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# Decimal

The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers. [1]

130 relations: Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi, Aegean civilizations, Algorism, Arabic, Arbitrary-precision arithmetic, Archimedes, Armenian numerals, Aymara language, Base32, Binary number, Binary-coded decimal, Brahmi numerals, California, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Chinese language, Chinese numerals, Chumashan languages, Classical Greece, Computer, Computing, Cowlishaw, Cretan hieroglyphs, Decimal computer, Decimal representation, Decimal separator, Dewey Decimal Classification, Dhuwal language, Dravidian languages, Duodecimal, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Engineering, ENIAC, Europe, Exponentiation, Floor and ceiling functions, Fraction (mathematics), Fractional part, Geometric series, Glyph, Greek numerals, Hebrew numerals, Hexadecimal, Hindu–Arabic numeral system, Hittites, Huli language, Hungarian language, IBM 650, IEEE 754, Immanuel Bonfils, ... Expand index (80 more) »

## Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi

Abu'l Hasan Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Al-Uqlidisi was an Arab mathematician, who was active in Damascus and Baghdad.

## Aegean civilizations

Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece around the Aegean Sea.

## Algorism

Algorism is the technique of performing basic arithmetic by writing numbers in place value form and applying a set of memorized rules and facts to the digits.

## Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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## Arbitrary-precision arithmetic

In computer science, arbitrary-precision arithmetic, also called bignum arithmetic, multiple-precision arithmetic, or sometimes infinite-precision arithmetic, indicates that calculations are performed on numbers whose digits of precision are limited only by the available memory of the host system.

## Archimedes

Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.

## Armenian numerals

The system of Armenian numerals is a historic numeral system created using the majuscules (uppercase letters) of the Armenian alphabet.

## Aymara language

Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.

## Base32

Base32 is one of several base 32 transfer encodings using a 32-character subset of the twenty-six letters A–Z and ten digits 0–9.

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## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

## Binary-coded decimal

In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight.

## Brahmi numerals

The Brahmi numerals are a numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens).

## California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

## Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

## Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

## Chinese numerals

Chinese numerals are words and characters used to denote numbers in Chinese.

## Chumashan languages

Chumashan (meaning "Santa Cruz Islander") is a family of languages that were spoken on the southern California coast by Native American Chumash people, from the Coastal plains and valleys of San Luis Obispo to Malibu, neighboring inland and Transverse Ranges valleys and canyons east to bordering the San Joaquin Valley, to three adjacent Channel Islands: San Miguel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Cruz.

## Classical Greece

Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.

## Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

## Computing

Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.

## Cowlishaw

Cowlishaw is a surname that may refer to.

## Cretan hieroglyphs

Cretan hieroglyphs are generally considered undeciphered hieroglyphs found on artefacts of early Bronze Age Crete, during the Minoan era.

## Decimal computer

Decimal computers are computers which can represent numbers and addresses in decimal as well as providing instructions to operate on those numbers and addresses directly in decimal, without conversion to a pure binary representation.

## Decimal representation

A decimal representation of a non-negative real number r is an expression in the form of a series, traditionally written as a sum where a0 is a nonnegative integer, and a1, a2,...

## Decimal separator

A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.

## Dewey Decimal Classification

The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), or Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876.

## Dhuwal language

Dhuwal (also Dual, Duala) is one of the Yolŋu languages spoken by Aboriginal Australians in the Northern Territory, Australia.

## Dravidian languages

The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.

## Duodecimal

The duodecimal system (also known as base 12 or dozenal) is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base.

## Egyptian hieroglyphs

Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.

## Encyclopedia of Mathematics

The Encyclopedia of Mathematics (also EOM and formerly Encyclopaedia of Mathematics) is a large reference work in mathematics.

## Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

## ENIAC

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.

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## Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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## Exponentiation

Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.

## Floor and ceiling functions

In mathematics and computer science, the floor function is the function that takes as input a real number x and gives as output the greatest integer less than or equal to x, denoted \operatorname(x).

## Fraction (mathematics)

A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.

## Fractional part

The fractional part or decimal part of a non‐negative real number x is the excess beyond that number's integer part.

## Geometric series

In mathematics, a geometric series is a series with a constant ratio between successive terms.

## Glyph

In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.

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## Greek numerals

Greek numerals, also known as Ionic, Ionian, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet.

## Hebrew numerals

The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.

## Hindu–Arabic numeral system

The Hindu–Arabic numeral systemDavid Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski,, 1911 (also called the Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system) is a positional decimal numeral system that is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world.

## Hittites

The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.

## Huli language

Huli is a Trans–New Guinea language spoken by the Huli people of the Southern Highlands province of Papua New Guinea.

## Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

## IBM 650

The IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine is one of IBM's early computers, and the world’s first mass-produced computer.

## IEEE 754

The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

## Immanuel Bonfils

Immanuel ben Jacob Bonfils (c. 1300 – 1377) was a French-Jewish mathematician and astronomer in medieval times who flourished from 1340 to 1377, a rabbi who was a pioneer of exponential calculus and is credited with inventing the system of decimal fractions.

## Indo-Aryan languages

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.

## Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

## Infinity

Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.

## Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

## Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer&#x2009;'s first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

## Irreducible fraction

An irreducible fraction (or fraction in lowest terms or reduced fraction) is a fraction in which the numerator and denominator are integers that have no other common divisors than 1 (and -1, when negative numbers are considered).

## Jamshīd al-Kāshī

Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Masʿūd al-Kāshī (or al-Kāshānī) (غیاث الدین جمشید کاشانی Ghiyās-ud-dīn Jamshīd Kāshānī) (c. 1380 Kashan, Iran – 22 June 1429 Samarkand, Transoxania) was a Persian astronomer and mathematician.

## Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

## Karl Menninger (mathematics)

Karl Menninger (October 6, 1898 &ndash; October 2, 1963) was a German teacher of and writer about mathematics.

## Kaugel language

Kaugel (Gawigl) is one of the languages spoken in the Southern Highlands province of Papua New Guinea.

## Korean language

The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.

## Kuurn Kopan Noot language

Kuurn Kopan Noot, or Gurnditjmara (Kirurndit, Gu:nditj-mara), is an extinct language of Victoria (Australia).

## Lam Lay Yong

Lam Lay Yong (maiden name Oon Lay Yong,; born 1936) is a retired Professor of Mathematics.

## Limit (mathematics)

In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function (or sequence) "approaches" as the input (or index) "approaches" some value.

## Linear A

Linear A is one of two currently undeciphered writing systems used in ancient Greece (Cretan hieroglyphic is the other).

## Linear B

Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.

## List of numeral systems

This is a list of numeral systems, that is, writing systems for expressing numbers.

## Long division

In arithmetic, long division is a standard division algorithm suitable for dividing multidigit numbers that is simple enough to perform by hand.

## Louis Charles Karpinski

Louis Charles Karpinski (5 August 1878 – 25 January 1956) was an American mathematician born in Rochester, New York to Henry Hermanagle Karpinski from Warsaw, Poland and Mary Louise Engesser from Guebweiler, Alsace.

## Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections

The Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections is a mathematical text written by Chinese Southern Song dynasty mathematician Qin Jiushao in the year 1247.

## Maya numerals

The Mayan numeral system was the system to represent numbers and calendar dates in the Maya civilization.

## Measurement

Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.

## Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

## Metric prefix

A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit.

## Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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## Mike Cowlishaw

Mike F. Cowlishaw is a Visiting Professor at the Department of Computer Science at the University of Warwick, and a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering.

## Minoan civilization

The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.

There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is ابو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي or ابو جعفر محمد بن موسی الخوارزمی.

## Natural number

In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").

## Ndom language

Ndom is a language spoken on Yos Sudarso Island in Papua province, Indonesia.

## Negative number

In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero.

## Ngiti language

The Ngiti, or South Lendu, is an ethnolinguistic group located in the Ituri Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

## Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

## Number

A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.

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## Numeral system

A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.

## Numerical digit

A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems.

## Observational error

Observational error (or measurement error) is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value.

## Octal

The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7.

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## Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.

## Pi

The number is a mathematical constant.

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## Plus and minus signs

The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction.

## Positional notation

Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers.

## Pre-Columbian era

The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

## Qin Jiushao

Qin Jiushao (ca. 1202–1261), courtesy name Daogu (道古), was a Chinese mathematician, inventor, politician and author.

## Quaternary numeral system

Quaternary is the base- numeral system.

## Quechuan languages

Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.

## Quinary

Quinary (base- or pental) is a numeral system with five as the base.

## Rational number

In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a non-zero denominator.

## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

## Repeating decimal

A repeating or recurring decimal is decimal representation of a number whose digits are periodic (repeating its values at regular intervals) and the infinitely-repeated portion is not zero.

## Rod calculus

Rod calculus or rod calculation is the mechanical method of algorithmic computation with counting rods in China from the Warring States to Ming dynasty before the counting rods were replaced by the more convenient and faster abacus.

## Roman numerals

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

## Saraveca language

Saraveca is an extinct Arawakan language once spoken in Bolivia by the Sarave.

## Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

## Science and Civilisation in China

Science and Civilisation in China (1954–) is a series of books initiated and edited by British biochemist, historian and sinologist Joseph Needham, Ph.D (1900–1995).

## Scientific notation

Scientific notation (also referred to as scientific form or standard index form, or standard form in the UK) is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form.

## Senary

The senary numeral system (also known as base-6, heximal, or seximal) has six as its base.

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## Sequence

In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.

## Sign (mathematics)

In mathematics, the concept of sign originates from the property of every non-zero real number of being positive or negative.

## Significant figures

The significant figures (also known as the significant digits) of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.

## SIL International

SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.

## Simon Stevin

Simon Stevin (1548–1620), sometimes called Stevinus, was a Flemish mathematician, physicist and military engineer.

## Solomon Gandz

Solomon Gandz (2 February 1883, Tarnobrzeg, Austria &ndash; 30 March 1954) was a historian of science.

## Sunzi Suanjing

Sunzi Suanjing was a mathematical treatise written during 3rd to 5th centuries AD which was listed as one of the Ten Computational Canons during the Tang dynasty.

## Thai language

Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.

## The Sand Reckoner

The Sand Reckoner (Ψαμμίτης, Psammites) is a work by Archimedes in which he set out to determine an upper bound for the number of grains of sand that fit into the universe.

## Toe

Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod.

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## Truncation

In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of digits right of the decimal point.

## Upper and lower bounds

In mathematics, especially in order theory, an upper bound of a subset S of some partially ordered set (K, ≤) is an element of K which is greater than or equal to every element of S. The term lower bound is defined dually as an element of K which is less than or equal to every element of S. A set with an upper bound is said to be bounded from above by that bound, a set with a lower bound is said to be bounded from below by that bound.

## Vedas

The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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## Ventureño language

Ventureño is a member of the extinct Chumashan languages, a group of Native American languages previously spoken by the Chumash people along the coastal areas of Southern California from as far north as San Luis Obispo to as far south as Malibu.

## Vietnamese language

Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.

## Vigesimal

The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the decimal numeral system is based on ten).

## Vinculum (symbol)

A vinculum is a horizontal line used in mathematical notation for a specific purpose.

## Werner Buchholz

Werner Buchholz (born 24 October 1922 in Detmold, Germany) is a noted American computer scientist.

## Yuki people

The Yuki (also known as Yukiah) are an indigenous people of California, whose traditional territory is around Round Valley, Mendocino County.

## 0.999...

In mathematics, 0.999... (also written 0., among other ways), denotes the repeating decimal consisting of infinitely many 9s after the decimal point (and one 0 before it).

## 10

10 (ten) is an even natural number following 9 and preceding 11.

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## References

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