom, Kilometre, Koine Greek, Lanier Theological Library, Latin, Lawrence Schiffman, Leaf (Israeli company), Lebanon, Letter of Jeremiah, Lewis Larsson, Library of Congress, Liquid crystal tunable filter, Logos Bible Software, London, Los Angeles, Manila folder, Manuscript, Mar Samuel, Martin Abegg, Masada, Masoretic Text, Melchizedek, Metropolitan bishop, Mezuzah, Michigan, Mikveh, Mildew, Millar Burrows, Minnesota, Monastery of Saint Mark, Jerusalem, Morphology (linguistics), Multispectral image, Museum of Science (Boston), Museum of the Bible, Nabataean alphabet, Nabataean Aramaic, Nag Hammadi library, Nahman Avigad, Nahum Commentary, Najib Albina, NASA, Nash Papyrus, National Museum of Brazil, National Museum of Natural History, Nazarene (sect), New Jerusalem Dead Sea Scroll, New Testament, New York (state), New York City, New York Public Library, Norman Golb, North Carolina, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, Oil lamp, Old Testament, Olive Tree Bible Software, Ostracon, Ottoman Bank, Ovid R. Sellers, Oxford University Press, Oxyrhynchus Papyri, Pacific Science Center, Palaeography, Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, Palestinian National Authority, Papyrus, Parchment, Paul the Apostle, Pennsylvania, Pesher, Pesher on Genesis, Philadelphia, Philip R. Davies, Pixel, Pliny the Elder, Preservation (library and archival science), Priestly Blessing, Protocanonical books, Provenance, Psalm 151, Psalms, Psalms 152–155, Purim, Qimron v. Shanks, Qumran, Qumran Caves, Radiocarbon dating, Raleigh, North Carolina, Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls, Reed pen, Rio de Janeiro, Robert Eisenman, Rockefeller Museum, Roland de Vaux, Roman Empire, Romano-Germanic Museum, Royal Ontario Museum, Sadducees, Samaritan Pentateuch, San Diego, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Francisco, San Marino, California, São Paulo, Schøyen Collection, Science Museum of Minnesota, Scriptorium, Scroll, Seattle, Second Temple Judaism, Second Temple period, Sect, Sectarianism, Septuagint, Shrine of the Book, Sicarii, Sicily, Sirach, Six-Day War, Smithsonian Institution, Society of Jesus, Solander box, Son of God, Song of Songs, Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Spain, St. Gallen, Suez Crisis, Supreme Court of Israel, Switzerland, Sydney, Syriac Orthodox Church, Syrians, Tanakh, Targum, Teacher of Righteousness, Tefillin, Temple in Jerusalem, Temple Scroll, Testament of Qahat, Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Tetragrammaton, Texas, Thanksgiving Hymns, The Book of Giants, The Book of Mysteries, The Guardian, The Jordan Museum, The Rule of the Blessing, The Seattle Times, The Wall Street Journal, Theodor Gaster, Tin, Toronto, Trinity Western University, Twelve Minor Prophets, Uncial script, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, United States, University of California, Davis, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Chicago, University of Chicago Oriental Institute, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Vatican City, Vatican Library, Vellum, Waldorf Astoria New York, War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, Washington, D.C., West Bank, William Andrew Moffett, William John Cox, X-ray, X-ray fluorescence, Yahoo! News, Yigael Yadin, Yizhar Hirschfeld, Zealots, 11Q13, 11Q18 New Jerusalem, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1QIsab, 4Q106, 4Q107, 4Q108, 4Q120, 4Q175, 4Q240, 4Q246, 4Q41, 4Q448, 4Q510-511, 4Q521, 4QInstruction, 4QMMT, 6Q6, 7Q5. Expand index (340 more) » « Shrink index
Arthur Powell Davies (June 5, 1902 – September 26, 1957) was the minister of All Souls Church, Unitarian in Washington, D.C. from 1943 until his death in 1957.
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Accordance is a Bible study program for Apple Macintosh and iPhone, and now Windows and Android, developed by OakTree Software, Inc.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Aharon Barak (אהרן ברק, born Aharon Brick, 16 September 1936) is a Professor of Law at the Interdisciplinary Center in Herzliya and a lecturer in law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Yale Law School, Central European University, Georgetown University Law Center, and the University of Toronto Faculty of Law.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
The Aleppo Codex (כֶּתֶר אֲרָם צוֹבָא Keter Aram Tzova or Crown of Aleppo) is a medieval bound manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.
Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai; יהונתן "ינאי" אלכסנדר, born Jonathan Alexander) was the second Hasmonean king of Judaea from 103 to 76 BC.
Alpa was formerly a Swiss camera design company and manufacturer of 35 mm SLR cameras.
The American Colony was a colony established in Jerusalem in 1881 by members of a Christian utopian society led by Anna and Horatio Spafford.
The American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR), founded in 1900 as the American School of Oriental Study and Research in Palestine, supports and encourages the study of the peoples and cultures of the Near East, from the earliest times to the present.
This is a part of Hebrew literature The earliest known inscription in Hebrew is the Khirbet Qeiyafa Inscription (11th — 10th century BCE), if it can indeed be considered Hebrew at that early a stage.
An apocalypse (Ancient Greek: ἀποκάλυψις apokálypsis, from ἀπό and καλύπτω, literally meaning "an uncovering") is a disclosure of knowledge or revelation.
The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
The Aramaic Enoch Scroll is a non-published, complete copy of the Book of Enoch that is rumored to be in the possession of private investors.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW), located in The Domain in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, is the most important public gallery in Sydney and one of the largest in Australia.
Ashland Theological Seminary (ATS) is an evangelical seminary located in Ashland, Ohio, with siteslocated in Cleveland, OH, Columbus, OH, and Detroit, MI.
Ashuri refers to the Assyrian language and script mentioned in the Tractate Megillah and the Talmud Bavli.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Azusa Pacific University (APU) is a private, evangelical Christian university in Azusa, California.
The École biblique et archéologique française de Jérusalem, commonly known as École Biblique, is a French academic establishment in Jerusalem, founded by Dominicans, and specialising in archaeology and Biblical exegesis.
A bank vault is a secure space where money, valuables, records, and documents are stored.
Barbara Elizabeth Thiering (15 November 193016 November 2015) was an Australian historian, theologian, and Biblical exegete specialising in the origins of the early Christian Church.
4Q Barkhi Nafshi (Hebrew "Bless Oh My Soul") is a Second Temple period Jewish work found at Qumran.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
Benjamin Mazar (בנימין מזר; born Binyamin Zeev Maisler, June 28, 1906 – September 9, 1995) was a pioneering Israeli historian, recognized as the "dean" of biblical archaeologists.
Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.
The Biblical Archaeology Society is a non-denominational organization that supports and promotes biblical archaeology.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible.
The (BnF, English: National Library of France) is the national library of France, located in Paris.
The Book of Baruch, occasionally referred to as 1 Baruch, is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible in some Christian traditions.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law," from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Torah (a section of the Hebrew Bible) and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch; Ge'ez: መጽሐፈ ሄኖክ mets’iḥāfe hēnoki) is an ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah.
The Book of Esther, also known in Hebrew as "the Scroll" (Megillah), is a book in the third section (Ketuvim, "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Book of Habakkuk is the eighth book of the 12 minor prophets of the Bible.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
The Book of Joshua (ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile.
The Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the Book of Division (Ge'ez: መጽሃፈ ኩፋሌ Mets'hafe Kufale).
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Lamentations (אֵיכָה, ‘Êykhôh, from its incipit meaning "how") is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of Jerusalem.
The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament.
The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, Arithmoi; בְּמִדְבַּר, Bəmiḏbar, "In the desert ") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.
The Book of Ruth (מגילת רות, Ashkenazi pronunciation:, Megilath Ruth, "the Scroll of Ruth", one of the Five Megillot) is included in the third division, or the Writings (Ketuvim), of the Hebrew Bible; in most Christian canons it is treated as a history book and placed between Judges and 1 Samuel, as it is set "in the days when the judges judged", although the Syriac Christian tradition places it later, between Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs.
The Book of Tobit is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canons, pronounced canonical by the Council of Hippo (in 393), Councils of Carthage of 397 and 417, Council of Florence (in 1442) and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the Council of Trent (1546).
The two Books of Kings, originally a single book, are the eleventh and twelfth books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
The Books of Samuel, 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
British Museum leather dressing has been used by many conservators since its publication(Plenderleith, 1946) to protect and conserve leather.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Cairo Genizah, alternatively spelled Geniza, is a collection of some 300,000 Jewish manuscript fragments that were found in the genizah or storeroom of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Fustat or Old Cairo, Egypt.
A calf (plural, calves) is the young of domestic cattle.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California Science Center (sometimes spelled California ScienCenter) is a state agency and museum located in Exposition Park, Los Angeles, next to the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County and the University of Southern California.
The Canadian Museum of History (Musée canadien de l’histoire), formerly the Canadian Museum of Civilization (Musée canadien des civilisations), is Canada's national museum of human history.
Capra is a genus of mammals, the goats, composed of up to nine species, including the wild goat, the markhor, and several species known as ibex.
The Catholic Bible is the Bible comprising the whole 73-book canon recognized by the Catholic Church, including the deuterocanonical books.
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural space large enough for a human to enter.
Charlotte is the most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Cinnabar and cinnabarite, likely deriving from the κιννάβαρι (kinnabari), refer to the common bright scarlet to brick-red form of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) that is the most common source ore for refining elemental mercury, and is the historic source for the brilliant red or scarlet pigment termed vermilion and associated red mercury pigments.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Community Rule (סרך היחד, Serekh haYahad), which is designated 1QS and was previously referred to as the Manual of Discipline, is one of the first scrolls to be discovered near khirbet (ruin of) Qumran, the scrolls found in the eleven caves between 1947 and 1954 are now referred to simply as the Dead Sea Scrolls.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
A concordance is an alphabetical list of the principal words used in a book or body of work, listing every instance of each word with its immediate context.
In classical deductive logic, a consistent theory is one that does not contain a contradiction.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The Copper Scroll (3Q15) is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found in Cave 3 near Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
Craig Alan Evans (born January 21, 1952) is an evangelical New Testament scholar and author.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
Dalia Dorner (Hebrew: דליה דורנר; born March 3, 1934) was a Justice of the Supreme Court of Israel from 1993 to 2004.
The Damascus Document (the Cairo Damascus document, CD) or Damascus Rule is one of the most interesting texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls because it is the only Qumran work discovered in the first cave's scrolls that was known before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
David Nimmer is an American lawyer, law professor, renowned as an expert in United States copyright law.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
Dead Sea Scrolls: Life and Faith in Ancient Times, also known as Dead Sea Scrolls: The Exhibition, is a travelling exhibition of artifacts from the ancient Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, including a select number of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Department of Antiquities is a government department in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan with responsibility for archaeological research and cultural heritage management.
The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") is a term adopted in the 16th century by the Roman Catholic Church to denote those books and passages of the Christian Old Testament, as defined in 1546 by the Council of Trent, that were not found in the Hebrew Bible.
Rabbinic Judaism recognizes the 24 books of the Masoretic Text, commonly called the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, as authoritative.
The Old Testament is the first section of the two-part Christian Biblical canon; the second section is the New Testament.
Discoveries in the Judaean Desert (or DJD) is the 40-volume series that serves as the editio princeps for the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Discovery Place Science is a science and technology museum for visitors of all ages located in the Uptown area of Charlotte, North Carolina.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dominique Barthelemy (16 May 1921, Pallet—10 February 2002, Freiburg), was a French Dominican priest and biblical scholar.
Donald W. Parry Ph.D. is a professor of Hebrew Bible in the Department of Asian and Near Eastern Languages at Brigham Young University. He holds the Abraham O. Smoot Professorship. He is the author and editor of many works related to the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Old Testament. He has been a member of the International Team of Translators of the Dead Sea Scrolls since January 1994. He also serves as a member of the Dead Sea Scrolls Foundation Board of Advisors, 2008–present.BYU Faculty Bio.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bible (EOB) is an English language edition of the Bible published and controlled by Greek Orthodox Christians with limited copyright control and within a collaborative framework.
Ebionites (Ἐβιωναῖοι Ebionaioi, derived from Hebrew אביונים ebyonim, ebionim, meaning "the poor" or "poor ones") is a patristic term referring to a Jewish Christian movement that existed during the early centuries of the Christian Era.
Ecclesiastes (Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, Ekklēsiastēs, קֹהֶלֶת, qōheleṯ) is one of 24 books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, where it is classified as one of the Ketuvim (or "Writings").
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Ein Gedi (עֵין גֶּדִי, ‘ayn jady), literally "spring of the kid (young goat)" is an oasis and a nature reserve in Israel, located west of the Dead Sea, near Masada and the Qumran Caves.
Eleazar Lipa Sukenik (12 August 1889, Białystok – 28 February 1953, Jerusalem) was an Israeli archaeologist and professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Elisha Qimron is an academic in the study of ancient Hebrew, in which he took his PhD in 1976 at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, writing his dissertation on The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Currently, he is a professor in the Department of Hebrew Language at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel.
Emanuel Tov (עמנואל טוב; born September 15, 1941, Amsterdam, Netherlands) is emeritus Professor in the Department of Bible at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
The En-Gedi Scroll is an ancient and fragile Hebrew parchment found in 1970 at Ein Gedi, Israel.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
The Essenes (Modern Hebrew:, Isiyim; Greek: Ἐσσηνοί, Ἐσσαῖοι, or Ὀσσαῖοι, Essenoi, Essaioi, Ossaioi) were a sect of Second Temple Judaism which flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD.
Eugene Charles Ulrich (born November 5, 1938) is a U.S. doctor and the John A. O'Brien Professor of Hebrew Scripture and Theology in the Department of Theology at the University of Notre Dame.
In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film or electronic image sensor, as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.
The Field Museum of Natural History, also known as The Field Museum, is a natural history museum in the city of Chicago, and is one of the largest such museums in the world.
The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, comprising the de Young Museum in Golden Gate Park and the Legion of Honor in Lincoln Park, is the largest public arts institution in the city of San Francisco and one of the largest art museums in California, United States.
The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 AD), sometimes called the Great Revolt (המרד הגדול), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews against the Roman Empire, fought in the Eastern Mediterranean.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frank Moore Cross, Jr. (July 13, 1921 – October 16, 2012) was the Hancock Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages Emeritus at Harvard University, notable for his work in the interpretation of the Dead Sea Scrolls, his 1973 magnum opus Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, and his work in Northwest Semitic epigraphy.
The Franklin Institute is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella or formerly considered to belong to it.
Géza Vermes, (22 June 1924 – 8 May 2013) was a British scholar of Hungarian Jewish origin—one who also served as a Catholic priest in his youth—and writer on religious history, particularly Jewish and Christian.
The Genesis Apocryphon (1Q20), also called the Tales of the Patriarchs or the Apocalypse of Lamech and labeled 1QapGen, is one of the original seven Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in 1946 by Bedouin shepherds in Cave 1 near Qumran, a city in the northwest corner of the Dead Sea.
A genizah (or geniza; Hebrew: "storage"; plural: genizot or genizoth or genizahs) is a storage area in a Jewish synagogue or cemetery designated for the temporary storage of worn-out Hebrew-language books and papers on religious topics prior to proper cemetery burial.
Gerald Lankester Harding (8 December 1901 – 11 February 1979) was a British archaeologist who was the Director of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan from 1936–1956.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
The Gnostic Society is an organization founded in Los Angeles in 1928, and incorporated in 1939, by John Morgan Pryse (1863-1952) and his brother James Morgan Pryse (1859-1942) for studies of Gnosticism.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels.
The Grand Rapids Public Museum, located in Grand Rapids, Michigan, is among the oldest history museums in the United States.
Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan, and the largest city in West Michigan.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Green Collection is the one of the world's largest private collection of rare biblical texts and artifacts, made up of more than 40,000 biblical antiquities assembled by the Green family, founders of national retail chain Hobby Lobby.
The Habakkuk Commentary or Pesher Habakkuk, labelled 1QpHab (Cave 1, Qumran, pesher, Habakkuk) was among the original seven Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in 1947 and published in 1951.
The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict is the first international treaty that focuses exclusively on the protection of cultural property in armed conflict. It was signed at The Hague, Netherlands on 14 May 1954 and entered into force on 7 August 1956. As of June 2018, it has been ratified by 132 states. The provisions of the 1954 Convention were supplemented and clarified by two protocols concluded in 1954 and 1999. All three agreements are part of International Humanitarian Law, which, in the form of further agreements, primarily includes provisions defining the permissible means and methods of warfare and aiming at the widest possible protection of persons not involved in the fighting. In contrast to these parts of International Humanitarian Law, the agreements on the protection of cultural property were drawn up under the auspices of the United Nations (UN); the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is primarily responsible for the dissemination and monitoring of compliance. In addition to rules designed to ensure the protection and respect of cultural property during an armed conflict, these agreements also provide for security measures to be implemented in times of peace. As of June 2018, 132 states are party to the Hague Convention of 1954, 109 and 77 states respectively have acceded to the Protocols of 1954 and 1999. Blue Shield International, based in The Hague, is active in the field of international coordination with regard to military and civil structures for the protection of cultural assets. The guiding principles of the Convention and the motivation for its conclusion, dissemination and respect are summarised in the preamble, which states, among other things, "... that any damage to cultural property, irrespective of the people it belongs to, is a damage to the cultural heritage of all humanity, because every people contributes to the world's culture...".
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (also known as HUC, HUC-JIR, and The College-Institute) is a Jewish seminary with several locations in the United States and one location in Jerusalem.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hershel Shanks (born March 8, 1930, in Sharon, Pennsylvania, U.S.) is the American founder of the Biblical Archaeology Society and the Editor Emeritus of the Biblical Archaeology Review.
A hide or skin is an animal skin treated for human use.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
The Houston Museum of Natural Science (abbreviated as HMNS) is a science museum located on the northern border of Hermann Park in Houston, Texas, United States.
The Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens (or The Huntington) is a collections-based educational and research institution established by Henry E. Huntington (1850–1927) and located in Los Angeles County in San Marino, California.
Hyrcania (Ὑρκανία; Arabic: Khirbet el-Mird) was an ancient fortress in the Judean Desert.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range.
The Isaiah Scroll, designated 1Qlsaa,and also known as the Great Isaiah Scroll, is one of the seven Dead Sea Scrolls that were first recovered by Bedouin shepherds in 1947 from Qumran Cave 1.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA, רשות העתיקות rashut ha-'atiqot; داﺌرة الآثار, before 1990, the Israel Department of Antiquities) is an independent Israeli governmental authority responsible for enforcing the 1978 Law of Antiquities.
The Israel Museum (מוזיאון ישראל, Muze'on Yisrael) was established in 1965 as Israel's national museum.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
The Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN; "National Institute for Nuclear Physics") is the coordinating institution for nuclear, particle and astroparticle physics in Italy.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
James A. Sanders (born 28 November 1927 in Memphis, Tennessee) is an American scholar of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible and one of the Dead Sea Scrolls editors.
James E. Bowley is Chair and Professor of Religious Studies at Millsaps College.
James McConkey Robinson (June 30, 1924 – March 22, 2016) was an American scholar who served as Professor Emeritus of Religion at Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California.
James the Just, or a variation of James, brother of the Lord, (יעקב Ya'akov; Ἰάκωβος Iákōbos, can also be Anglicized as Jacob), was an early leader of the so-called Jerusalem Church of the Apostolic Age, to which Paul was also affiliated.
Józef Tadeusz Milik (Seroczyn, Poland, March 24, 1922 – Paris, January 6, 2006) was a Polish biblical scholar and a Catholic priest, well-known researcher of the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) through the deserts of Judea/Jordana, and translator and editor of Enoch book in Aramaic (fragments).
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.
The Jewish Museum is an art museum and repository of cultural artifacts, housed at 1109 Fifth Avenue, in the former Felix M. Warburg House, along the Museum Mile in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City.
Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John C. Trever (November 26, 1916 - April 29, 2006, California) was a Biblical scholar and archaeologist, who was involved in the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
John Hyrcanus (Yōḥānān Hurqanōs; Ἰωάννης Ὑρκανός Iōánnēs Urkanós) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader and Jewish high priest of the 2nd century BCE (born 164 BCE, reigned from 134 BCE until his death in 104 BCE).
John Marco Allegro (17 February 1923 – 17 February 1988) was an English archaeologist and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar.
John Strugnell (May 25, 1930 – November 30, 2007) was born in Barnet, Hertfordshire, UK.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Jordan Archaeological Museum is located in the Amman Citadel of Amman, Jordan.
The Jordan Lead Codices, (or the Jordanian Codices), are a collection of codices allegedly found in a cave in Jordan and first publicized in March 2011.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
The Judaean Desert or Judean Desert (מִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה Midbar Yehuda, both Desert of Judah or Judaean Desert; صحراء يهودا Sahara Yahudan) is a desert in Israel and the West Bank that lies east of Jerusalem and descends to the Dead Sea.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judeo-Christian is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity's derivation from Judaism, both religions common use of the Torah, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has contained as part of Western culture.
Kansas City Union Station (station code: KCY) is a union station opened in 1914, serving Kansas City, Missouri, and the surrounding metropolitan area.
The Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow, Scotland.
Ketef Hinnom (כָּתֵף הִינוֹם, "shoulder of Hinnom") is an archaeological site southwest of the Old City of Jerusalem, adjacent to St. Andrew's Church, now on the grounds of the Menachem Begin Heritage Center.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
Lanier Theological Library (LTL) is a 17,000 sq.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lawrence H. Schiffman (born 1948) is a professor at New York University (as of 2014); he was formerly Vice-Provost of Undergraduate Education at Yeshiva University and Professor of Jewish Studies (from early 2011 to 2014).
Leaf, previously a division of Scitex and later Kodak, is now a subsidiary of Phase One.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Letter of Jeremiah, also known as the Epistle of Jeremiah, is a deuterocanonical book of the Old Testament; this letter purports to have been written by Jeremiah to the Jews who were about to be carried away as captives to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.
Lewis Larsson (1881 - 1958), was born Hol Lars Larsson in Nås, Sweden, and served as the de facto head of the Photographic Department of the American Colony in Jerusalem, Palestine.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTFs) are optical filters that use electronically controlled liquid crystal (LC) elements to transmit a selectable wavelength of light and exclude others.
Logos Bible Software is a digital library application designed for electronic Bible study.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The manila folder is a file folder designed to contain documents.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Metropolitan Athanasius Yeshue Samuel (1909-1995), more often referred to as Mar Samuel, was a Metropolitan and Archbishop of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, as well as a central figure in the discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls.
Martin G. Abegg, Jr. (b. 1950) is a notable Dead Sea Scrolls scholar, researcher, and professor.
Masada (מצדה, "fortress") is an ancient fortification in the Southern District of Israel situated on top of an isolated rock plateau, akin to a mesa.
The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.
Melchizedek, Melkisetek, or Malki Tzedek (Hebrew: malkī-ṣeḏeq, "king of righteousness"; Amharic: መልከ ጼዴቅ malkī-ṣeḏeq; Armenian: Մելքիսեդեք, Melkisetek), was the king of Salem and priest of El Elyon ("God most high") mentioned in the 14th chapter of the Book of Genesis.
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.
A mezuzah (מְזוּזָה "doorpost"; plural: mezuzot) comprises a piece of parchment called a klaf contained in a decorative case and inscribed with specific Hebrew verses from the Torah (and). These verses consist of the Jewish prayer Shema Yisrael, beginning with the phrase: "Hear, O Israel, the (is) our God, the is One".
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
Mikveh or mikvah (mikva'ot, mikvoth, mikvot, or (Yiddish) mikves, "a collection") is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism to achieve ritual purity.
Mildew is a form of fungus.
Millar Burrows (Wyoming, Ohio, October 26, 1889 – April 29, 1980) was an American biblical scholar, a leading authority on the Dead Sea scrolls and professor emeritus at Yale Divinity School.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
Saint Mark's Syrian Orthodox Monastery is a Syriac Orthodox monastery and church in Jerusalem.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
A multispectral image is one that captures image data within specific wavelength ranges across the electromagnetic spectrum.
The Museum of Science (MoS) is a science museum and indoor zoo in Boston, Massachusetts, located in Science Park, a plot of land spanning the Charles River.
The Museum of the Bible is a museum in Washington D.C. which documents the narrative, history and impact of the Bible.
The Nabataean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabataeans in the 2nd century BC.
Nabataean Aramaic was the Western Aramaic variety used in inscriptions by the Nabataeans of the Negev, the east bank of the Jordan River and the Sinai Peninsula.
The Nag Hammadi library (also known as the "Chenoboskion Manuscripts" and the "Gnostic Gospels") is a collection of early Christian and Gnostic texts discovered near the Upper Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945.
Nahman Avigad (Hebrew: נחמן אביגד, September 25, 1905 – January 28, 1992), born in Zawalow, Galicia (then Austria, now Zavaliv, Ukraine), was an Israeli archaeologist.
The Nahum Commentary or Pesher Nahum, labelled 4QpNah (Cave 4, Qumran, pesher, Nahum) was among the Dead Sea Scrolls in cave 4 of Qumran that was discovered in August 1952.
Najib Anton Albina (2 January 1901 – 23 July 1983) was the master photographer of the Palestine Archaeological Museum and, in that position, took the first original sets of photographs of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The Nash Papyrus is a collection of four papyrus fragments acquired in Egypt in 1898 by W. L. Nash, the secretary of the Society of Biblical Archaeology.
The National Museum (Museu Nacional) is the oldest scientific institution of Brazil and one of the largest museums of natural history and anthropology in the Americas.
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.
The Nazarenes originated as a sect of first-century Judaism.
Discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls near Qumran, Israel, were fragments of a scroll which describes New Jerusalem in minute detail.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Public Library (NYPL) is a public library system in New York City.
Norman Golb (born 1928) is the Ludwig Rosenberger Professor in Jewish History and Civilization at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences (NCMNS) is located in Raleigh, North Carolina.
An oil lamp is an object used to produce light continuously for a period of time using an oil-based fuel source.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Olive Tree Bible Software creates Biblical software and mobile apps, and is an electronic publisher of Bible versions, study tools, Bible study tools, and Christian eBooks for mobile, tablet, and desktop devices.
An ostracon (Greek: ὄστρακον ostrakon, plural ὄστρακα ostraka) is a piece of pottery, usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel.
The Ottoman Bank (Osmanlı Bankası) (formerly Imperial Ottoman Bank, Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane) was founded in 1856 in the Galata business section of Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, as a joint venture between British interests, the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas of France, and the Ottoman government.
Ovid Rogers Sellers (August 12, 1884 – July 7, 1975) was an internationally known Old Testament scholar and archaeologist who played a role in the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Oxyrhynchus Papyri are a group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by papyrologists Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus in Egypt (modern el-Bahnasa).
Pacific Science Center is an independent, non-profit science center in Seattle, Washington with a mission to ignite curiosity and fuel a passion for discovery, experimentation, and critical thinking.
Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew), also spelt Palaeo-Hebrew alphabet, is a variant of the Phoenician alphabet.
The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
Pesher (פשר, pl. pesharim from a Hebrew word meaning "interpretation," is a group of interpretive commentaries on scripture. The Pesharim commentaries became known from the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The pesharim give a theory of scriptural interpretation of a number of biblical texts from the Old Testament, such as Habakkuk and Psalms. The authors of pesharim believe that scripture is written in two levels: the surface for ordinary readers with limited knowledge, and the concealed one for specialists with higher knowledge. This is most clearly spelled out in the Habakkuk Pesher (1QpHab), where the author of the text asserts that God has made known to the Teacher of Righteousness, a prominent figure in the history of the Essene community, "all the mysteries of his servants the prophets" (1QpHab VII:4-5). By contrast, the prophets, and other readers of the texts, only had a partial interpretation revealed to them. The result of this pesher method creates a fixed-literary structure, which is seen most in the continuous Pesharim, with the goal of giving the plain meaning of the prophets words.
The Pesher on Genesis, or Commentaries on Genesis, is part of the collection of the Dead Sea Scrolls found in caves near the archaeological site of Qumran about a mile off the Northwestern shore of the Dead Sea.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philip R. Davies (1945-2018) was a British biblical scholar and archaeologist.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Preservation refers to the set of activities that aims to prolong the life of a record with as little changes to the original record as possible.
The Priestly Blessing or priestly benediction, (ברכת כהנים; translit. birkat kohanim), also known in rabbinic literature as raising of the hands (Hebrew nesiat kapayim), or Dukhanen (Yiddish from the Hebrew word dukhan – platform – because the blessing is given from a raised rostrum), is a Hebrew prayer recited by Kohanim - the Hebrew Priests.
The protocanonical books are those books of the Old Testament that are also included in the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and that came to be considered canonical during the formational period of Christianity.
Provenance (from the French provenir, 'to come from/forth') is the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object.
Psalm 151 is a short psalm found in most copies of the Septuagint but not in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Psalms 152 to 155 are additional Psalms found in two Syriac biblical manuscripts to date and several manuscripts of Elias of al-Anbar's "Book of Discipline".
Purim (Hebrew: Pûrîm "lots", from the word pur, related to Akkadian: pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews.
Qimron v. Shanks, (2000) is a landmark ruling by the Israeli Supreme Court.
Qumran (קומראן; خربة قمران) is an archaeological site in the West Bank managed by Israel's Qumran National Park.
Qumran Caves are a series of caves, some natural, some artificial, found around the archaeological site of Qumran in the Judaean Desert of the West Bank.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States.
Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls is a book was written by Lawrence Schiffman, published in 1994 by Doubleday, as part of the Anchor Research Library.
A Reed pen (κάλαμοι; singular κάλαμος) is a writing implement made by cutting and shaping a single reed straw or length of bamboo.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Robert Eisenman (born 1937) is an American biblical scholar, theoretical writer, historian, archaeologist, and "road" poet.
The Rockefeller Museum, formerly the Palestine Archaeological Museum, is an archaeology museum located in East Jerusalem that houses a large collection of artifacts unearthed in the excavations conducted in Mandate Palestine, in the 1920s and 1930s.
Father Roland Guérin de Vaux OP (17 December 1903 – 10 September 1971) was a French Dominican priest who led the Catholic team that initially worked on the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman-Germanic Museum (RGM, in German: Römisch-Germanisches Museum) is an archaeological museum in Cologne, Germany.
The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, Musée royal de l'Ontario) is a museum of art, world culture and natural history in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
The Samaritan Pentateuch, also known as the Samaritan Torah (תורה שומרונית torah shomronit), is a text of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, written in the Samaritan alphabet and used as scripture by the Samaritans.
San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.
The San Diego Natural History Museum is a museum located in Balboa Park in San Diego, California.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
San Marino is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, incorporated on April 12, 1913 The city is located in the San Rafael Hills.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
The Schøyen Collection is the largest private manuscript collection in the world, mostly located in Oslo and London.
Science Museum of Minnesota is an American museum focused on topics in technology, natural history, physical science, and mathematics education.
Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.
A scroll (from the Old French escroe or escroue), also known as a roll, is a roll of papyrus, parchment, or paper containing writing.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Second Temple Judaism is Judaism between the construction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, c. 515 BCE, and its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE.
The Second Temple period in Jewish history lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem existed.
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system, usually an offshoot of a larger group.
Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
The Shrine of the Book (היכל הספר, Heikhal HaSefer), a wing of the Israel Museum in the Givat Ram neighborhood of Jerusalem, houses the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Sicarii (Modern Hebrew: סיקריים siqari'im) were a splinter group of the Jewish Zealots who, in the decades preceding Jerusalem's destruction in 70 CE, heavily opposed the Roman occupation of Judea and attempted to expel them and their sympathizers from the area.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Yeshua ben Sira, commonly called the Wisdom of Sirach or simply Sirach, and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus (abbreviated Ecclus.) or Ben Sira, is a work of ethical teachings, from approximately 200 to 175 BCE, written by the Jewish scribe Ben Sira of Jerusalem, on the inspiration of his father Joshua son of Sirach, sometimes called Jesus son of Sirach or Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
A Solander box ("S" may also be in lowercase), or clamshell case (mainly in American English), is a book-form case used for storing manuscripts, maps, prints, documents, old and precious books, etc.
Historically, many rulers have assumed titles such as son of God, son of a god or son of heaven.
The Song of Songs, also Song of Solomon or Canticles (Hebrew:, Šîr HašŠîrîm, Greek: ᾎσμα ᾎσμάτων, asma asmaton, both meaning Song of Songs), is one of the megillot (scrolls) found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim (or "Writings"), and a book of the Old Testament.
The Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, also referred to as the Angelic Liturgy, are a series of thirteen songs, one for each of the first thirteen Sabbaths of the year, contained in fragments found among the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary is a private, non-profit institution of higher education associated with the Southern Baptist Convention; the seminary was established in 1908, and is located in Fort Worth, Texas.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
St. Gallen or traditionally St Gall, in German sometimes Sankt Gallen (St Gall; Saint-Gall; San Gallo; Son Gagl) is a Swiss town and the capital of the canton of St. Gallen.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The Supreme Court (בית המשפט העליון, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon) is the highest court in Israel.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The targumim (singular: "targum", תרגום) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic.
The Teacher of Righteousness (in Hebrew: מורה הצדק Moreh ha-Tzedek) is a figure found in some of the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran, most prominently in the Damascus Document.
Tefillin (Askhenazic:; Israeli Hebrew:, תפילין), also called phylacteries, are a set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.
The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The Temple Scroll (מגילת המקדש) is the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Testament of Qahat (Kehath or Kohath) was written as a continuation to the Words of Levi followed by Vision of Amram.
The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is a constituent of the apocryphal scriptures connected with the Bible.
The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " four letters"), in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Thanksgiving Scroll or Hodayot was one of the first seven Dead Sea Scrolls discovered in 1947 by the Bedouin.
The Book of Giants is an apocryphal Jewish book which expands a narrative in the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Mysteries (also known as the Book of Secrets) is an ancient Essene text found in fragmentary form among the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Jordan Museum is located in Ras Al-Ein district of Amman, Jordan.
The Rule of the Blessing (1QSb) is a very fragmentary text once thought to be part of the text of the Community Rule scroll found in Cave 1 at Qumran as part of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Seattle Times is a daily newspaper serving Seattle, Washington, United States.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theodor Herzl Gaster (July 21, 1906 – February 2, 1992) was a British-born American Biblical scholar known for work on comparative religion, mythology and the history of religions.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Trinity Western University (TWU) is a private Christian liberal arts university in Langley, British Columbia, Canada.
The Minor Prophets or Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר, Trei Asar, "Twelve"), occasionally Book of the Twelve, is the last book of the Nevi'im, the second main division of the Jewish Tanakh.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) is an organization founded on 29 May 1948 UN Security Council Resolution 73 for peacekeeping in the Middle East.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of California, Davis (also referred to as UCD, UC Davis, or Davis), is a public research university and land-grant university as well as one of the 10 campuses of the University of California (UC) system.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The Oriental Institute (OI), established in 1919, is the University of Chicago's interdisciplinary research center for ancient Near Eastern ("Orient") studies, and archaeology museum.
The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology—commonly called the Penn Museum—is an archaeology and anthropology museum that is part of the University of Pennsylvania.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.
Vellum is prepared animal skin or "membrane" used as a material for writing on.
The Waldorf Astoria New York is a luxury hotel in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
The War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, also known as War Rule, Rule of War and the War Scroll, is a manual for military organization and strategy that was discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
William Andrew Moffett (January 25, 1933 – February 20, 1995) was a historian and librarian who was named "100 of the Most Important Leaders We Had in the 20th Century" by American Libraries in 1999.
William John (Billy Jack) Cox (born 1941) is an American public interest lawyer, author, philosopher, and political activist.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.
Yahoo! News is a news website that originated as an internet-based news aggregator by Yahoo!.
Yigael Yadin (יִגָּאֵל יָדִין, born Yigael Sukenik 20 March 1917 – 28 June 1984) was an Israeli archeologist, politician, and the second Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.
Yizhar Hirschfeld (1950 – 16 November 2006) was an Israeli archaeologist studying Greco-Roman and Byzantine archaeology.
The Zealots were a political movement in 1st-century Second Temple Judaism, which sought to incite the people of Judea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70).
11Q13, also 11QMelch or the Melchizedek document, is a fragmentary manuscript among the Dead Sea Scrolls which mentions Melchizedek as leader of God's angels in a war in Heaven against the angels of darkness instead of the more familiar Archangel Michael.
11Q18 is a Dead Sea Scroll discovered in Cave 11 that speaks of a New Jerusalem.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
1QIsab is a fragmentary copy of the Book of Isaiah found at Qumran Cave 1 by Bedouin from the Ta'amireh tribe in 1947.
4Q106 (or 4QCanta) is one large and three small fragments from three columns of a scroll containing portions of the Song of Songs in Hebrew.
4Q107 (or 4QCantb) is a fragment of the Song of Songs in Hebrew found in Cave 4 at Qumran in the West Bank and which comprises part of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
4Q108 (or 4QCantc) is a fragment containing a portion of the Song of Songs in Hebrew.
The manuscript 4Q120 (also pap4QLXXLevb) is a Septuagint manuscript (LXX) of the biblical Book of Leviticus.
4Q175 (or 4QTest), also known as The Testimonia, is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls and was found in Cave 4 at Qumran in the West Bank.
4Q240 (or 4QCanta) is believed to be a commentary (or pesher) on the Song of Songs, also known as 'Canticles'.
4Q246, also known as the Son of God Text or the Aramaic Apocalypse, is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Qumran which is notable for an early Messianic mention of a Son of God.
4Q41 or 4QDeuteronomyn (often abbreviated 4QDeutn or 4QDtn), also known as the All Souls Deuteronomy is a Hebrew Bible manuscript from the first century BC containing two passages from the Book of Deuteronomy.
4Q448, often called the "Hymn to King Jonathan," is a piece of parchment from among the Dead Sea Scrolls containing two separate short works, part of Psalm 154 and a prayer mentioning King Jonathan.
4Q510-511, also given the title Songs of the Sage or Songs of the Maskil (שירי משכיל "instructor"), is a fragmentary Hebrew-language manuscript of a Jewish magical text of incantation and exorcism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, specifically for protection against a list of demons.
4Q521 or the 4QMessianic Apocalypse is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
4QInstruction, or Sapiential Work A (Instruction to a student), is a document that is preserved in at least seven fragmentary manuscripts from the Dead Sea Scrolls; these are 4Q415, 4Q416, 4Q417, 4Q418, 4Q418a, 4Q423, and 1Q26.
4QMMT (or MMT), also known as the Halakhic Letter or the Sectarian Manifesto, is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls that were discovered at Qumran in Judean Samaria.
6Q6 is a small portion of a scroll from Cave 6 at Qumran, containing Song of Songs 1:1-7 in Hebrew.
Among the Dead Sea scrolls, 7Q5 is the designation for a small Greek papyrus fragment discovered in Qumran Cave 7 and dated before anyone claimed to be able to identify it by its style of script as likely having been written sometime between 50 B.C.E. and 50 C.E. The significance of this fragment is derived from an argument made by Spanish papyrologist Jose O'Callaghan in his work ¿Papiros neotestamentarios en la cueva 7 de Qumrân? ("New Testament Papyri in Cave 7 at Qumran?") in 1972, later reasserted and expanded by German scholar Carsten Peter Thiede in his work The Earliest Gospel Manuscript? in 1982.
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