303 relations: Abrahamic religions, Accident, Acronym, Adaptation, Adultery, Affection, Africa, Afterlife, Ageing, Aging-associated diseases, Alcor Life Extension Foundation, Algor mortis, Amoebozoa, Animal, Anxiety, Apostasy, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, Asexual reproduction, Atheism, Atherosclerosis, Autopsy, Azrael, Bacteria, Ben Best, Biodiversity, Biogeochemical cycle, Biological immortality, Biological life cycle, Biological process, Brain death, Brazil, Breathing, Burial, Cadaver, Calorie restriction, Cancer, Capital punishment, Capital punishment by country, Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Cardiovascular disease, Carrion, Causality, Cerebral cortex, Cetacea, Charles Darwin, Chlamydomonadales, Chlamydomonas, Ciliate, Clinical death, ..., Coal, Cognition, Colony (biology), Coma, Compassion, Consciousness, Court-martial, Cowardice, Cremation, Cryonics, Cryopreservation, Day of the Dead, Death (personification), Death anxiety (psychology), Death certificate, Death drive, Death notification, Death row, Death trajectory, Decomposition, Defibrillation, Dehydration, Depression (mood), Desertion, Detritivore, Detritus, Developed country, Developing country, Diet (nutrition), Disease, Disposal of human corpses, Diving reflex, Drug, Dukkha, Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori, Dung beetle, Dying declaration, Earthworm, Ecological niche, Electrical injury, Electroencephalography, Embalming, Emergency department, End time, End-of-life care, Endotherm, England, Enlightenment in Buddhism, Espionage, Estate (law), Eternal oblivion, Euglenid, Euthanasia, Evolution, Evolution of ageing, Exercise, Existentialism, Extinction, Faked death, Father Time, Fitness (biology), Food chain, Fossil, Fossil fuel, Four Noble Truths, Funeral, Gale (publisher), Gautama Buddha, Gene, Gene pool, Germ cell, Gerontology, Grief, Hans Selye, Health technology, Heart, Heart rate, Heaven, Hell, Hindu, History of evolutionary thought, HIV/AIDS, Homeostasis, Homicide, House call, Human, Human beings in Buddhism, Human bonding, Human brain, Human development (biology), Human trafficking, Hydra (genus), Hypoglycemia, Hypothermia, Hypoxia (medical), Illegal drug trade, Indian religions, Infection, Inheritance, Inheritance tax, Injury, Insubordination, Japan, Jean Ziegler, Judgement (afterlife), Kamikaze, Karōshi, Last Judgment, Last offices, Last rites, Lazarus taxon, Legal death, Life, Life expectancy, Life support, List of causes of death by rate, Lists of deaths by year, Livor mortis, Longevity, Lung, Malaria, Malnutrition, Martyr, Maximum life span, Medical Hypotheses, Medical procedure, Medicine, Memento mori, Metabolism, Micronutrient, Microorganism, Military justice, Mitzvah, Mortality rate, Mortality salience, Mourning, Multicellular organism, Multinucleate, Mummy, Murder, Mutiny, Nanobiotechnology, National Geographic, National Safety Council, Natural selection, Near-death experience, Necrophobia, Negligible senescence, Neocortex, Neologism, Nerve, Next of kin, Non-rapid eye movement sleep, Obesity, Old age, Old English, Online Etymology Dictionary, Organ transplantation, Organic matter, Organism, Origin-of-death myth, Oxygen, Pallor mortis, Pandorina, Parapsychology, Participle, Pathology, Personality psychology, Philosophy, Physical examination, Physical fitness, Physician, Physiology, Planarian, Political corruption, Politics of the United States, Population bottleneck, Portmanteau, Pratītyasamutpāda, Predation, Prentice Hall, Protist, Psychological pain, Ralph Merkle, Range (biology), Rectum, Reincarnation, Rejuvenation (aging), Rejuvenation Research, Religion, Reperfusion therapy, Reproduction, Respiratory arrest, Respite care, Rest in peace, Resurrection, Rigor mortis, Saṃsāra (Buddhism), Sadness, Saudade, Scavenger, Scenario, Science, Science fiction, Senescence, Seppuku, September 11 attacks, Sexual reproduction, Sherwin B. Nuland, Skeleton, Sky burial, Sodomy, Solitude, Somatic cell, Sorrow (emotion), Speciation, Spiritual death, Starvation, Stream of consciousness (psychology), Stress (biology), Stroke, Suicide, Suicide attack, Swamp, Sympathy, Taboo on the dead, Taxon, Terri Schiavo case, Thanatology, The Guardian, The Scientist (magazine), The Washington Post, Tibet, Tissue (biology), Tissue engineering, Tobacco, Tobacco smoking, Treason, Tuberculosis, Tumah and taharah, Turritopsis dohrnii, Unicellular organism, Uniform Determination of Death Act, United Nations, University of Pennsylvania, Vital signs, Volvox, Wales, Weismann barrier, Woodlouse, World Health Organization, World War II, Yama. Expand index (253 more) » « Shrink index
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
An accident, also known as an unintentional injury, is an undesirable, incidental, and unplanned event that could have been prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its occurrence.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Adultery (from Latin adulterium) is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.
Affection, attraction, infatuation, or fondness is a "disposition or state of mind or body" that is often associated with a feeling or type of love.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
An aging-associated disease is a disease that is most often seen with increasing frequency with increasing senescence.
The Alcor Life Extension Foundation, most often referred to as Alcor, is a nonprofit organization based in Scottsdale, Arizona, USA.
Algor mortis (Latin: algor—coldness; mortis—of death), the second stage of death, is the change in body temperature post mortem, until the ambient temperature is matched.
Amoebozoa is a major taxonomic group containing about 2,400 described species of amoeboid protists, often possessing blunt, fingerlike, lobose pseudopods and tubular mitochondrial cristae.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
Azrael (עזראל) is an angel in the Abrahamic religions.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Ben Best was President and CEO of the Cryonics Institute, the world's second largest cryonics organization, for nine years (between 2003 and 2012).
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
Biological immortality (sometimes referred to bio-indefinite mortality) is a state in which the rate of mortality from senescence is stable or decreasing, thus decoupling it from chronological age.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biological processes are the processes vital for a living organism to live.
Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.
A cadaver, also referred to as a corpse (singular) in medical, literary, and legal usage, or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body.
Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The following is a summary of the use of capital punishment by country.
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure that combines chest compressions often with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carrion (from Latin caro, meaning "meat") is the decaying flesh of a dead animal.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Chlamydomonadales, also known as Volvocales, are an order of flagellated or pseudociliated green algae, specifically of the Chlorophyceae.
Chlamydomonas is a genus of green algae consisting of about 325 speciesSmith, G.M. 1955 Cryptogamic Botany Volume 1.
The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.
Clinical death is the medical term for cessation of blood circulation and breathing, the two necessary criteria to sustain human and many other organisms' lives.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Compassion motivates people to go out of their way to help the physical, mental, or emotional pains of another and themselves.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
A court-martial or court martial (plural courts-martial or courts martial, as "martial" is a postpositive adjective) is a military court or a trial conducted in such a court.
Cowardice is a trait wherein fear and excessive self-concern override doing or saying what is right, good, and of help to others or oneself in a time of need — it is the opposite of courage.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
Cryonics (from Greek κρύος kryos meaning 'cold') is the low-temperature preservation (usually at −196°C) of human cadavers, with the hope that resuscitation and restoration to life and full health may be possible in the far future.
Cryo-preservation or cryo-conservation is a process where organelles, cells, tissues, extracellular matrix, organs or any other biological constructs susceptible to damage caused by unregulated chemical kinetics are preserved by cooling to very low temperatures (typically −80 °C using solid carbon dioxide or −196 °C using liquid nitrogen).
The Day of the Dead (Día de Muertos) is a Mexican holiday celebrated throughout Mexico, in particular the Central and South regions, and by people of Mexican ancestry living in other places, especially the United States.
Death, due to its prominent place in human culture, is frequently imagined as a personified force, also known as the Grim Reaper.
Death anxiety is anxiety caused by thoughts of death.
The phrase death certificate can refer either to a document issued by a medical practitioner certifying the deceased state of a person or, popularly, to a document issued by a person such as a registrar of vital statistics that declares the date, location and cause of a person's death as later entered in an official register of deaths.
In classical Freudian psychoanalytic theory, the death drive (Todestrieb) is the drive toward death and self-destruction.
A death notification is the delivery of the news of a death to someone.
Death row is a special section of a prison that houses inmates who are awaiting execution after being sentenced to death for the conviction of capital crimes.
Death trajectory refers to the pattern of dying when a patient is given a projected death date with limited or no medical recourse for the remaining existence of the individual's life.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
Defibrillation is a treatment for life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias, specifically ventricular fibrillation (VF) and non-perfusing ventricular tachycardia (VT).
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission (a pass, liberty or leave) and is done with the intention of not returning.
Detritivores, also known as detrivores, detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).
In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disposal of human corpses is the practice and process of dealing with the remains of a deceased human being.
The diving reflex, also known as the diving response and mammalian diving reflex, is a set of physiological responses to immersion that overrides the basic homeostatic reflexes, and is found in all air-breathing vertebrates studied to date.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".
Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori is a line from the Roman lyrical poet Horace's ''Odes'' (III.2.13).
Dung beetles are beetles that feed partly or exclusively on feces (dung).
In the law of evidence, a dying declaration is testimony that would normally be barred as hearsay but may in common law nonetheless be admitted as evidence in criminal law trials because it constituted the last words of a dying person.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.
Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
The end time (also called end times, end of time, end of days, last days, final days, or eschaton) is a future time-period described variously in the eschatologies of several world religions (both Abrahamic and non-Abrahamic), which believe that world events will reach a final climax.
End-of-life care (or EoLC) refers to health care, not only of a person in the final hours or days of their lives, but more broadly care of all those with a terminal condition that has become advanced, progressive, and incurable.
An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English term enlightenment is the western translation of the term bodhi, "awakening", which was popularised in the Western world through the 19th century translations of Max Müller.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
An estate, in common law, is the net worth of a person at any point in time alive or dead.
In philosophy, eternal oblivion (also referred to as non-existence or nothingness) is the permanent cessation of one's consciousness upon death.
Euglenids (euglenoids, or euglenophytes, formally Euglenida/Euglenoida, ICZN, or Euglenophyceae, ICBN) are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, which are excavate eukaryotes of the phylum Euglenophyta and their cell structure is typical of that group.
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Enquiry into the evolution of ageing aims to explain why survival, reproductive success, and functioning of almost all living organisms decline at old age.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
A faked death, also called a "staged death" and pseudocide, is a case in which an individual leaves evidence to suggest that they are dead to mislead others.
Father Time is the anthropomorphized depiction of time.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.
Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, in the western suburbs of Detroit.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
Gerontology is the study of the social, cultural, psychological, cognitive, and biological aspects of ageing.
Grief is a multifaceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something that has died, to which a bond or affection was formed.
János Hugo Bruno "Hans" Selye (Selye János; January 26, 1907 – October 16, 1982), was a pioneering Hungarian-Canadian endocrinologist of Hungarian origin.
Health technology is defined by the World Health Organization as the application of organized knowledge and skills in the form of devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures and systems developed to solve a health problem and improve quality of life.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.
Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Evolutionary thought, the conception that species change over time, has roots in antiquity – in the ideas of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Chinese as well as in medieval Islamic science.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Homicide is the act of one human killing another.
A house call is a visit to the home of a patient or client by a doctor or other professional.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Humans in Buddhism (Sanskrit, Pali) are the subjects of an extensive commentarial literature that examines the nature and qualities of a human life from the point of view of humans' ability to achieve enlightenment.
Human bonding is the process of development of a close, interpersonal relationship between two or more people.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.
A tax paid by a person who inherits money or property or a levy on the estate (money and property) of a person who has died.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Insubordination is the act of willfully disobeying an order of one's superior.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jean Ziegler (born April 19, 1934 as Hans Ziegler) is a former professor of sociology at the University of Geneva and the Sorbonne, Paris.
A central theme of many religions is what happens to people upon death.
, officially, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than possible with conventional air attacks.
, which can be translated literally as "overwork death" in Japanese, is occupational sudden mortality.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
The last offices, or laying out, is the procedures performed, usually by a nurse, to the body of a dead person shortly after death has been confirmed.
The last rites, in Catholicism, are the last prayers and ministrations given to many Catholics when possible shortly before death.
In paleontology, a Lazarus taxon (plural taxa) is a taxon that disappears for one or more periods from the fossil record, only to appear again later.
Legal death is a government's official recognition that a person has died.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Life support refers to the treatments and techniques performed in an emergency in order to support life after the failure of one or more vital organs.
The following is a list of the causes of human deaths worldwide for the year 2002, arranged by their associated mortality rates.
This is a list of notable deaths, organized by year.
Livor mortis (Latin: livor – "bluish color", mortis – "of death"), postmortem lividity (Latin: postmortem – "after death", lividity – "black and blue"), hypostasis (Greek: hypo, meaning "under, beneath"; stasis, meaning "a standing") or suggillation, is the fourth stage and one of the signs of death.
The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Maximum life span (or, for humans, maximum reported age at death) is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population have been observed to survive between birth and death.
Medical Hypotheses is a medical journal published by Elsevier.
A medical procedure is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the delivery of healthcare.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Memento mori (Latin: "remember that you have to die"), Oxford English Dictionary, Third Edition, June 2001.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Military justice (or military law) is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces.
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word (meaning "commandment",,, Biblical:; plural, Biblical:; from "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Mortality salience is the awareness by an individual that his or her death is inevitable.
Mourning is, in the simplest sense, grief over someone's death.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Multinucleate cells (also called multinucleated or polynuclear cells) are eukaryotic cells that have more than one nucleus per cell, i.e., multiple nuclei share one common cytoplasm.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought.
Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people (typically members of the military or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject.
Nanobiotechnology, bionanotechnology, and nanobiology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Safety Council (NSC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, nongovernmental public service organization promoting health and safety in the United States of America.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
A near-death experience (NDE) is a personal experience associated with death or impending death.
Necrophobia is a specific phobia which is the irrational fear of dead things (e.g., corpses) as well as things associated with death (e.g., coffins, tombstones, funerals, cemeteries).
Negligible senescence is the lack of symptoms of aging in some organisms.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
A person's next of kin (NOK) is that person's closest living blood relative or relatives.
Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) is, collectively, sleep stages 1–3, previously known as stages 1–4.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The origin of death is a theme in the myths of many cultures.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pallor mortis (Latin: pallor "paleness", mortis "of death"), the first stage of death, is an after-death paleness that occurs in those with light/white skin.
Pandorina is a genus of green algae composed of 8, 16, or sometimes 32 cells, held together at their bases to form a sack globular colony surrounded by mucilage.
Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena which include telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A planarian is one of many flatworms of the Turbellaria class.
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
The United States is a federal republic in which the President, Congress and federal courts share powers reserved to the national government, according to its Constitution.
A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
Pratītyasamutpāda (प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद pratītyasamutpāda; पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination, or dependent arising, is the principle that all dharmas ("phenomena") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist".
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Psychological pain, mental pain, or emotional pain is an unpleasant feeling (a suffering) of a psychological, non-physical origin.
Ralph C. Merkle (born February 2, 1952) is a computer scientist.
In biology, the range of a species is the geographical area within which that species can be found.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process.
Rejuvenation Research is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Mary Ann Liebert that covers research on rejuvenation and biogerontology.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Reperfusion therapy is a medical treatment to restore blood flow, either through or around, blocked arteries, typically after a heart attack (myocardial infarction (MI)).
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Respiratory arrest is caused by apnea (cessation of breathing) due to failure of the lungs to function effectively.
Respite care is planned or emergency temporary care provided to caregivers of a child or adult.
The phrase "Rest in peace", RIP, from Latin: Requiescat in pace) is used in traditional Christian services and prayers, such as in the Anglican, Lutheran, Methodist, and Roman Catholic denominations, sometimes to wish the soul of a decedent eternal rest and peace in Christ. It became ubiquitous on headstones in the 18th century, and is widely used today when mentioning someone's death.
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
Rigor mortis (Latin: rigor "stiffness", mortis "of death") or postmortem rigidity, the third stage of death, is one of the recognizable signs of death, caused by chemical changes in the muscles post mortem, which cause the limbs of the corpse to stiffen.
Saṃsāra (Sanskrit, Pali; also samsara) in Buddhism is the beginning-less cycle of repeated birth, mundane existence and dying again.
Sadness is an emotional pain associated with, or characterized by, feelings of disadvantage, loss, despair, grief, helplessness, disappointment and sorrow.
Saudade (or,; plural saudades) is a deep emotional state of nostalgic or profound melancholic longing for an absent something or someone that one loves.
Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.
In the performing arts, a scenario (from Italian: that which is pinned to the scenery; pronounced) is a synoptical collage of an event or series of actions and events.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
Seppuku (切腹, "cutting belly"), sometimes referred to as harakiri (腹切り, "abdomen/belly cutting", a native Japanese kun reading), is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Sherwin Bernard Nuland (born Shepsel Ber Nudelman; December 8, 1930 – March 3, 2014) was an American surgeon and writer who taught bioethics, history of medicine, and medicine at the Yale School of Medicine, and occasionally bioethics and history of medicine at Yale College.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
Sky burial (lit. "bird-scattered") is a funeral practice in which a human corpse is placed on a mountaintop to decompose while exposed to the elements or to be eaten by scavenging animals, especially carrion birds.
Sodomy is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity.
Solitude is a state of seclusion or isolation, i.e., lack of contact with people.
A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.
Sorrow is an emotion, feeling, or sentiment.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
The concept of spiritual death has varying meanings in various uses and contexts.
Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.
Stream of consciousness refers to the flow of thoughts in the conscious mind.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
A swamp is a wetland that is forested.
Sympathy (from the Greek words syn "together" and pathos "feeling" which means "fellow-feeling") is the perception, understanding, and reaction to the distress or need of another life form.
The taboo on the dead includes the taboo against touching of the dead and those surrounding them; the taboo against mourners of the dead; and the taboo against anything associated with the dead.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
The Terri Schiavo case was a right-to-die legal case in the United States from 1990 to 2005, involving Theresa Marie "Terri" Schiavo (December 3, 1963 – March 31, 2005), a woman in an irreversible persistent vegetative state.
Thanatology is the scientific study of death.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Scientist is a professional magazine intended for life scientists.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
In Jewish law, ṭumah and ṭaharah) are the state of being ritually "impure" and "pure" respectively. The Hebrew noun ṭum'ah, meaning "impurity," describes a state of ritual impurity. A person or object which contracts ṭumah is said to be ṭamei (Hebrew adjective, "ritually impure"), and thereby unsuited for certain holy activities and utilisations (kedusha in Hebrew) until undergoing predefined purification actions that usually include the elapse of a specified time-period. The contrasting Hebrew noun ṭaharah (טָהֳרָה) describes a state of ritual purity that qualifies the ṭahor (טָהוֹר; ritually pure person or object) to be used for kedusha. The most common method of achieving ṭaharah is by the person or object being immersed in a mikveh (ritual bath). This concept is connected with ritual washing in Judaism, and both ritually impure and ritually pure states have parallels in ritual purification in other world religions. The laws of ṭumah and ṭaharah were generally followed by the Israelites, particularly during the First and Second Temple Period, and to a limited extent are a part of applicable halakha in modern times.
Turritopsis dohrnii, the immortal jellyfish, is a species of small, biologically immortal jellyfish found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the waters of Japan.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
The Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) is a model state law that was approved for the United States in 1981 by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, in cooperation with the American Medical Association, the American Bar Association, and the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
Vital signs (often shortened to just vitals) are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions.
Volvox is a polyphyletic genus of chlorophyte green algae in the family Volvocaceae.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
The Weismann barrier, proposed by August Weismann, is the strict distinction between the "immortal" germ cell lineages producing gametes and "disposable" somatic cells.
A woodlouse (plural woodlice) is a terrestrial isopod crustacean with a rigid, segmented, long exoskeleton and fourteen jointed limbs.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yama or Yamarāja is a god of death, the south direction, and the underworld, belonging to an early stratum of Rigvedic Hindu deities.
Articulo mortis, Articulus mortis, Biological death, Dead, Deadness, Death (medicine), Death (science), Death and Dying, Death signs, Deathly, Deaths, Decease, Deceased, Decedent, Devitalized, Died, Dy'd, Dying, Exitus, Exitus letalis, Fatally wounded, Human death, Indicative of death, Mortally, Mortals, Passing away, Philosophy of death, Physical death, Plant death, Premature death, Religious views on death, Signs of death, Somatic death, Stages of death, Technically dead.